• Title, Summary, Keyword: Vitamin E

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High School Students' Preferences and Food Intake on Menu Items Offered by School Foodservice in Daegu (대구지역 학교급식 식단에 대한 고등학생의 기호도와 섭취율)

  • Kim, So-Hee;Cha, Myeong-Hwa;Kim, Yoo-Kyeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.7
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    • pp.945-954
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study is to present basic data for an improvement of school foodservice by indentifying students' preference level for school meal menu and assessing students' nutrition intake. The subjects participated in this study were 544 high school students on 1st grade served by self-operated school foodservice in Daegu. The frequency analysis, t-test analysis, and correlation analysis were carried out for the data analysis using SPSS 12.0 program. Based on the results toward students' preference and serving frequency, the most frequently offered food was soup sorts and then followed by the categories of boiled rice, kimchi, broiled food and hard-boiled food. Boiled rice, rice with assorted vegetables, mandu soup, salad and braised beef rib were highly preferred to the students. Male students scored higher preference to the menu related with meats than female students. However, the students' preference and serving frequency on the menu were not correlated significantly in this study. A substantial correlation was found between the degree of preference and the rate of intake (p<0.01). It would be generalized that preferences to menu items strongly sffected the level of intake by students. The nutrient analysis of food intake revealed that both male and female students were not consuming sufficient level of calorie, calcium and vitamin $B_2$. In conclusion, the results indicate that the students' preference is a very important variable influencing the consumption level of meal as well as balanced nutrient intake by students served in school foodservice. Menu planning should be integrated into school foodservice management for quality control. As limited control of the menu may also negatively influence on the food leftovers and ecological issues, professionals related to the school foodservice including administers, educators and dieticians need to check up the students' preference regularly and reflect their perception on the menu planning to improve the quality of school foodservice. The nutrient intake currently provided through school foodservice should be also assessed more thoroughly. These data could be incorporated into continuous quality improvement and strategic planning in school foodservice.

A Study on the Differences in the Dietary Habits, Nutrient Intake and Health Status of Vegetarian (Lacto-Ovo Vegetarian) and Non-Vegetarian Korean Elementary School Children (초등학생의 Vegetarian(lacto-ovo vegetarian)과 Non-Vegetarian의 식습관, 영양소 섭취 및 건강습관 차이에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Kyung-Soon;Shin, Kyung-Ok;Jung, Tae-Hwan;Chung, Keun-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.416-425
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vegetarian (lacto-ovo vegetarian) and non-vegetarian diets on dietary habits, nutrient intake, and health status. The vegan subjects were 22 children. Among them, 54.5% of the subjects had a specific religion, 36.4% had been vegetarian since weaning, and 9.1% had become vegetarian to prevent obesity or atopy. The percentages of excessive eating by the vegetarian children were lower compared to the non-vegetarian children. The rates of intake of vegetables (42.2%) and fruits and fruit juice (55.9%) by the vegetarian children were higher compared to non-vegetarian subjects. Non-vegetarian children consumed more milk, dairy products, as well as meat, fish, eggs, soybean, and tofu than the vegetarian subjects. Vegetarian children ate more bread, potato, and fruits as snacks than non-vegetarian children. Furthermore, non-vegetarian children consumed more carbonated beverages and ice cream than the vegetarian subjects (p<0.05). Generally, the subjects' energy intake was lower than standard values, and vegetarian children's calcium intake was deficient. Non-vegetarian children's fiber intake was deficient, and they consumed fat, vitamin $B_2$, calcium, and cholesterol excessively (p<0.05). Nutrition tablet intake was higher among non-vegetarian children; however, the rate of fatigue among subjects was higher among vegetarian subjects than non-vegetarian subjects. Among the vegetarian subjects, 19.6% reported that they had a cold. Consequently, for the purpose of attaining balanced physical development and growth among children, an education program that emphasizes complete diets should be prepared.

Nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity, and brain neuronal cell protective effect of cultivars of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki) (품종별 곶감(Diospyros kaki)의 영양성분 분석, 산화방지 효과 및 뇌 신경세포 보호효과)

  • Kim, Jong Min;Park, Seon Kyeong;Kang, Jin Yong;Park, Sang Hyun;Park, Su Bin;Yoo, Seul Ki;Han, Hye Ju;Lee, Su-Gwang;Lee, Uk;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.225-237
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to compare nutritional analysis and neuroprotective effect of 5 cultivars of Diospyros kaki (Dungsi, Godongsi, Gojongsi, Gabjubaekmok, and Bansi). In nutritional analysis, three free sugars: sucrose, glucose, and fructose, and six fatty acids: tartaric acid, hexadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, octadecenamide, and octadecane, were detected. Potassium and phosphorus levels were the highest in inorganic component analysis, and glutamic acid and aspartic acid were the highest contents in amino acid analysis. Vitamin C was detected in all cultivars. Total phenolic content was the highest in Dungsi. Antioxidant activities such as ABTS (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activities, FRAP (ferric reducing/antioxidant power), and MDA (malondialdehyde) inhibitory effect were the highest in Gabjubaekmok. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were measured to confirm the neuroprotective effect in MC-IXC cells. Gabjubaekmok showed significant acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and neuroprotection.

Effects of nutrition education on nutrition-related knowledge, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes of alcoholic patients (영양교육이 알코올중독자의 영양지식, 식습관 및 영양섭취상태에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, An Na;Lim, Hyeon-Sook
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.277-286
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of nutrition-related knowledge, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes of alcoholic patients and how nutrition education affects these nutritional behaviors. Methods: Subjects included 37 adult male alcoholic patients who were hospitalized. The nutrition education program consisted of five lessons over a five-week period. An each 80-minute nutrition education program per week was implemented for the alcoholic patients over a five-week period. Both before and after the implementation of nutrition education, their nutrition-related knowledge and dietary habits were assessed and nutrient intakes were investigated. Results: The subjects showed drinking habits of considerably high frequency, a large quantity of alcohol consumption, and preference for soju (a liquor) over beer. They had proper weight, height, and BMI, and came from relatively poor socioeconomic backgrounds with a low-level of self-rated health status and a comparatively high rate of suffering from disease. Mean score of their nutrition-related knowledge and dietary habits was quite low. They consumed less energy, dietary fiber, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, folic acid, Ca, and K, but more Na compared to each Dietary Reference Intake (DRI). After implementing the nutrition education, mean score of nutrition-related knowledge and dietary habits showed significant improvement. In addition, the meeting rate of each DRI of several nutrients was increased significantly, including energy, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, vitamins A, C, and $B_6$, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, folic acid, Ca, P, K, Fe, and Zn, while that of Na decreased. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that alcoholic patients had various nutritional problems, such as lack of nutrition-related knowledge, bad dietary habits, and insufficient nutrient intakes, however, these problems can be positively modified by implementation of a relatively short-term nutrition education program.

Oral Cleft Risk Factors in Rural Area of Indonesia(Sintang) (인도네시아 농촌지역의 구순구개열 위험요인 사례조사)

  • Park, Dae-jin;Lim, Young-soo;Oh, Jee-young;Koh, Kwang-Wook;Song, Sung-Eun;Jo, Eun-Joo
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.187-208
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    • 2006
  • Objectives: This study was carried out to evaluate the risk factors of Oral cleft and to inspect the living environments of the rural areas of Sintang, Indonesia Methods: During 3 to 9 August 2004, A questionnaire survey was done for the risk factors of oral cleft. Case group was composed of 11 oral cleft patients who admitted Missionary Hospital whose mother's bloods were analyzed for anemia and hyperlipidemia. Control group was composed of 56 reproductive rural women recruited from near rural villages. Also we surveyed 4 rural areas of Indonesia with simple water test kits. $x^2-test$ for significant difference was analysed. Results: Drinking water was statistically significant risk factor(p<0.05) of oral cleft. Other factors had no statistical significancy. The kind of drinking water was river-originated water. In rural villages, water sanitation state, even boiled water, was very poor. Although $NO_2-N$, $NO_3-N$ was negative, E. coli-form microorganisms were strongly positive in most samples. Total food intake amount was not enough, and vitamin supplements were also under the need. Conclusions: Drinking the contaminated river-water around pregnancy was supposed to be one of the risk factors of oral cleft in Indonesia. Further study is needed for nitrate and mercury.

