• Title, Summary, Keyword: Volume Reduction

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A Study on the Various Volume Reducing Methods for Wasted EPS Foam (폐스티로폼의 감용방식에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, Joong-Yeon;Choi, Ho-Joon;Hwang, Beong-Bok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling Conference
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    • pp.165-169
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    • 2003
  • Current volume reduction methods for wasted expandable polystyrene (EPS) foam are summarized and compared each other. Wasted EPS foam has not been recycled effectively because of its large volume to weight ratio. This has prevented from its proper recycling because of high cost of transportation to recycling plant. Successful recycling of wasted EPS foam results directly from successful, i.e. economically and environmentally, volume reduction of wasted EPS foam. This paper deals with various methods for volume reduction methods of wasted EPS foam. Five typical methods of volume reduction are introduced and they are compared each other in terms of expected PS properties after volume reduction, cost effectiveness of each process, possible effects on environment caused by the volume reduction process, and possible recycled products. The methods include thermal, solvent, far infrared and mechanical compaction. Comparison in this paper is made mostly in qualitative manner. The focus in this study is concentrated on summarizing and comparing existing methods of volume reduction for wasted EPS foam.

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Volumetric changes in the lumpectomy cavity during whole breast irradiation after breast conserving surgery

  • Cho, Heung-Lae;Kim, Cheol-Jin
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.277-282
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the change in the lumpectomy cavity volumes before and after whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT) and to identify factors associated with the change of volume. Materials and Methods: From September 2009 to April 2010, the computed tomography (CT) simulation data from 70 patients obtained before and after WBRT was evaluated. The lumpectomy cavity volumes were contoured based on surgical clips, seroma, and postoperative changes. Significant differences in the data from pre-WBRT CT and post-WBRT CT were assessed. Multiple variables were examined for correlation with volume reduction in the lumpectomy cavity. Results: The mean and median volume reduction in the lumpectomy cavity after WBRT were 17.6 $cm^3$ and 16.1 $cm^3$, respectively with the statistical significance (p < 0.001). The volume reduction in the lumpectomy cavity was inversely correlated with time from surgery to radiation therapy (R = 0.390). The presence of seroma was significantly associated with a volumetric change in the lumpectomy cavity after WBRT (p = 0.011). Conclusion: The volume of lumpectomy cavity reduced significantly after WBRT. As the time from surgery to the start ot WBRT increased, the volume reduction in the lumpectomy cavity during WBRT decreased. A strong correlation was observed between the presence of seroma and the reduced volume. To ensure appropriate coverage and to limit normal tissue exposure during boost irradiation in patients who has seroma at the time of starting WBRT, repeating CT simulation at boost planning is suggested.

VOLUME REDUCTION OF DISMANTLED CONCRETE WASTES GENERATED FROM KRR-2 AND UCP

  • Min, Byung-Youn;Choi, Wang-Kyu;Lee, Kune-Woo
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.175-182
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    • 2010
  • As part of a fundamental study on the volume reduction of contaminated concrete wastes, the separation characteristics of the aggregates and the distribution of the radioactivity in the aggregates were investigated. Radioisotope $^{60}Co$ was artificially used as a model contaminant for non-radioactive crushed concrete waste. Volume reduction for radioactively contaminated dismantled concrete wastes was carried out using activated heavy weight concrete taken from the Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) and light weight concrete from the Uranium Conversion Plant (UCP). The results showed that most of the $^{60}Co$ nuclide was easily separated from the contaminated dismantled concrete waste and was concentrated mainly in the porous fine cement paste. The heating temperature was found to be one of the effective parameters in the removal of the radionuclide from concrete waste. The volume reduction rate achieved was above 80% for the KRR-2 concrete wastes and above 75% for the UCP concrete wastes by thermal and mechanical treatment.

Comparison of Effects of Chaff and Sawdust on Aerobic Composting of Food Wastes (음식물쓰레기의 호기성 퇴비화에 있어서 왕겨와 톱밥의 영향에 관한 비교 연구)

