Speech is much influenced by the existence of outliers which are introduced by such an unexpected happenings as additive background noise, change of speaker's utterance pattern and voice detection errors. These kinds of outliers may result in severe degradation of speaker recognition performance. In this paper, we proposed the GMM based on robust principal component analysis (RPCA-GMM) using M-estimation to solve the problems of both ouliers and high dimensionality of training feature vectors in speaker identification. Firstly, a new feature vector with reduced dimension is obtained by robust PCA obtained from M-estimation. The robust PCA transforms the original dimensional feature vector onto the reduced dimensional linear subspace that is spanned by the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of feature vector. Secondly, the GMM with diagonal covariance matrix is obtained from these transformed feature vectors. We peformed speaker identification experiments to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. We compared the proposed method (RPCA-GMM) with transformed feature vectors to the PCA and the conventional GMM with diagonal matrix. Whenever the portion of outliers increases by every 2%, the proposed method maintains almost same speaker identification rate with 0.03% of little degradation, while the conventional GMM and the PCA shows much degradation of that by 0.65% and 0.55%, respectively This means that our method is more robust to the existence of outlier.
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
The purpose of this survey was to investigate parental recognition and preference on pediatric dentist and their behavior management technique. The subjects were the parents of new children visiting the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Pusan National University Hospital for 6 months. The questionnaire was performed over 2 times : at 1st visit and 1 month after that. The parental preference about pediatric dentist - one's sex, color of gown and glass-wearing - and about behavior management technique - parental separation, oral sedation, voice control and physical restraints-were asked through the questionaire and obtained the results were as fellows: 1. The preference on sex of dentists was not shown. 2. The parents recognized not so close relation between glass-wearing and children's anxiety level, but on color of gown, showed various opinions. 3. Most parents opposed to the separation from their children in operatory. 4. For the behavior management technique, parents accepted generally. 5. There was no significant difference between the first and second survey.
Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea TC
In this paper, we designed and implemented ubiquitous u-Health system using RFE and ZigBee. We made a wireless protocol Kit which combines RFE Tag recognition and ZigBee data communication capability. The software is designed and developed on the TinyOS. Wireless communication technologies which hold multi-protocol stacks with RFID and result in the wireless ubiquitous world could be Bluetooth, ZigBee, 802.11x WLAN and so on. The environments that the suggested u-Health system may be used is un-manned nursing, which would be utilized in dense sensor networks such as a hospital. The the size of devices with RFID and ZigBee will be so smaller and smaller as a bracelet, a wrist watch and a ring. The combined wireless RFID-ZigBee system could be applied to applications which requires some actions corresponding to the collected (or sensed) information in WBAN(Wireless Body Area Network) and/or WPAN(Wireless Person Area Network). The proposed ubiquitous u-Health system displays some text-type alert message on LCD which is attached to the system or gives voice alert message to the adequate node users. RFE will be used as various combinations with other wireless technologies for some application-specific purposes.
This a qualitative research about the virtual personal assistant, voice recognition device SKT 'NUGU' which was launched on September 1, 2016. For the study, an in-depth interview was committed with the 9 research participants who had used this device for more than a month. For the result of the interview, 362 concepts were discovered and through open coding, axis coding, selective coding the concepts got categorized in 16 sub-categories and 10 top categories. After recognizing 362 concepts from the interview sources, I proposed a paradigm model from the open coding. And from the selective coding, the main category of the study has been narrowed down to understand the 'Usage Patterns by Each Type'. As a result of the typification, it was confirmed that the usage pattern can be described in two different types of the dependent and inquiry type. From the result of the research, it provided the basic data about the user experience of virtual assistant which can be utilized when suggesting virtual personal assistant in the near future.
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
We developed a portable card reader for the visually impaired. In South Korea, there is insufficient development of lifestyle aids for people with disabilities. Living aids for people with disabilities are being developed using information technology, smart phones, Internet of Things(IoT) devices, 3D printers, and so on. Blind people were interviewed, which showed that the card recognition function using a currently developed smart phone app was not able to recognize the screen of the smart phone by the hand of the visually impaired, and it was inconvenient to operate. In recent years, devices that enable the visually impaired to recognize cards have been studied in foreign countries and are emerging prototypes. But what is currently available is expensive and inconvenient. In addition, visually impaired people are most vulnerable to low-income families, which makes it difficult to purchase and use expensive devices. In this study, we developed a card reader that recognizes a card using a Raspberry Pi, which is an open-source hardware that can be applied to IoT. The card reader plays it by voice and vibration, and the visually impaired can use it at a low price.
