• Title, Summary, Keyword: WCO

Search Result 21, Processing Time 0.046 seconds

Spray and Flame Characteristics of Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel and Diesel in a Compression Ignition Diesel Engine Using In-cylinder Visualization (가시화 엔진을 이용한 직접 분사식 압축착화 디젤엔진에서 폐식용유 바이오디젤과 디젤의 분무 및 화염 특성 비교)

  • Hwang, Joonsik;Bae, Choongsik
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
    • /
    • v.22 no.3
    • /
    • pp.105-113
    • /
    • 2014
  • Spray and combustion process with waste cooking oil (WCO) biodiesel and commercial diesel were analyzed in an optically-accessible single-cylinder compression ignition diesel engine equipped with a high pressure common-rail injection system. Direct imaging method was applied to investigate spray and combustion characteristics. From the mie-scattering results, it was verified that WCO biodiesel had a longer injection delay compared to diesel. Spray tip penetration length of WCO biodiesel was longer and spray angle was narrower than those of diesel due to poor atomization characteristics. In terms of combustion, WCO biodiesel showed later start of combustion, while flame was vanished more rapidly. Analysis of flame luminosity showed that WCO biodiesel combustion had lower intensity and lasted for shorter duration.

A Study on Acceptance of CDM/UCR in WCO as e-Customs clearance procedures (WCO의 CDM과 UCR을 수용한 전자통관시스템 발전 방안)

  • Ryu, Geun-Woo;Kim, Young-Chun
    • International Commerce and Information Review
    • /
    • v.9 no.2
    • /
    • pp.327-350
    • /
    • 2007
  • A single window platform must be successfully established by implementing CDM/UCR in WCO and UNeDocs in UN/CEFACT, which is part of the framework of standards for secure and facilitate global trade. Core success factors in single window platform for international trade depend on political innovative capacity, advanced leadership of high ranking officials and departments in charge, effective collaborations between the ministries and offices concerned which are supported by supreme executives, self-controlled coordinations between users, convenience and access availability to users, promotion and marketing, identification on predictive impediments, financial raising and revenue model payable, communication's strategy, valid legal basis etc. To settle a stable ubiquitous e-trade platform, firstly, procedures and practices of customs clearance which different from one another mutually must be standardized globally. Secondly, the international standard electronic data exchanges must be introduced to facilitate and simplify customs clearing procedures by holding administrative informations in common between public institutions. thirdly, cooperative work model must be accepted with enhancing outsourcing business between reference groups (export-import firms and IT service providers).

  • PDF

Life Cycle Analysis and Feasibility of the Use of Waste Cooking Oil as Feedstock for Biodiesel

  • Gahlaut, Aradhana;Kumar, Vasu;Gupta, Dhruv;Kumar, Naveen
    • International journal of advanced smart convergence
    • /
    • v.4 no.1
    • /
    • pp.162-178
    • /
    • 2015
  • Petroleum based fossil fuels used to power most processes today are non-renewable fuels. This means that once used, they cannot be reproduced for a very long time. The maximum combustion of fossil fuels occurs in automobiles i.e. the vehicles we drive every day. Thus, there is a requirement to shift from these non-renenewable sources of energy to sources that are renewable and environment friendly. This is causing the need to shift towards more environmentally-sustainable transport fuels, preferably derived from biomass, such as biodiesel blends. These blends can be made from oils that are available in abundance or as waste e.g. waste cooking oil, animal fat, oil from seeds, oil from algae etc. Waste Cooking Oil(WCO) is a waste product and so, converting it into a transportation fuel is considered highly environmentally sustainable. Keeping this in mind, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to evaluate the environmental implications of replacing diesel fuel with WCO biodiesel blends in a regular Diesel engine. This study uses Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to determine the environmental outcomes of biodiesel from WCO in terms of global warming potential, life cycle energy efficiency (LCEE) and fossil energy ratio (FER) using the life cycle inventory and the openLCA software, version 1.3.4: 2007 - 2013 GreenDelta. This study resulted in the conclusion that the biodiesel production process from WCO in particular is more environmentally sustainable as compared to the preparation of diesel from raw oil, also taking into account the combustion products that are released into the atmosphere as exhaust emissions.

