• Title, Summary, Keyword: Vortex anomalies

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Enhancement of Ozone and Carbon Monoxide Associated with Upper Cut-off Low during Springtime in East Asia

  • Moon, Yun-Seob;Drummond, James R.
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.475-489
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    • 2010
  • In order to verify the enhancement of ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) during springtime in East Asia, we investigated weather conditions and data from remote sensors, air quality models, and air quality monitors. These include the geopotential height archived from the final (FNL) meteorological field, the potential vorticity and the wind velocity simulated by the Meteorological Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5), the back trajectory estimated by the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, the total column amount of ozone and the aerosol index retrieved from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the total column density of CO retrieved from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), and the concentration of ozone and CO simulated by the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART). In particular, the total column density of CO, which mightoriginate from the combustion of fossil fuels and the burning of biomass in China, increased in East Asia during spring 2000. In addition, the enhancement of total column amounts of ozone and CO appeared to be associated with both the upper cut-off low near 500 hPa and the frontogenesis of a surface cyclone during a weak Asian dust event. At the same time, high concentrations of ozone and CO on the Earth's surface were shown at the Seoul air quality monitoring site, located at the surface frontogenesis in Korea. It was clear that the ozone was invaded by the downward stretched vortex anomalies, which included the ozone-rich airflow, during movement and development of the cut-off low, and then there was the catalytic photochemical reaction of ozone precursors on the Earth's surface during the day. In addition, air pollutants such as CO and aerosol were tracked along both the cyclone vortex and the strong westerly as shown at the back trajectory in Seoul and Busan, respectively. Consequently, the maxima of ozone and CO between the two areas showed up differently because of the time lag between those gases, including their catalytic photochemical reactions together with the invasion from the upper troposphere, as well as the path of their transport from China during the weak Asian dust event.

Dynamic Responses in Ultra-Soft Magnetic Thin Films (초 연자성 박막에서의 동적 자화 거동)

  • 정인섭
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 1994
  • The magnetization dynamics was investigated by solving possible origins of overdamped susceptibility observed in ultra-soft magnetic amorphous thin films. The experimental high frequency spectrum and computational spectrum calculated from Gilbert's equation of motion were compared in order to find proper damping factor $\alpha{\approx}20$ and demagnetizing coefficients $D_{x}{\approx}D_{y}{\approx}D_{z}{\approx}0$ for ultra-soft magnetic films. A magnetization vortex mode was, then, proposed to explain the origin of the reversible susceptibility and other anomalies of the ultra-soft magnetic heterogeneous thin films. In this mode it is suggested that there occur, within the nanoscale structural features of the ultra-soft films, incoherent rotational spin motions that are highly damped by the energy transfer from short wavelength spin wave modes and local defect structure mode interactions.

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Development of Flight Control System and Troubleshooting on Flight Test of a Tilt-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

  • Kang, Youngshin;Park, Bum-Jin;Cho, Am;Yoo, Chang-Sun;Koo, Sam-Ok;Tahk, Min-Jea
    • International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.120-131
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    • 2016
  • The full results of troubleshooting process related to the flight control system of a tilt-rotor type UAV in the flight tests are described. Flight tests were conducted in helicopter, conversion, and airplane modes. The vehicle was flown using automatic functions, which include speed-hold, altitude-hold, heading-hold, guidance modes, as well as automatic take-off and landing. Many unexpected problems occurred during the envelope expansion tests which were mostly under those automatic functions. The anomalies in helicopter mode include vortex ring state (VRS), long delay in the automatic take-off, and the initial overshoot in the automatic landing. In contrast, the anomalies in conversion mode are untrimmed AOS oscillation and the calibration errors of the air data sensors. The problems of low damping in rotor speed and roll rate responses are found in airplane mode. Once all of the known problems had been solved, the vehicle in airplane mode gradually reached the maximum design speed of 440km/h at the operation altitude of 3km. This paper also presents a comprehensive detailing of the control systems of the tilt-rotor unmanned air vehicle (UAV).