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Combination Effect of Various Freezing and Thawing Techniques on Quality and Nutritional Attributes of Onions (다양한 냉·해동 방법에 따른 양파의 이화학적 특성 및 영양성분 변화)

  • Jung, You-Kyoung;Jang, Min-Young;Hwang, In-Guk;Yoo, Seon-Mi;Min, Sang-Gi;Jo, Yeon-Ji;Chun, Ji-Yeon;Choi, Mi-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.10
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    • pp.1492-1503
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    • 2015
  • This study evaluated the combination effect of various freezing and thawing techniques on the quality and nutritional aspects of onions. Onions were frozen by natural air convection freezing (NCF), air blast freezing (ABF), and liquid nitrogen freezing (LNF). Onions were frozen for 76 min by NCF, 9 min by ABF, and 9 min by LNF. The freezing treatment was stopped when the core temperature reached $-12^{\circ}C$ for NCF and ABF, and $-120^{\circ}C$ for LNF. Frozen samples were thawed through natural air convection thawing, running water thawing, sonication thawing (ST), or microwave thawing. The quality and nutritional aspects of frozen-thawed onions were evaluated by measuring thawing loss, pH, texture, water content, color, and SEM image. ST was found to cause the least loss in onion sample among the tested thawing methods, whereas the freezing methods did not cause any significant loss. In our experiment, thawing is found to be a more critical technique when compared to that of freezing. There were no clear quantifications or trends of pH and water content among different freezing and thawing techniques. The highest total color difference (${\Delta}E$) was observed in the NCF sample. For morphological observation, ABF gave the smallest ice crystal size, as well as minimum cell collapse. Loss of vitamin C, free sugar, and organic acid content was lower in the ABF and ST sample, when compared to other trials. In our study, we found that combination of ABF and ST could preserve the quality and nutritional aspects of frozen-thawed onions better than other methods.

Effects of Cooking Method and Pasteurization Treatment on Instant Thin Rice Porridge Added with Fruits and Vegetables (조리방법 및 살균처리가 과채류를 첨가한 이유식에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Hwa-Jin;Kim, Soojung;Bang, Eun;Shin, Haehun;Cho, Hyung-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.569-576
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    • 2016
  • This study researched the effects of cooking methods on phytochemical-enriched thin rice porridge (RP) of three colors (red, yellow, and green). Each of the RPs was prepared by three cooking methods and retorted through two-steps (step 1, at $80^{\circ}C$ for 15 min; step 2, at $82^{\circ}C$ for 25 min) for pasteurization. Cooking method (CM) 1 involved heating a mixture of all ingredients while CM 2 involved addition of apple/beet (AB, red), sweet-pumpkin/cabbage (PC, yellow) or vitamin/pear (green) while heating rice flour and glutinous rice flour. CM 3 involved mixing pre-cooked fruits and vegetables with cooked thin RP. The viscosity of RP prepared by CM 1 was lower than those of other RPs (P<0.05). The result of colorimetric a value show that red and green color of AB and VP prepared by CM 2 and CM 3 were most vivid. Contents of phytochemicals and antioxidants were higher when RP was prepared by CM 2 and CM 3 compared to CM 1. ${\Delta}E$ values of PC showed no significant difference before and after pasteurization, whereas AB and VP were significantly different (P<0.05). Antioxidant activity after retorting was not significantly different from those of un-retorted RPs. The results of color, phytochemical content, and antioxidant activity show that CM 2 or CM 3 were considerably better than CM 1, whereas cooking method had no effect after two-step retorting. Therefore, uncomplicated cooking method such as CM 1 or CM 2 are suited for commercial production of RPs.

