• Title, Summary, Keyword: Visual stimulation

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Effects of Sensory Stimulation Type on Learning in Elderly People

  • Kim, Nyeon Jun
    • Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.994-998
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of sensory stimulation type on the learning of the elderly. The study implemented elderly verbal learning test by evenly dividing a total of 40 elderly people into auditory stimulation followed by visual stimulation group(AVG), visual stimulation followed by auditory stimulation group(VAG), simultaneous visual and auditory stimulation group(SG), and auditory stimulation group(AG). The result are as follows. SSG showed highest results in most of the test, followed by AVG, VAG, and AG. In particular, SG showed a statistically significant difference in immediate recall total score and short delay free recall score(p<.05). In the post-hoc test results of immediate recall total score, SG showed highest score with a statistical significance. AVG showed the second highest score, followed by VAG and AG and all showed a statistic significance(p<.05).In the post-hoc test results of short delay free recall score, SG and AVG showed a statistically significantly higher score than AG(p<.05). The results suggest that simultaneous stimulation of visual and auditory sense is more effective for improving the learning of the elderly people than visual stimulation followed by auditory stimulation or auditory stimulation followed by visual stimulation.

The Effect of Olfactory Stimulation on Word Retrieval Performance in Aphasics

  • Jeong, Ok-Ran;Lee, Young-Mi
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.65-75
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    • 2000
  • The present study attempted to determine the effect of olfactory stimulation on word retrieval deficit in Korean aphasics. Eleven nonfluent and 9 fluent aphasic patients served as subjects. The 20 subjects' age ranged from 14 to 65 with the mean of 43.0 (SD: 17.6). A neurologist examined them and diagnosed that they had no visual, auditory, and olfactory impairment. The study consisted of 2 experiments: Experiment I included visual stimulation while experiment II included visual and olfactory stimulation. The subjects were presented with 19 pictures for them to name in the experiment I, whereas they were exposed to the 19 pictures along with the corresponding olfactory stimulus in the experiment II. The 19 items included soy sauce, chilly pepper, Kimchi, chewing gum, cigarette (smoked), soybean paste, lemon, banana, alcohol (wine), apple, fish, vinegar, cuttlefish (dried), milk, rose, sesame oil, melon, coffee, and perfume. The results were as follows: First, olfactory stimulation tended to improve aphasics' word retrieval deficit although the improvement was not statistically significant. Second, the nonfluent aphasics seemed to take more advantage from olfactory stimulation compared to the fluent aphasics. Third, olfactory stimulation (olfactory + visual) did not produce a different naming performance compared to visual stimulation in the pre- and post-test when the pre- and post-test was composed of naming tasks through auditory + visual stimulation. Fourth, the fluent aphasics performed better with unpleasant olfactory stimulus while the nonfluent aphasics performed better with pleasant olfactory stimulus.

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Temporal-perceptual Judgement of Visuo-Auditory Stimulation (시청각 자극의 시간적 인지 판단)

  • Yu, Mi;Lee, Sang-Min;Piao, Yong-Jun;Kwon, Tae-Kyu;Kim, Nam-Gyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.101-109
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    • 2007
  • In situations of spatio-temporal perception about visuo-auditory stimulus, researches propose optimal integration hypothesis that perceptual process is optimized to the interaction of the senses for the precision of perception. So, when the visual information considered generally dominant over any other sense is ambiguous, the information of the other sense like auditory stimulus influences the perceptual process in interaction with visual information. Thus, we performed two different experiments to certain the conditions of the interacting senses and influence of the condition. We consider the interaction of the visuo-auditory stimulation in the free space, the color of visual stimulus and sex difference of testee with normal people. In first experiment, 12 participants were asked to judge the change in the frequency of audio-visual stimulation using a visual flicker and auditory flutter stimulation in the free space. When auditory temporal cues were presented, the change in the frequency of the visual stimulation was associated with a perceived change in the frequency of the auditory stimulation as the results of the previous studies using headphone. In second experiment, 30 male and 30 female were asked to judge the change in the frequency of audio-visual stimulation using a color of visual flicker and auditory flutter stimulation. In the color condition using red and green. Both male and female testees showed same perceptual tendency. male and female testees showed same perceptual tendency however, in case of female, the standard deviation is larger than that of male. This results implies that audio-visual asymmetry effects are influenced by the cues of visual and auditory information, such as the orientation between auditory and visual stimulus, the color of visual stimulus.