A Study on the Benefit and Expected Effect of Introducing an AEO Programmes (우리나라 수출입기업의 AEO 인증제도 도입에 따른 혜택 및 기대효과에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Jin-Kyu;Kim, Hyun-Jee
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
    • /
    • v.49
    • /
    • pp.167-188
    • /
    • 2011
  • The World Customs Organization (WCO) has designed standards to secure and to facilitate the ever-growing flow of goods in international commerce since 9.11 terrorism in U.S.A. These standards are set forth in the SAFE Framework of Standards, which was adopted by the WCO Council at its 2005 Sessions and the SAFE Framework incorporates the concept of the Authorized Economic Operator (AEO), and the Council directed the WCO to develop more detailed implementing provisions for the AEO concept. It is considered to be reliable in customs-related operations and ensures an equivalent level of protection in customs controls for goods brought into or out of the customs territory, whereas it is difficult for many Korean companies to make a decision of introducing the AEO certification programs because of a lack of cost and benefit information. In this article, We have reviewed the definition and the developing status of an AEO programmes and have studied the benefit and expected effect through documentary research methods. Therefore, it is essential for Korean companies to be certified the AEO programmes from Korea customs service for increasing security in international supply chains through risk management and customs compliance, in addition, the key-driver in the future will be expectations from the business community to work with AEO partners.

  • PDF

Introduction Plans of Japanese AEO System for the Trade Security and Trade Facilitation (무역의 안전과 원활화를 위한 일본기업의 AEO 제도 도입방안에 관한 연구)

  • Woo, Sung-Koo;Kim, Jae-Myeong
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
    • /
    • v.47
    • /
    • pp.263-298
    • /
    • 2010
  • The global trading system is vulnerable to terrorist exploitation while the international trade is an essential element for the economic development. Customs has a unique role in the international trade to provide increased security while ensuring facilitation of the legitimate flow of goods and the role of Customs has become more and more indispensable these days. In response to this trend, the World Customs Organization(WCO), the organization of more than 170 Customs administrations all over the world, adopted an international framework("SAFE Framework") in 2005, which includes the Authorized Economic Operator(AEO) concept, whereby a party involved in the international movement of goods would be approved by Customs as complying with the supply chain security standards, and given benefits, such as simplified Customs procedure and less Customs intervention. In this stream, the Japanese government has developed and promoted AEO Program in close cooperation with the business sector, aiming at ensuring security while facilitating legitimate trade. For that purpose, Japan Customs, as a main entity in the field of international trade, has developed comprehensive AEO program with combination of programs for importers, exporters, warehouse operators, Customs brokers and logistics operators, such as forwarders and carriers, which are consistent with the "SAFE Framework" developed by the WCO. The purpose of this paper aims to analyse the introduction plans of AEO program for the trade security and trade facilitation with Japanese AEO system.

  • PDF

Trade Process Reengineering and e-Trade Introductionin Northeast Asia Nations-Focused on e-Customs- (동북아국가의 무역업무 재설계와 전자무역추진현황 -전자통관을 중심으로-)

  • Choi, Seok-Beom;Park, Keun-Sik;Kim, Tae-Hwan;Kim, In-Kyung;Park, Sun-Young
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
    • /
    • v.33
    • /
    • pp.277-308
    • /
    • 2007
  • Northeast Asia Nations introduced each single window system for simplifying the customs clearance procedures in order to prevent the rekeying the customs and trade-related data. A single window is a means for enabling users to complete all the necessary import/export procedures in a single input and by single transmission by linking the related system. WCO recommends CDM, UCR, ACI that completed by WCO's own projects for assist to establish the single window for customs clearance. Northeast Asia Nations such as Korea, China, Taiwan, Japan undertook trade process reengineering for introducing single window for customs clearance. Korea and Japan introduced a e-customs systems as a good single window system. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to construction of the efficient single window system for customs clearance by studying e-customs cases in Northeast Asia Nations.