Effects of Taeumin, Soeumin and Soyangin Prescriptions on the Adipocyte Induced by Gold Thioglucose in the Rat (태(太)·소음인(少陰人), 소양인(少陽人)의 처방(處方)이 Gold thioglucose로 유발(誘發)된 백서(白鼠)의 비만병(肥滿病)에 미치는 효과(效果))

  • Kim, Kyung-Yo
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.295-317
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    • 1996
  • It is researched to elucidate the effects of Taeumjowuitang(TE,太陰調胃湯), Sibimikwanjungtang(SE, 十二味寬中湯) and Yangkeogsanwhatang(SY,凉膈散火湯) on the obesity induced by gold thioglucose and the differentiation and growth of preadipocyte 3T3-L1 in the mouse. The result were as follows: 1. TE,SE and SY extracts improved the blood level of transaminase in the obese mouse induced by gold thioglucose. 2. TE,SE and SY extracts inhibited the increase of liver fat and body fat in the obese mouse induced by gold thioglucose. 3. TE,SE and SY extracts inhibited the increase of body weight in the obese mouse induced by gold thioglucose. 4. TE,SE and SY extracts inhibited the growth of undifferentiate preadipocyte 3T3-L1. 5. TE,SE and SY extracts showed inhibitory effect on the differentiation of preadipocyte 3T3-L1. The above results suggest that the TE,SE and SY extracts may be used on the obesity induced by the overgrowth and differentiation of adipocyte, and the accumulation of fat in liver and body.

