• Title, Summary, Keyword: Voluntary Food Intake

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EFFECT OF FERTILISER AND SUPPLEMENTARY PHOSPHORUS ON THE INTAKE AND DIGESTIBILITY OF THE LEGUME Desmodium introtum

  • Evans, T.R.;Severo, J.C.P.;Minson, D.J.;Ternouth, J.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.191-195
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    • 1993
  • The application of fertilizer P to Desmodium intortum at 40, 60 and 100 kg/ha resulted in the P content of the legume regrowth being 0.10, 0.13 and 0.16% on a dry matter basis. When the forages were fed alone to sheep in metabolism pens the corresponding voluntary intakes by sheep of the three forages were 27.3, 42.7 and $54.3g/W_{kg}{^{0.75}}$, respectively. Provision of additional P by rapid infusion into the rumen each morning before any fresh food was offered depressed the voluntary intake of all three feeds. It is suggested that the adverse effect of supplementary P was probably caused by an induced deficiency of either Ca or Mg and led to a reduction in microbial activity in the rumen.

Influence of Food Intake on the Body Composition of Women in Wonju (식품섭취실태 및 폐경여부에 따른 원주지역 성인여성들의 체성분 조성)

  • Oh, Hae-Soak;Won, Hyang-Rye
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.201-212
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to investigate the relative influence of food intake and menopause on the body composition and bone quality index of women in Wonju who were voluntary participants in a community nutrition program. The status of food intake was examined using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A bioelectrical impedance analysis tool (Inbody 2.0) and SONOST 2000 were used for estimating body composition including criteria such as TWB (Total body water), SLM (Soft lean mass), LBM (Lean body mass), PBF (% body fat) and WHR (Waist hip ratio), and BQI (Bone quality index). 82% of the subjects were over the age of 40. The percentage of overweight subjects was 64.3% overall, and higher in the advanced age group while underweight was prevalent in younger subjects. Although only 8.6% of the total subjects skipped breakfast, this habit was more prevalent in subjects in their twenties and the underweight group. Variables, such as age, menstruation status, and breakfast eating habits were significant factors considered in relation to food intake from 7 food groups. Generally, older aged women ate more vegetables while the younger group consumed more simple sugars and lipids. The subjects who were underweight or skipped breakfast tended to drink higher amounts of soft drinks. With increasing age, BMI, PBF and WHR increased also, and TWB, SLM, LBM, and BQI decreased. According to correlation analysis, WHR has a positive correlation with PBF. BQI correlated with SLM and LBM positively, and with PBF and WHR negatively. Over 93.3% of the subjects over the age of 30 were assessed as having abdominal obesity. It was revealed that body composition was affected not only by age, obesity degree and menstruation status but by various food intake habits. Body composition including WHR and BQI had put many of the subjects' health in danger of metabolic disorders. Therefore, it is important to emphasize keeping in place some helpful habits such as eating regularly, having a proper diet which includes many vegetables, and continued milk intake even after menopause to insure women's good health.

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A Strategy for Safe Addition of Selected Micronutrients to Foods for Children (어린이를 위한 일반식품에의 일부 미량영양소 임의영양 강화 안전 수준 평가)

  • Oh, Se-Young
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.128-134
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    • 2009
  • For children, voluntary addition of micronutrients to foods must be done without health risk to any of them. This study examined safe maximum levels of vitamin A and C, and calcium for children based on nutrient intake data from the 2001-2002 and 2005 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in Korea, while using the safe strategy for addition of micronutrients to foods suggested by EU. For the respective 2001-2002 and 2005 NHANES data proportions of potentially fortifiable energy intake ranged 0.36-0.40 and 0.31-0.34 and the $95^{th}$ percentile intake of energy were 2,325-3,296 kcal and 2,286-3,814 kcal depending upon age groups. Ninety-fifth percentile intake levels of vitamin A were over or close to UL, even without considering supplement intake for some age groups, which suggest that vitamin A fortification to foods required further consideration. For calcium, 12-14 year old children were the most sensitive group for excessive intake and nutrient fortification to foods. In these children, maximum levels for fortification were 242-290 mg and 484-580 mg with 0.135 and 0.068 proportions of fortified food (PFF) assumed, respectively, without considering calcium intake from supplements. With consideration of calcium intake from both diet and supplement, the maximum levels for fortification were 20-36% of those without supplement intake. The maximum fortification levels of vitamin C were the lowest in 3-5 year old children, showing 77-187 mg and 68-164 mg with and without supplement intake, respectively. These results suggest that the model used for risk assessment in this study can be used to help risk managers to set maximum levels for safe addition of micronutrients to foods.