Amplitude Modulation-based Electrical Stimulation for Encoding Multipixel Spatiotemporal Visual Information in Retinal Neural Activities

  • Ryu, Sang Baek;Choi, Jeong Woo;Ahn, Kun No;Goo, Yong Sook;Kim, Kyung Hwan
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.900-907
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    • 2017
  • Retinal implants have been developed as a promising way to restore partial vision for the blind. The observation and analysis of neural activities can offer valuable insights for successful prosthetic electrical stimulation. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) activities have been investigated to provide knowledge on the requirements for electrical stimulation, such as threshold current and the effect of stimulation waveforms. To develop a detailed 'stimulation strategy' for faithful delivery of spatiotemporal visual information to the brain, it is essential to examine both the temporal and spatial characteristics of RGC responses, whereas previous studies were mainly focused on one or the other. In this study, we investigate whether the spatiotemporal visual information can be decoded from the RGC network activity evoked by patterned electrical stimulation. Along with a thorough characterization of spatial spreading of stimulation current and temporal information encoding, we demonstrated that multipixel spatiotemporal visual information can be accurately decoded from the population activities of RGCs stimulated by amplitude-modulated pulse trains. We also found that the details of stimulation, such as pulse amplitude range and pulse rate, were crucial for accurate decoding. Overall, the results suggest that useful visual function may be restored by amplitude modulation-based retinal stimulation.

Effect of Rehabilitation Exercise and Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on a Visual Analysis Scale and on Functional Capacity Performed For 8-weeks in a Patient With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (무릎넙다리 동통증후군 환자의 8주간 재활운동과 신경근전기자극치료가 통증척도와 기능적 수행능력에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Sang-Wan
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.33-42
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of rehabilitation exercise and neuromuscular electrical stimulation on a visual analysis scale and functional visual analysis scale regarding functional capacity. A total of 7 consecutive patients with the complaint of patellofemoral pain syndrome who received this diagnosis from a sports medicine physician were recruited to assess the effect of rehabilitation exercise and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Functional Visual Analog Scale (FVAS), functional capacity patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. The exercise rehabilitation consisted of a complex training program requiring five treatments a week for eight weeks. The training program consisted of four phases, and each lasted for two weeks. Statistical analyses were one-way ANOVA with repeated measures. The results were as follows: (1) There were significant differences in the VAS and FVAS during 8-weeks of rehabilitation exercise and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (p<.01). (2) There were no significant differences in the functional capacity during 8-weeks of rehabilitation exercise and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (p<.05). In conclusion, at the end of the eight weeks of this rehabilitation program and neuromuscular electrical stimulation, a significant reduction was found in VAS and FVAS, but there was no significant difference in functional capacity at the end of the treatment.

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A Study on the Sensory Motor Coordination to Visual and Sound Stimulation (빛과 소리 자극에 대한 지각 운동의 협력에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Nam-Gyun;Ko, Yong-Ho;Ifukube, T.
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.77-82
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    • 1994
  • We investigated the characteristic of the sensory motor coordination by measuring the hand point ins and the gaze movement to the visual and sound stimulation. Our results showed that the gaze vol ocity to sound stimulation did not depend on stimulation direction, but lagged behind 0.2 sec toward the pheriperal direction to the visual stimulation. Our data showed that to both visual and sound stimulation, the error of hand pointing value increased with an increasement of eccentricity.

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Difference of total activation depends on stimulation paradigm at motor and visual cortices and cerebellum (운동과 시각 피질, 소뇌에서 자극변화에 따른 총활성화의 차이)

  • Chung, S.C.;Song, I.C.;Chang, K.H.;Yu, B.K.;Mun, C.W.;Cho, Z.H.
    • Proceedings of the KOSOMBE Conference
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    • v.1998 no.11
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    • pp.289-290
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    • 1998
  • Purpose To investigate the difference of total activation in visual area, motor area, and cerebellum according to the stimulation paradigm. Materials and Methods Functional MR imaging was performed in 5 healthy volunteers with visual and motor activity using EPI technique. LED and Checker-Board stimulation were performed for visual activity. Thumb motion and Finger tapping were performed for motor and cerebellum activity. Time course data was obtained by calculating the total activation which was defined as the number of activated pixels x averaged pixel intensity. Results In the case of visual activity with LED stimulation, we found increased total activity of more than 100% compared with Checker-Board stimulation. In the case of motor area and cerebellum with Finger tapping stimulation, we found increased total activity of more than 100% and 150%, respectively compared with Thumb motion stimulation.