  • 박석환
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.28-34
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    • 2003
  • This study was performed to compare the effects of chaff and sawdust as bulking materials on temperature, pH, weight and volume reduction and salinity in aerobic composting of food wastes. Volume ratios of food wastes to chaff in reactor of Control, Ch-l, Ch-2, Ch-3 and Ch-4 were 4:0, 4:1, 4:2, 4:3 and 4:4, respectively. Volume ratios of food wastes to sawdust in reactor of Control, Sd-l, Sd-2, Sd-3 and Sd-4 were 4:0, 4:1, 4:2, 4:3 and 4:4, respectively. Reactors were operated for 24 days with 1 hour stirring by 1 rpm and 2 hours aeration per day. The lowering of the volume ratio of food wastes to chaff and sawdust resulted in the reaction at higher reaction temperature and the elongation of the high temperature reaction period. The lowering of the volume ratio of food wastes to chaff and sawdust resulted in faster pH increase. In the volume ratio of 4:3 and 4:4, pH increased faster in food-chaff mixtures than in food-sawdust mixtures. The lowering of the volume ratio of food wastes to chaff and sawdust resulted in faster steady state in the weight reduction rate and the volume reduction rate. The weight reduction rates of chaff mixtures were higher than those of sawdust mixtures, but the volume reduction rates of sawdust mixtures were more higher than those of chaff mixtures. Salinity increased as composting reaction proceeded, due to reduction in mass weight. The final salinity of Control was 2.79%, and the final range of salinities of chaff and sawdust mixtures were 2.18∼2.37% and 1.86∼2.05%, respectively.

Volume Reduction of Waste Water Sludge using Electrolysis (전기분해를 이용한 하수 슬러지 감량)

  • Lee, Byungheon;Bang, Myunghwan;Kim, Geonha
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.264-270
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    • 2006
  • In this research, volume reduction of activated sludge using electrolysis was studied to find an optimum condition using lab scale experiments. Wasted sludge was treated by electrolysis with controlling current density, chloride concentration, electrode distance, and reaction time. Volume of return sludge was reduced by 9.79% in average while maximum was 16.7%. Sludge volume reduction efficiency was affected by current density and reaction time. It was reversely proportional to the electrode distance. Especially current density was effective on the system performance significantly. Electric conductivity, salinity and COD were increased by electrolysis implying sludge disintegrated and converted to COD in part. An empirical equation for total solid removal efficiency by electrolysis was proposed by multiple linear regression analysis as: $TS_{rem}$(%) = 5.534 ${\times}$ current density (A/l) + 0.178 ${\times}$ reaction time (m) + 2.758.

Cost Reduction Design in Single-phase Line-start Permanent Magnet Motor (단상 유도형 동기 전동기의 Cost 저감 설계)

  • Lee, Byeong-Hwa;Nam, Hyuk;Lee, Jeong-Jong;Fang, Liang;Hong, Jung-Pyo;Ha, Seung-Hyung
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.57 no.12
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    • pp.2208-2212
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    • 2008
  • This paper deals with the cost reduction design of a single-phase line-start permanent magnet(LSPM) motor. Due to high cost of the permanent magnet(PM), cost reduction can be effectively achieved by reducing PM volume. Therefore, motor characteristics according to the PM volume are calculated by using d-q axis equivalent circuit analysis, and the characteristic map is made. In the characteristic map, maximum torque and efficiency are shown according to motor parameters such as back electromotive force(back emf) and inductances; back emf represents the PM volume. Minimum back emf and inductances satisfying output performance are determined in the characteristic map. Then, motor geometry based on the prototype motor is optimized to get the determined parameters using response surface methodology(RSM) and finite element method(FEM). Through the presented cost reduction design, total PM volume is reduced to 32% of prototype model.

A Case Study on Development of Stormwater Retention and Infiltration Pond System (우수저류 및 침투연못 시스템개발 사례연구 - 우수 저류 및 침투 효과를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Jae Chul;Yoon, Yeo Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.52-61
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to analyze the effects of stormwater retention and infiltration pond on reduction of flood peak and volume in a experimentally developed ecological pond. The experimental site has 542$m^2$ watershed area, 1,310mm yearly-averaged rainfall. And the area of the retention pond is 60$m^2$, the maximum water depth is 0.5m, the maximum and average storage is 15$m^3$and 9.3$m^3$d. And the area of infiltration pond is 58$m^2$, and the water depth varies 0.2m~0.5m. The monitoring system consists of one rainfall gage, one Parshall flume and acoustic water level gage, two rectangular weirs and acoustic water level gage for discharge gaging, and one data recording unit. Data from ten storm events in total, three storm events in year 2000 and seven storm events in year 2001, were collected. From the data the evaporation rate was achieved with the water balance equation, and the result shows 5.0mm/day in average. The result from the analysis of the effects on reduction of flood peak and volume, is that 14% reduction of flood volume and 15% reduction of flood peak in retention pond and 49% reduction of flood volume in infiltration pond.