Strategies of Improve Elderly Nutrition through Nutrition Education : Evaluation of the Effectivenss of the Program (영양교육에 의한 노인 영양증진전략연구 : 효과분석)

  • 임경숙;민영희;이태영;김영주
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.207-218
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    • 1999
  • The increased number of elderly in Korea presents great challenges for community nutrition programs. Strategies to enhance elderly nutrition are needed, as well as dietary advice that are reality-based and tailored to the need of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall effectiveness of an elderly nutrition improvement program(ENIP), by assessing changes in nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and behavior after program completion. ENIP was conducted in Suwon for 4 months in 1998 at 5 centers for the elderly. The program provided individual nutrition counseling and brief biweekly group education sessions. To stimulate participation and motivation, the elderly in two centers were served free milk packs(200ml) three time a week during the program(milk+education group), and the elderly in 3 other centers were served yoghurt on the program day(education group). Altogether, 102 subjects finished the program(milk+education group 67 ; education group 35). Data about nutrition knowledge, dietary attitudes, diet records(24 hour recall) and dietary habit was collected before(baseline) and after the program(follow-up). The Drop-out rate for the milk+education group(2.9%) was significantly lower than that for the education group(30.0%)(p<.001). The Nutrition Knowledge fo females milk+education group increased significantly after the program, but no significant differences were observed in other groups. Over 60% of all the elderly showed positive responses to the healthy eating attitudes. Energy, protein, vitamin A, riboflavin, Calcium and Potassium intakes improved in the male milk+education group. The Vitamin C intake improved in the male education group. Energy and vitamin A intakes improved in the female milk+education group and energy, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, Ca nad P in the female education group. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the effects of food intake changes on overall nutrient quality. For all elderly, the fish intake explained 12.6% of the variance, followed by candy intake and vegetable intake(model $R^2$=19.6%). Dietary habits such as meal time regularity and salty food reduction were markedly improved in both groups. Sixty-one percent of the milk+education subjects stated their participation was voluntary and active, while 51% of education subjects did. Sixty four percent of the subjects stated their interest on diet increased remarkably through program participation. Considering the results, it is conjectured that ENIP had a great impact on nutrient intake, dietary attitudes and habits. Milk supplement showed no direct effects on elderly nutrition improvement, but it encouraged the program by reducing drop-out rates and inducing voluntary participation. Therefore milk supplement could enhance the community nutrition education program. Moreover it is strongly suggested that the ENIP be expanded to other communities.

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Anatomy and physiology of swallowing process (삼킴(연하) 과정에 관련된 해부생리학적 고찰)

  • Lee, Jina
    • The journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.56 no.5
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    • pp.278-286
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    • 2018
  • Food intake and swallowing are complicated and intriguing series of movements involving voluntary and involuntary activities of cranial and spinal nerves and muscles. They have two most important functions, that is, food passage from the oral cavity to stomach and airway protection. Tongue, buccinators, and hyoid bone and its muscular attachments are anatomic structures for swallowing of special interests. The swallowing process of liquid is commonly divided into oral preparatory, oral propulsive, pharyngeal, and esophageal stages according to the location of the bolus. The movement of the food in the oral cavity and to the oropharynx differs between eating solid food and drinking liquid.