In this study, as Korea's new government began, the voice of the so-called "real country" has increased, and what has been said about the "good country" and "good government". Therefore, based on the statements and researches on 'good country' and 'good government' that we talk about in our daily life, we collected associative statements about 'good country'. As a result of analysis, we classified the 'good countries' into 5 types as follows. is named "Trusted State Type" and is named "Workable State Type". is called "national type for children," is named "happy national type," and is named "living type." According to the results of the analysis, there is no significant difference in recognition of good countries according to age and occupation. In the twenty-first century, the Republic of Korea is forced to rethink its understanding of our "state" and the reason for its existence as a new government is introduced in a period of turbulence called regime change. This study intends to give meaning to the meaning of existence of 'Government' and opportunity to recall the desire and expectation of 'Good Government'
Oh, Seungbin;Jang, Jun-Hyuk;Park, Jin Hyoung;Kim, Hongtae
Journal of Navigation and Port Research
In parallel with the development of ship equipment, bridge systems have been improved, but marine accidents due to human error have not been reduced. Recently, research in nautical bridge equipment has focused on suitable ergonomic designs in order to reduce these errors due to human factors. In a bridge of a ship, there are numerous auditory signals that deliver important information clearly to the sailors. However, only a few studies have been conducted related to the human recognition of these auditory signals. There are three types of auditory signals: voice alarms, abstract sounds, and auditory icons. This study was conducted in order to design more appropriate auditory icons using a sensibility evaluation method. The auditory icons were rated to have five warning situations (engine failure, fire, steering failure, low power, and collision) using the Semantic Differential Method. It is expected that the results of this study will be used as basic data for auditory displays inside bridges and for integrated bridge alarm systems.
Journal of Korean Library and Information Science Society
Digital Library System(DLS) for the school library is a key access tool for school library materials. The purpose of this study was to find ways to improve the accessibility of materials through analysis of students' information search behavior in DLS. Data were collected through recording of 42 participants' DLS search process, and questionnaire. As a result, the search success rate and search satisfaction were found to be lower when the main purpose of DLS is simple leisure reading, information needs are relatively ambiguous, and when user experiences the complicated situations in the search process. The satisfaction level of search time sufficiency was the highest, and the search result satisfaction was the lowest. Besides, there was a need to improve DLS, such as integrated search of other library collection information, the recommendation of related materials, the print output of collection location, voice recognition through mobile apps, and automatic correction of search errors. Through this, the following can be suggested. First, DLS should complement the function of providing career information by reflecting the demand of education consumers. Second, improvements to DLS functionality to the general information retrieval system level must be made. Third, an infrastructure must be established for close cooperation between school library field personnel and DLS management authorities.
Deep learning is getting attention recently. The deep learning technique which had been applied in competitions of the International Conference on Image Recognition Technology(ILSVR) and AlphaGo is Convolution Neural Network(CNN). CNN is characterized in that the input image is divided into small sections to recognize the partial features and combine them to recognize as a whole. Deep learning technologies are expected to bring a lot of changes in our lives, but until now, its applications have been limited to image recognition and natural language processing. The use of deep learning techniques for business problems is still an early research stage. If their performance is proved, they can be applied to traditional business problems such as future marketing response prediction, fraud transaction detection, bankruptcy prediction, and so on. So, it is a very meaningful experiment to diagnose the possibility of solving business problems using deep learning technologies based on the case of online shopping companies which have big data, are relatively easy to identify customer behavior and has high utilization values. Especially, in online shopping companies, the competition environment is rapidly changing and becoming more intense. Therefore, analysis of customer behavior for maximizing profit is becoming more and more important for online shopping companies. In this study, we propose 'CNN model of Heterogeneous Information Integration' using CNN as a way to improve the predictive power of customer behavior in online shopping enterprises. In order to propose a model that optimizes the performance, which is a model that learns from the convolution neural network of the multi-layer perceptron structure by combining structured and unstructured information, this model uses 'heterogeneous information integration', 'unstructured information vector conversion', 'multi-layer perceptron design', and evaluate the performance of each architecture, and confirm the proposed model based on the results. In addition, the target variables for predicting customer behavior are defined as six binary classification problems: re-purchaser, churn, frequent shopper, frequent refund shopper, high amount shopper, high discount shopper. In order to verify the usefulness of the proposed model, we conducted experiments using actual data of domestic specific online shopping company. This experiment uses actual transactions, customers, and VOC data of specific online shopping company in Korea. Data extraction criteria are defined for 47,947 customers who registered at least one VOC in January 2011 (1 month). The customer profiles of these customers, as well as a total of 19 months of trading data from September 2010 to March 2012, and VOCs posted for a month are used. The experiment of this study is divided into two stages. In the first step, we evaluate three architectures that affect the performance of the proposed model and select optimal parameters. We evaluate the performance with the proposed model. Experimental results show that the proposed model, which combines both structured and unstructured information, is superior compared to NBC(Naïve Bayes classification), SVM(Support vector machine), and ANN(Artificial neural network). Therefore, it is significant that the use of unstructured information contributes to predict customer behavior, and that CNN can be applied to solve business problems as well as image recognition and natural language processing problems. It can be confirmed through experiments that CNN is more effective in understanding and interpreting the meaning of context in text VOC data. And it is significant that the empirical research based on the actual data of the e-commerce company can extract very meaningful information from the VOC data written in the text format directly by the customer in the prediction of the customer behavior. Finally, through various experiments, it is possible to say that the proposed model provides useful information for the future research related to the parameter selection and its performance.