Development of volume reduction method of cesium contaminated soil with magnetic separation

  • Yukumatsu, Kazuki;Nomura, Naoki;Mishima, Fumihito;Akiyama, Yoko;Nishijima, Shigehiro
    • Progress in Superconductivity and Cryogenics
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.10-13
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we developed a new volume reduction technique for cesium contaminated soil by magnetic separation. Cs in soil is mainly adsorbed on clay which is the smallest particle constituent in the soil, especially on paramagnetic 2:1 type clay minerals which strongly adsorb and fix Cs. Thus selective separation of 2:1 type clay with a superconducting magnet could enable to reduce the volume of Cs contaminated soil. The 2:1 type clay particles exist in various particle sizes in the soil, which leads that magnetic force and Cs adsorption quantity depend on their particle size. Accordingly, we examined magnetic separation conditions for efficient separation of 2:1 type clay considering their particle size distribution. First, the separation rate of 2:1 type clay for each particle size was calculated by particle trajectory simulation, because magnetic separation rate largely depends on the objective size. According to the calculation, 73 and 89 % of 2:1 type clay could be separated at 2 and 7 T, respectively. Moreover we calculated dose reduction rate on the basis of the result of particle trajectory simulation. It was indicated that 17 and 51 % of dose reduction would be possible at 2 and 7 T, respectively. The difference of dose reduction rate at 2 T and 7 T was found to be separated a fine particle. It was shown that magnetic separation considering particle size distribution would contribute to the volume reduction of contaminated soil.

Adaptive B-spline volume representation of measured BRDF data for photorealistic rendering

  • Park, Hyungjun;Lee, Joo-Haeng
    • Journal of Computational Design and Engineering
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2015
  • Measured bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) data have been used to represent complex interaction between lights and surface materials for photorealistic rendering. However, their massive size makes it hard to adopt them in practical rendering applications. In this paper, we propose an adaptive method for B-spline volume representation of measured BRDF data. It basically performs approximate B-spline volume lofting, which decomposes the problem into three sub-problems of multiple B-spline curve fitting along u-, v-, and w-parametric directions. Especially, it makes the efficient use of knots in the multiple B-spline curve fitting and thereby accomplishes adaptive knot placement along each parametric direction of a resulting B-spline volume. The proposed method is quite useful to realize efficient data reduction while smoothing out the noises and keeping the overall features of BRDF data well. By applying the B-spline volume models of real materials for rendering, we show that the B-spline volume models are effective in preserving the features of material appearance and are suitable for representing BRDF data.

The Effect of Oxidizing Agents on Alkaloid Reduction of Tobacco Extract (담배추출물의 알카로이드감소에 미치는 산화제의 영향)

  • 황건중
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.33-46
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    • 1982
  • This experiment was carried out for the purpose of reducing alkaloid in reconstituted tobacco sheet and effluent of reconstituted tobacco sheet manufacturing company by treating oxidizing agents such as ozone, sodium hypochlorite, perchloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to tobacco extract created from the manufacturing process of reconstituted tobacco sheet. The effect of alkaloid reduction in tobacco extract by the volume added, time of treatment and pH of oxidizing agents were as follows: 1. When the solid rate of tobacco extract stood at 10 percent, the content of alkaloid, total sugar, total nitrogen and chlorine was 1,600mg/l, 11,000mg/l, 3,200mg/l and 4,000mg/l, respectively. 2. The effect of alkaloid reduction through ozone treatment was in proportion to time of ozone treatment. Alkaloid showed a 31.2 percent reduction under 8 hours' ozone treatment and 0.23g ozone consumed to remove lmg alkaloid. 3. Alkaloid reduction through sodium hypochlorite treatment was influenced by quantity of chlorine in sodium hypochlorite solution. To remove lmg alkaloid, 36.3mg chlorine was used. Reduction of alkaloid was not affected by time of sodium hypochlorite treatment, while showed the best reaction under pH 5-7. 4. The effect of alkaloid reduction by perchloric acid was under the control of the volume added and time of treatment of perchloric acid. The volume of perchloric acid required to remove alkaloid was on the decrease as time of treatment was getting longer. lmg alkaloid was removed by 0.15g perchloric acid under 8 hours' perchloric acid treatment. 5. Alkaloid reduction reacted slowly to the volume added and time of treatment of hydrogen peroxide. Under 8 hours' hydrogen peroxide treatment, it showed maximum removal, registering 10 percent alkaloid reduction.

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