  • PDF

The Importance of Optometric Education in Korea (한국에서 검안교육의 중요성)

  • Kim, Douk-Hoon;Sung, A-Young;Cullen, Anthony P.
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
    • /
    • v.9 no.2
    • /
    • pp.241-249
    • /
    • 2004
  • Since 1989 the number of nationally licensed ophthalmic and refracting opticians in Korea have increased. Currently, they are being educated in four universities, twenty six colleges and three graduate programs. It is innevitable that the growth of optometric education in Korea will be progressively influnced by worldwide influnces such as the World Council of Optometry(WCO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the World Trade Organization(WTO). However, currently no standards for optometric education exist in Korea. Thus, the Korean Professional Councils of Ophthalmic Optics(KPCOO) must develope and provide standards for optometric education programs.

  • PDF

Chemical Structure of Ozonized Waste Cooking Oil and Wood Bonding Strengths of Reaction Products with pMD (오존 처리한 폐식용유의 화학구조와 pMDI로 제조한 접착제의 목재 접착강도)

  • Kang, Chan-Young;Lee, Eung-Su;Ryu, Jae-Yun;Lee, Hyun-Jong;Seo, Jun-Won;Park, Heon
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.38 no.4
    • /
    • pp.316-322
    • /
    • 2010
  • The research attempted to develop a wood adhesive based on waste cooking oil, using ozonification technology for the chemical structure modification. The waste cooking oil (WCO) was reacted with $O_3$ for different times; 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h. The chemical structure modifications of the ozonized WCOs were examined by Fourier transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrum. The FT-IR spectrum of WCO had an absorbance peak at 3,010 $cm^{-1}$ that was the characteristic peak of the unsaturated double bonds. As ozone treatment time increased, the peak of the double bond was disappeared and carboxyl peak appeared at 1,700 $cm^{-1}$. Especially, the double bond of 3 hrs-ozonized WCO was vanished almost. In results of the dry bonding strengths of the 3 hrs-ozonized WCO mixed with polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) were the strengths of weight ratio of 3hrs-ozonized WCO : pMDI, 1 : 0.5, 8.08 kgf/$cm^2$, 1 : 0.75, 9.53 kgf/$cm^2$ 1 : 1, 44.16 kgf/$cm^2$, 1 : 2, 58.08 kgf/$cm^2$, 1 : 3, 61.41 kgf/$cm^2$, and 1 : 4, 46.95 kgf/$cm^2$. Therefore, it was found that the optimum equivalent ratio was formed at the ratio of 1 : 2 or 1 : 3. Under wetting the bonding strength of 1 : 3 ratio was appeared higher than that of 1 : 2 ratio, while the results obtained from hot-water and cyclic boiling shear test were similar.

Effect of Waste Cooking Oil on Durability of High Volume Mineral Admixture Concrete (폐유지류가 혼화재 다량 치환 콘크리트의 내구성에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Min-Cheol;Woo, Dae-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Recycled Construction Resources Institute
    • /
    • v.1 no.3
    • /
    • pp.173-180
    • /
    • 2013
  • This paper is to investigate an effect of waste cooking oil(WCO) on the engineering properties and durability of high volume admixture concrete. Fly ash with 30% and blast furnace slag with 60% were incorporated in OPC to fabricate high volume admixture concrete with 0.5 of W/B. Emulsified refining cooking oil(ERCO) was made by mixing WCO and emulsifying agent to improve fluidity. ERCO was replaced by cement from 0.25 to 1.0%. As results, the increase of ERCO resulted in decrease of slump and air contents. For compressive strength, the use of ERCO led to decrease the compressive strength at 28 days, while it had similar strength or much higher strength than plain concrete at 180 days. Resistance to carbonation and chloride penetration was improved with the increase of ERCO contents due to decreased pore distribution by saponification between ERCO and concrete, while freeze-thaw resistance was degraded due to air loss.