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The effects of proliferation and differentiation on adipocyte 3T3-L1 by prescriptions and herbs of Taeyang-In and Taeum-In (태양인(太陽人), 태음인(太陰人)의 처방(處方)과 약재(藥材)가 지방세포(脂肪細胞)(3T3-L1)의 증식(增殖)·분화억제(分化抑制)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Su-beom;Kho, Byung-hee;Song, Il-byung
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.533-564
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    • 1998
  • In order to know the effect of proliferation and differentiation on edipocyte 3T3-L1 by prescriptions and herbs, Taeyangin(太陽人)'s Okapijangcheok-tang(五加皮壯脊湯) Mihudeungsikjangtang Acanthopanacis Cortex(五加皮) Phragmitis Rhizoma(蘆根) and Taeumin(太陰人)'s Taeumjowi-tang(太陰調胃湯) Cheongsimyonja-tang(淸心蓮子湯) Cheongpaesagan-tang(淸肺瀉肝湯) Galkeunbupyong-tang(葛根浮萍湯) Coicis Semen(薏苡仁) Rhei Undulati Rhizoma(大黃) Mori Cortex(桑白皮) Ulmi Cortex(楡根白皮) Holotrichia Vermiculus Kalopanaxii Cortex(海桐皮) Ephedrae Herba(麻黃) Imperatae Rhizoma(白茅根), were used and had some effects. 1. The proliferation effect of edipocyte 1) At the Taeyangin(太陽人)'s prescriptions and herbs, Okapijangcheok-tang(五加皮壯脊湯) Mihudeungsikjang-tang Acanthopanacis Cortex(五加皮) have a control effect at the boiling water-extract and ethyl alcohol-extract. Phragmitis Rhizoma(蘆根) have a control effect at the ethyl alcohol-extract. 2) At the Taeyangin(太陽人)'s prescriptions and herbs, Taeumjowi-tang(太陰調胃湯) Cheongsimyonja-tang(淸心蓮子湯) Cheongpaesagan-tang(淸肺瀉肝湯) Galkeunbupyong-tang(葛根浮萍湯) have a control effect at the boiling water-extract and ethyl alcohol-extract. Coicis Semen(薏苡仁) Rhei Undulati Rhizoma(大黃) Morl Cortex(桑白皮) Ulmi Cortex(楡根白皮) Kalopanaxii Cortex(海桐皮) · Ephedrae Herba(麻黃) of the boiling water-extract, Holotrichia Vermiculus Kalopanaxii Cortex(海桐皮) of ethyl alcohol-extract have a control effect on edipocytes. Rhei Undulati Rhizoma(大黃) Ulmi Cortex(楡根白皮) Ephedrae Herba(麻黃) of high-density have a cyto-toxicity. 2. The differentiation effect of edipocyte 1) At the Taeyangin(太陽人)'s prescriptions and herbs during the natural differentiation, Phragmitis Rhizoma(蘆根) of the boiling water-extract, Okapijangchek-tang(五加皮壯脊湯) Acanthopanacis Cortex(五加皮) of the ethyl alcohol-extract have a cyto-toxicity on the first-differentiation. 2) At the Taeumin(太陰人)'s prescriptions and herbs during the natural differentiation, Ulmi Cortex (楡根白皮) Kalopanaxii Cortex(海桐皮) of the boiling water-extract have a cyto-toxicity on the first-differentiation. Cheongsimyonja-tang(淸心蓮子湯) Ephedrae Herba(麻黃) of ethyl alcohol-extract have a control effect on the redifferentiation. 3) At the Taeyangin(太陽人)'s prescriptions and herbs on the first-differentiation during the induced differentiation, Acanthopanacis Cortex(五加皮) of ethyl alcohol-extract has a control effect. Okapijangchek-tang(五加皮壯脊湯) Acanthopanacis Cortex(五加皮) Phragmitis Rhizoma(蘆根) of the boiling water-extract have a cyto-toxicity. 4) At the Taeumin(太陰人)'s prescriptions and herbs on the first-differentiation during the induced differentiation, Coicis Semen(薏苡仁) Ephedrae Herba(麻黃) Imperatae Rhizoma(白茅根) of the boiling water-extract and Ephedrae Herba(麻黃) of the ethyl alcohol-extract have a control effect. Kalopanaxii Cortex(海桐皮) of the boiling water-extract and the ethyl alcohol-extract has a cyto-toxicity. Considering this result, the Taeyangin(太陽人) Taeumin(太陰人)'s prescriptions and herbs have a control effect on edipocytes during the proliferation. Acanthopanacis Cortex(五加皮), Coicis Semen(薏苡仁) Ephedrae Herba(麻黃) Imperatae Rhizoma(白茅根) have a control effect on edipocytes during the induced differentiation. In the future, for treating a obesity need a vivo assay and hope this study to help to know the mechanisms of obesity.

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A Survey of Nutritional Status on Pre-School Children in Korea (학영기전아동(學齡期前兒童)의 영양실태조사(營養實態調査))