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Effects of Visual Feedback and Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation on Walking of Stroke Patients Induced by Treadmill Walking Training (시각적 피드백과 리듬청각자극을 통한 트레드밀 보행훈련이 뇌졸중 환자의 보행능력에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jin;Kim, Beom-ryong;Kim, Tae-ho
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.53-61
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    • 2018
  • Background: Stroke patients show abnormal walking patterns due to brain injury. In order to have the desired walking pattern, appropriate stimulation is required to activate the central pattern generator. For this reason, our study performed treadmill ambulatory training with rhythmic auditory stimulation. However we did not consider the influence of visual feedback. Objects: The purpose of this study was to compare the gait abilities in chronic stroke patients following either treadmill walking training with rhythmic auditory stimulation and visual feedback (TRASVF) or treadmill walking training with rhythmic auditory stimulation (TRAS) alone. Methods: Twenty-one stroke patients were divided into two groups: A TRASVF group (10 subjects) and a TRAS group (11 subjects). They received 30 minutes of neuro-developmental therapy (NDT) and walking training for 30 minutes, five times a week for three weeks. Temporal and spatial gait parameters were measured before and after the training period. The Biodex gait trainer treadmill system measured gait parameters. Results: After the training periods, the TRASVF group showed a significant improvement in walking speed, the step length of the affected limb, and time on each foot of the affected limb when compared to the TRAS group (p<.05). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the treadmill walking training with rhythmic auditory stimulation and visual feedback improved individual gait ability more than the treadmill walking training with rhythmic auditory stimulation alone. Therefore, visual feedback should be considered along with rhythmic auditory stimulation training.

Reproducibility of physiological patterns in disgust visual stimulation design

  • Lee, Kyung-Hwa;E. Sokhadze;Jang, Eun-Hye;Yang, Gyung-Hye;Sohn, Jin-Hun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Emotion and Sensibility Conference
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    • pp.73-80
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    • 2000
  • The paper is addressed to the topic of physiological response-specificity in disgust induced by visual stimulation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate reproducibility of physiological reactivity pattern during disgust elicited by the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS) in 2 experiments. Twenty-nine subjects participated in the first experiment with 3 visual stimulation sessions with disgust-eliciting slides (3 slides in each 1 min long session). In the second experiment disgust-eliciting slides from the IAPS were presented to 42 subjects in 2 sessions (one slide for 1 min). Spectral power of frontal EEG, skin conductance (SCL, SCR and NS.SCR), heart rate(HR), heart period variability(HPV) and respiration rate were recorded. Visual stimulation evoked 1:.n deceleration, higher power of high frequency component of HPV, increased SCL and NS.SCR frequency, frontal slow alpha blocking and moderate increase in fast beta power in most of the sessions in both experiments. However in the second experiment the EEG pattern associated with disgust showed inconsistent shifts in fast alpha and slow beta bands, but was marked by higher power of theta activity. Our data in both experiments emphasizes presence of disgust-specific profiles of autonomic and at the less extent EEG responses in visual stimulation context. Discussed are potential behavioral mechanisms leading to observed physiological manifestations in disgust elicited by visual stimulation. The results support the consideration that disgust is an withdrawal type negative valence emotion associated with relatively low autonomic arousal (low HR, low amplitude SCRs with relatively high NS.SCR frequency) and moderate EEG activation signs. Obtained data showed more consistent reproducibility of disgust-specific autonomic rather than EEG response patterns during visual stimulation design.

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Human Postural Balance Control by Visual Stimulation (시각 자극에 의한 신체자세 균형제어에 관한 연구)

  • 김현석;김동욱
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.417-426
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    • 1996
  • In this paper, we report the effects of visual stimulation patterns in the postural balance control. We used the motor-driven cloth panel and HMD(Head Mounted Display) to evaluate the effect of visual stimulation patterns in the postural balance control. We also investigated the usefulness of HMD in the postural balance rehabilitation training system from the view of reducing the scale of experimental system. Our results showed that a vertical-strip visual pattern was more effective than the others in the postural balance control. It was also indicated that HMD might be applied to clinical use as a new postural balance training system.

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