The purpose of this study is to learn both effects of the vocal psychotherapy on the self-consciousness and the variety of the self-consciousness on the vocal psychotherapy in return. The research for this study was performed to three subjects who were students of E university, Seoul, ten times for sixty minutes. The subjects were all volunteers for the advertisement on a music-therapy program searching for them on the web site of E university. The vocal psychotherapy program consists of four steps and each of them consists of two to four short terms again. Both before and after the experiment, examinations on self-consciousness were done to recognize the change of the subjects' self-consciousness which would be caused by the vocal psychotherapy activity. After every short term, the subjects were asked to write reports to closely analyze the change of self-consciousness according to the terms and the variety of the subjects. The effect of the vocal psychotherapy activity on the changes of scores in the self-consciousness examination is the first thing to point out on this study. There appeared some personal varieties on the total scores of the examination and scores of some sub-categories. Especially, there were different scores on the private self-consciousness, the public self-consciousness, and the social anxiety between before and after performing the vocal psychotherapy program. Subject A, who had got the best score of all on the scope of the private self-consciousness, showed the steepest decrease on the very scope. On the contrary, the subject showed decrease of scores of the public self-consciousness and the social anxiety in the relatively little rate. Subject B, who had got the highest score of the three on the public self-consciousness, showed the steepest decrease on that of all scopes and showed no difference on the social anxiety scope. In the case of the last one, subject C, who had relatively low scores on the private and public self-consciousness than the others, the private self-consciousness score increased but the public self-consciousness and the social anxiety scores decreased. The changes of the scores of each questions were examined in order to see possible other changes that had not been exposed on the changes of the total and sub-categories scores. As a result of that, of all twenty-eight questions, there were changes about one to two points. Subject A showed the difference with thirteen questions, subject B with sixteen and subject C with nineteen questions. The rate of change of subject C was relatively small but more questions changed and the change of score was wider than the others. Considering all those results, It can be possibly said that the vocal psychotherapy affects the changes of the scores of sub-categories in self-consciousness examination. The next thing to point out on this study is the change of recognition that was exposed on the subjects' report after every short term of the program. As a result of the close analyzing, according to the short terms and variety of self-consciousness, recognizing the way express subjects themselves by voice and recognizing their own voices appeared to be different. How much they cared about others and why they did so were also different. According to the self reports, subject A cared much about her inner thought and emotion and tended to concentrate herself as a social object. There appeared some positive emotional experiments such as emotional abundance and art curiosities on her reports but at the same time some negative emotions such as state-trait anxiety and neuroticism also appeared. Subject B, who showed high scores on the private and public self-consciousness like subject A, had a similar tendency that concentrates on herself as a social object but she showed more social anxiety than subject A. Subject C got relatively lower points in self-consciousness examination, tended to care about herself, and had less negative emotions such as state-trait anxiety than other subjects. Also, with terms going on, she showed changes in the way of caring about her own voice and others. This study has some unique significances in helping people who have problems caused by self-estimation activated with self-consciousness, using voices closely related to one's own self, performing the vocal skills discipline to solve the technical problems. Also, this study has a potentiality that the vocal psychotherapy activity can be effectively used as a way affects the mental health and developing personality.