  • Ju, Jin-Soon;Oh, Seoung-Ho
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.68-86
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    • 1976
  • The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the correct nutritional status on pre-school children in Korea. Furthermore, it made an attempt to find and define nutrional problems, and assist in establishment on their nutritional improvement plan. For this, food intake and health condition (physical, clinical, biochemical and parasitological) survey on 109 Pre-school children in both sexes, randomly selected from Yang-Gu area in Gang-Won province and Rea-ju area in Kyong-gy Province, were conducted by means of three-day records, during the two periods of Spring and Fall season in 1975. The results obtained are summerized as follows: 1. The food intake; Average food intake of the subjects per day were $508{\sim}647g$ ($83{\sim}91%$ in vegetable foods and $5.5{\sim}11.7%$ in animal foods) in Yang-gu area, and $587{\sim}698g$ ($88{\sim}89%$ in vegetable foods and $6.3{\sim}7.6%$ in animal foods) in Rea-ju area. 2. The intake of energy and nutrients; a) Calory intake. Average energy intake of subjects per day in Yang-gu area$(1120{\sim}1415kcal)$ were all lower than the Korean Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in either Spring and Fall survey, whereas the subjects in Rea-ju area were lower intake $(1213{\sim}1418kcal)$ than the RDA in the Spring but higher intake$(1516{\sim}1755kcal)$ than the RDA in the Fall, and the average intake were similar level with that of RDA. b) Protein intake. Average protein intake of the subjects per day in Yang-gu area $(33{\sim}43g)$ girl subjects in Rea-ju area $(35{\sim}39g)$ were lower than the RDA in either Spring and Fall survey, whereas the boy subjects in Rea-ju area$(36{\sim}38g)$ were lower in Spring and higher $(49{\sim}57g)$ in the Fall than that of the RDA, but the average $(43{\sim}47g)$ were similar level with the RDA. The protein intake from animal sources in all subjects were much lower $(5.5{\sim}11.7\;of\;total\;protein)$ than the RDA. c) Fat intake. Average fat intake were very lower in all subjects of both area $(14{\sim}24g\;in\;Yang-gu,\;10{\sim}12g\;in\;Rea-ju)$ than that of RDA which is recommended $12{\sim}14%$ of total energy to be supplied from fat. d) Calcium intake. Average calcium intake were very low in all subjects of both area $(264{\sim}355mg\;in\;Yang-gu\;and\;283{\sim}429mg\;in\;Rea-ju)$, especially, these in Spring were about a half level of the RDA, and it was much increased in the Fall due to increased intake of milk, but it was still not enough than the RDA. e) Vitamin A intake. Average intake of V.A ($703{\sim}1465\;IU$ in Ynag-gu and $750{\sim}1521\;IU$ in Rea-ju) were also lower than the RDA, moreover their V-A sources were mainly vegetable, so that the V-A supply might be critical one for the subjected. f) Riboflavin intake. Average riboflavin intake on all subjects in both area except boys in Rea-ju area in Fall, were very lower than the RDA. 3. The physical status; a) Average weight and height of boys aged 4 and 5 in Yang-gu area and girls of aged 5 in Rea-ju area were lower than those of Korean Standard of 1967 report, but those by age of girls in Yang-gu area and boys in Rea-ju area were a little heigher than the Korean Standard. It is, hower, present Korean standard of physical status might be somehow heigher than the 1967, since the socio-economical situation has been much improved during past a decade. So that, if one considered on this sense, the physical status of the subjects on this survey might be somehow lower than those of present Korean standard. b) Average upper arm circumference in both area were no difference each other, and their mean values of age 4, 5 and 6 in boy and girl were 15.6, 16.5, 16.4 and 15.5, 16.5, 16.4cm respectively. c) Average chest girth of boys were similar to those of Korean standard whereas the girls were smaller than the Korea standard. The average head circumference also showed similar tendency with the chest girth. 4. The clinical findings; The most popular clinical signs were angular stomatitis and dental caries, and boys had more heigher incidence then the girls. 5. The biochemical findings; a) Hemoglobin and anemia Average Hb value of boys and girls were 11.4 and 10.9g per 100 ml of blood respectively. The incidence of anemia (Hb value below 11 g/100 ml, by WHO) was increased by age, and girls had more heigher incidence than the boy (34% : 48%). The incidence of anemia in age of 4,5, and 6 in boys and girls were 28%, 41% 34%, and 33%, 50%, 49% respectively. The degree of the anemia was not severe, and the anemia of there subjects may be caused mainly low intake of better quality protein and low iron intake as well. b) Hematocrit. Average Ht value of whole subject were $39.9{\sim}41.6%$. c) Blood plasma protein. Average blood plasma protein contents of whole subjects were $6.6{\sim}7.4gm$ per 100 ml. The incidence of deficient range (<6.0g%, by ICNND) was only one girl of age 4 in yang Gu area. 6. Parasitological findgs; The most popular parasitism were asicris lumbicoides and trichocephalus trichiura, and about 2/3 of the whole subjects were suffering one or more of these parasitism.

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