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Estimation of Safe Maximum Levels of Vitamins and Minerals to Foods (비타민 무기질 임의영양강화 최대허용수준 추정)

  • Chung, Hae-Rang;Oh, Se-Young
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.39 no.7
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    • pp.692-698
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    • 2006
  • The voluntary addition of vitamins and minerals to the appropriate foods may help reduce the risks associated with low intakes of these micronutrients, yet the potential of excessive intake, particularly for persons consuming very large amount of foods needs to be addressed. Using the Flynn's model to estimate the level of each vitamins and minerals that can be added safely to foods, maximum levels of fortification to conventional foods per 100 kcal portion were estimated. Critical factors in the Flynn's model included tolerable upper intake level (UL), each micronutrient intake at the $95^{th}$ percentile, the proportion of fortified foods in the diets of individuals, the proportion of foods to which micronutrients could be practically added, and a range of estimates for fractions of foods which might be actually fortified in each nutrient. Food vehicles included all foods except for fresh foods and alcoholic beverages, in general. With fortification of 50% of all potentially fortifiable foods, micrornutrients could be added safely to foods at levels per 100 kcal 1) > 100% Recommended Intake (RI) for vitamin $B_12$, 2) 1,200% RI for vitamin $B_1$ and niacin, 3) 1,000% $B_1$ for vitamins $B_2$ and $B_6$, 4) 400% RI for vitamin E, 5) 30% RI for calcium, 6) 20% RI for folic acid, iron and zinc, 7) 10% RI for manganese, 8) no fortification for magnesium, phosphorous and vitamin A, and 8) further consideration of vitamin D, copper and selenium due to insufficient evidence. Results of this study suggests a wide range of vitamins and minerals that can be added safely to foods in current diets of Koreans.

Voluntary stand-up physical activity enhances endurance exercise capacity in rats

  • Seo, Dae Yun;Lee, Sung Ryul;Kwak, Hyo-Bum;Seo, Kyo Won;McGregor, Robin A;Yeo, Ji Young;Ko, Tae Hee;Bolorerdene, Saranhuu;Kim, Nari;Ko, Kyung Soo;Rhee, Byoung Doo;Han, Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.287-295
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    • 2016
  • Involuntary physical activity induced by the avoidance of electrical shock leads to improved endurance exercise capacity in animals. However, it remains unknown whether voluntary stand-up physical activity (SPA) without forced simulating factors improves endurance exercise capacity in animals. We examined the effects of SPA on body weight, cardiac function, and endurance exercise capacity for 12 weeks. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 8 weeks, n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or a voluntary SPA group. The rats were induced to perform voluntary SPA (lifting a load equal to their body weight), while the food height (18.0 cm) in cages was increased progressively by 3.5 every 4 weeks until it reached 28.5 cm for 12 weeks. The SPA group showed a lower body weight compared to the CON group, but voluntary SPA did not affect the skeletal muscle and heart weights, food intake, and echocardiography results. Although the SPA group showed higher grip strength, running time, and distance compared to the CON group, the level of irisin, corticosterone, genetic expression of mitochondrial biogenesis, and nuclei numbers were not affected. These findings show that voluntary SPA without any forced stimuli in rats can effectively reduce body weight and enhance endurance exercise capacity, suggesting that it may be an important alternative strategy to enhance endurance exercise capacity.

Seasonal Comparison of Voluntary Intake and Feeding Behaviour in Korean Spotted Deer (Cervus nippon)