본 웹사이트에 게시된 이메일 주소가 전자우편 수집 프로그램이나
그 밖의 기술적 장치를 이용하여 무단으로 수집되는 것을 거부하며,
이를 위반시 정보통신망법에 의해 형사 처벌됨을 유념하시기 바랍니다.
[게시일 2004년 10월 1일]
제 1 장 총칙
제 1 조 (목적)
이 이용약관은 KoreaScience 홈페이지(이하 “당 사이트”)에서 제공하는 인터넷 서비스(이하 '서비스')의 가입조건 및 이용에 관한 제반 사항과 기타 필요한 사항을 구체적으로 규정함을 목적으로 합니다.
제 2 조 (용어의 정의)
① "이용자"라 함은 당 사이트에 접속하여 이 약관에 따라 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스를 받는 회원 및 비회원을
② "회원"이라 함은 서비스를 이용하기 위하여 당 사이트에 개인정보를 제공하여 아이디(ID)와 비밀번호를 부여
받은 자를 말합니다.
③ "회원 아이디(ID)"라 함은 회원의 식별 및 서비스 이용을 위하여 자신이 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을
④ "비밀번호(패스워드)"라 함은 회원이 자신의 비밀보호를 위하여 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을 말합니다.
제 3 조 (이용약관의 효력 및 변경)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트에 게시하거나 기타의 방법으로 회원에게 공지함으로써 효력이 발생합니다.
② 당 사이트는 이 약관을 개정할 경우에 적용일자 및 개정사유를 명시하여 현행 약관과 함께 당 사이트의
초기화면에 그 적용일자 7일 이전부터 적용일자 전일까지 공지합니다. 다만, 회원에게 불리하게 약관내용을
변경하는 경우에는 최소한 30일 이상의 사전 유예기간을 두고 공지합니다. 이 경우 당 사이트는 개정 전
내용과 개정 후 내용을 명확하게 비교하여 이용자가 알기 쉽도록 표시합니다.
제 4 조(약관 외 준칙)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스에 관한 이용안내와 함께 적용됩니다.
② 이 약관에 명시되지 아니한 사항은 관계법령의 규정이 적용됩니다.
제 2 장 이용계약의 체결
제 5 조 (이용계약의 성립 등)
① 이용계약은 이용고객이 당 사이트가 정한 약관에 「동의합니다」를 선택하고, 당 사이트가 정한
온라인신청양식을 작성하여 서비스 이용을 신청한 후, 당 사이트가 이를 승낙함으로써 성립합니다.
② 제1항의 승낙은 당 사이트가 제공하는 과학기술정보검색, 맞춤정보, 서지정보 등 다른 서비스의 이용승낙을
제 6 조 (회원가입)
서비스를 이용하고자 하는 고객은 당 사이트에서 정한 회원가입양식에 개인정보를 기재하여 가입을 하여야 합니다.
제 7 조 (개인정보의 보호 및 사용)
당 사이트는 관계법령이 정하는 바에 따라 회원 등록정보를 포함한 회원의 개인정보를 보호하기 위해 노력합니다. 회원 개인정보의 보호 및 사용에 대해서는 관련법령 및 당 사이트의 개인정보 보호정책이 적용됩니다.
제 8 조 (이용 신청의 승낙과 제한)
① 당 사이트는 제6조의 규정에 의한 이용신청고객에 대하여 서비스 이용을 승낙합니다.
② 당 사이트는 아래사항에 해당하는 경우에 대해서 승낙하지 아니 합니다.
- 이용계약 신청서의 내용을 허위로 기재한 경우
- 기타 규정한 제반사항을 위반하며 신청하는 경우
제 9 조 (회원 ID 부여 및 변경 등)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객에 대하여 약관에 정하는 바에 따라 자신이 선정한 회원 ID를 부여합니다.
② 회원 ID는 원칙적으로 변경이 불가하며 부득이한 사유로 인하여 변경 하고자 하는 경우에는 해당 ID를
해지하고 재가입해야 합니다.
③ 기타 회원 개인정보 관리 및 변경 등에 관한 사항은 서비스별 안내에 정하는 바에 의합니다.
제 3 장 계약 당사자의 의무
제 10 조 (KISTI의 의무)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객이 희망한 서비스 제공 개시일에 특별한 사정이 없는 한 서비스를 이용할 수 있도록
② 당 사이트는 개인정보 보호를 위해 보안시스템을 구축하며 개인정보 보호정책을 공시하고 준수합니다.
③ 당 사이트는 회원으로부터 제기되는 의견이나 불만이 정당하다고 객관적으로 인정될 경우에는 적절한 절차를
거쳐 즉시 처리하여야 합니다. 다만, 즉시 처리가 곤란한 경우는 회원에게 그 사유와 처리일정을 통보하여야
제 11 조 (회원의 의무)
① 이용자는 회원가입 신청 또는 회원정보 변경 시 실명으로 모든 사항을 사실에 근거하여 작성하여야 하며,
허위 또는 타인의 정보를 등록할 경우 일체의 권리를 주장할 수 없습니다.
② 당 사이트가 관계법령 및 개인정보 보호정책에 의거하여 그 책임을 지는 경우를 제외하고 회원에게 부여된
ID의 비밀번호 관리소홀, 부정사용에 의하여 발생하는 모든 결과에 대한 책임은 회원에게 있습니다.
③ 회원은 당 사이트 및 제 3자의 지적 재산권을 침해해서는 안 됩니다.
제 4 장 서비스의 이용
제 12 조 (서비스 이용 시간)
① 서비스 이용은 당 사이트의 업무상 또는 기술상 특별한 지장이 없는 한 연중무휴, 1일 24시간 운영을
원칙으로 합니다. 단, 당 사이트는 시스템 정기점검, 증설 및 교체를 위해 당 사이트가 정한 날이나 시간에
서비스를 일시 중단할 수 있으며, 예정되어 있는 작업으로 인한 서비스 일시중단은 당 사이트 홈페이지를
통해 사전에 공지합니다.
② 당 사이트는 서비스를 특정범위로 분할하여 각 범위별로 이용가능시간을 별도로 지정할 수 있습니다. 다만
이 경우 그 내용을 공지합니다.
제 13 조 (홈페이지 저작권)
① NDSL에서 제공하는 모든 저작물의 저작권은 원저작자에게 있으며, KISTI는 복제/배포/전송권을 확보하고
② NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 상업적 및 기타 영리목적으로 복제/배포/전송할 경우 사전에 KISTI의 허락을
③ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 보도, 비평, 교육, 연구 등을 위하여 정당한 범위 안에서 공정한 관행에
합치되게 인용할 수 있습니다.
④ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 무단 복제, 전송, 배포 기타 저작권법에 위반되는 방법으로 이용할 경우
저작권법 제136조에 따라 5년 이하의 징역 또는 5천만 원 이하의 벌금에 처해질 수 있습니다.
제 14 조 (유료서비스)
① 당 사이트 및 협력기관이 정한 유료서비스(원문복사 등)는 별도로 정해진 바에 따르며, 변경사항은 시행 전에
당 사이트 홈페이지를 통하여 회원에게 공지합니다.
② 유료서비스를 이용하려는 회원은 정해진 요금체계에 따라 요금을 납부해야 합니다.
제 5 장 계약 해지 및 이용 제한
제 15 조 (계약 해지)
회원이 이용계약을 해지하고자 하는 때에는 [가입해지] 메뉴를 이용해 직접 해지해야 합니다.
제 16 조 (서비스 이용제한)
① 당 사이트는 회원이 서비스 이용내용에 있어서 본 약관 제 11조 내용을 위반하거나, 다음 각 호에 해당하는
경우 서비스 이용을 제한할 수 있습니다.
- 2년 이상 서비스를 이용한 적이 없는 경우
- 기타 정상적인 서비스 운영에 방해가 될 경우
② 상기 이용제한 규정에 따라 서비스를 이용하는 회원에게 서비스 이용에 대하여 별도 공지 없이 서비스 이용의
일시정지, 이용계약 해지 할 수 있습니다.
제 17 조 (전자우편주소 수집 금지)
회원은 전자우편주소 추출기 등을 이용하여 전자우편주소를 수집 또는 제3자에게 제공할 수 없습니다.
제 6 장 손해배상 및 기타사항
제 18 조 (손해배상)
당 사이트는 무료로 제공되는 서비스와 관련하여 회원에게 어떠한 손해가 발생하더라도 당 사이트가 고의 또는 과실로 인한 손해발생을 제외하고는 이에 대하여 책임을 부담하지 아니합니다.
제 19 조 (관할 법원)
서비스 이용으로 발생한 분쟁에 대해 소송이 제기되는 경우 민사 소송법상의 관할 법원에 제기합니다.
1. (시행일) 이 약관은 2016년 9월 5일부터 적용되며, 종전 약관은 본 약관으로 대체되며, 개정된 약관의 적용일 이전 가입자도 개정된 약관의 적용을 받습니다.