  • Moon, S.H.;Jeon, B.T.;Lee, S.M.;Kim, K.H.;Hudson, R.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.1394-1398
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    • 2000
  • This experiment was carried out to examine the seasonal changes in feed intake and feeding behavior in Korean spotted deer under farmed condition to obtain basic information for efficient feeding management. The seasonal daily gain was the highest (p<0.05) in summer and the lowest (p<0.05) in winter. Dry matter intake (DMI) was the highest (p<0.05) in spring (2,685 g/day) and the lowest in winter (1,929 g/day). Intake of roughage in the DMI was the greatest in spring and that in winter was significantly lower (p<0.05) than in spring. Also DMI, expressed in terms of metabolic body weight ($kgW^{0.75}$), was 85.5 g, 70.6 g, 70.9 g and 65.1 g for spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively, and thus was the highest in spring and the lowest in winter (p<0.05). Deer exhibited similar eating patterns, comparatively short and frequent periods, in all seasons. They showed comparatively intensive patterns of rumination during midnight for autumn and winter and relatively continuous patterns of chewing activity during spring and summer. There were no significant differences in seasonal eating time and ruminating time. However, exercise time was the greatest for winter and the lowest for summer and there was a significant difference (p<0.05) between summer and winter. Although not significant, eating time per 100 gDM ingested tended to be short in spring and summer and long in autumn and winter. Ruminating time per 100 gDM ingested was the shortest (p<0.05) in spring compared with in other seasons. The conclusion can be drawn that since deer have seasonal differences in feed intake and feeding habits, it is necessary to establish and develop an efficient feeding system for deer.

Variety and phosphate fertilizer dose effect on nutrient composition, in vitro digestibility and feeding value of cowpea haulm

  • Ansah, Terry;Algma, Henry Ayindoh;Dei, Herbert Kwabla
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.58 no.6
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    • pp.19.1-19.7
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    • 2016
  • Background: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.]) is a legume cultivated throughout most tropical countries and is valued as food and feed for human and livestock respectively. The search for an improved cowpea variety has been on-going with the aim of improving traits such as grain yield, drought and pest resistance. But no information exist on the feeding value of these improved varieties. Phosphate (P) fertilizer application is recommended to augment grain yield in grain legumes but data on the effect of P fertilizer on haulm quality is limited. Results: Two separate experiments were conducted to determine the effect of P fertilizer dose on the nutritive value of haulms from different cowpea varieties (V). In experiment 1, effect of three P doses (30, 60 and 90 kg $P_2O_5/ha$) on in vitro gas production (IVGP) characteristics, concentrations of digestible organic matter (DOM), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) of haulms from five cowpea varieties (Zaayura-SARC 4-75, Songotra-IT97K-499-35, Hewale-IT93K-192-4, IT99K 573-1-1 and Asomdwe-IT94K-410-2) were investigated using the $3(P){\times}5(V)$ factorial treatment arrangements in a completely randomized design. In experiment 2, the effects of two P doses (30 and 90 kg $P_2O_5/ha$) and two varieties (Zaayura-SARC 4-75 and Hewale-IT93K-192-4) on the voluntary feed intake, live weight, haematology and carcass characteristics of Djallonke lambs were also assessed using a $2(P){\times}2(V)$ factorial treatment arrangement. The $V{\times}P$ interaction significantly affected CP, NDF and ADF with CP concentration increasing with increase in P doses in Zaayura-SARC 4-75 and Asomdwe-IT94K-410-2. Whilst an increase (P < 0.05) in NDF was observed in Songotra-IT97K-499-35and Asomdwe-IT94K-410-2 as P doses increased, the other V only increased from P dose 30 to 60 kg/ha and declined at P dose 90 kg/ha. The ADF decreased (P < 0.05) with increase in P dose for all V with the exception of Songotra-IT97K-499-35. There was a significant V effect on DOM with the highest reported in Zaayura-SARC 4-75 (43.44 %). Daily DM intake, carcass length and blood urea nitrogen of the lambs were significantly affected by the V x P interaction. There was a significant V effect on globulin and P effect on live weight at slaughter, dressed weight, chuck, leg, loin, rib and flank and liver and lungs. Conclusion: It can be concluded that nutrient concentrations of cowpea haulms were positively influenced by different P dose and varieties with favorable effects on growth, haematology and carcass composition of lambs. Varieties Zaayura-SARC 4-75 and Hewale-IT93K-192-4 at P dose at 90 kg/ha are recommended to enhance growth performance and carcass yield of Djallonke lambs.