• Title, Summary, Keyword: Visual Search

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Survey of Visual Search Performance Models to Evaluate Accuracy and Speed of Visual Search Tasks

  • Kee, Dohyung
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.255-265
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This study aims to survey visual search performance models to assess and predict individual's visual tasks in everyday life and industrial sites. Background: Visual search is one of the most frequently performed and critical activities in everyday life and works. Visual search performance models are needed when designing or assessing the visual tasks. Method: This study was mainly based on survey of literatures related to ergonomics relevant journals and web surfing. In the survey, the keywords of visual search, visual search performance, visual search model, etc. were used. Results: On the basis of the purposes, developing methods and results of the models, this study categorized visual search performance models into six groups: probability-based models, SATO models, visual lobe-based models, computer vision models, neutral network-based models and detection time models. Major models by the categories were presented with their advantages and disadvantages. More models adopted the accuracy among two factors of accuracy and speed characterizing visual tasks as dependent variables. Conclusion: This study reviewed and summarized various visual search performance models. Application: The results would be used as a reference or tool when assessing the visual tasks.

Effects of Background Colors on the Visual Search and Visual Lobe (바탕색이 시각탐색과 비쥬얼 롭에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Seung Kweon
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.523-531
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate discrimination power of a black letter on the 3 types of color background; red, green and blue colors. Background: In previous studies on visual search, the similarity between distractors and target was main factor to visual search performance. However, there were a few studies on how the background color of visual search field affects visual search performance. Method: In the search fields with black distractors, black target and 3 types of background colors, all of ten subjects were participated in two kinds of experiments. Each subject performed visual search experiments of 50 times for a kind of background color to measure an average time of visual search. Each subject repeated visual lobe experiments of 720 times for one background color and the size of visual lobe was measured using these measurements. Results: The size of visual lobe was not affected by the background color. Visual search time was significantly different when the background color was green and blue. However, when the background color was green and red, and red and blue, the visual search time was not significantly different. Conclusion: The background color effect appeared in visual search time, but not in the size of visual lobe. These results may indicate that there is more background color effect when searching target with sufficient time than when searching target in a short time. Application: The results of this research will be helpful in selecting color background for black letter or black object.

Predicting Human Performance of Multiple-Target Search Using a Visual Lobe (비쥬얼 롭을 사용한 다수표적 탐색의 수행도 예측)

  • Hong, Seung-Kweon
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 2009
  • This study is concerned with predicting human search performance using a visual lobe. The most previous studies on human performance in visual search have been limited to a single-target search. This study extended the visual search research to multiple-target search including targets of different types as well as targets of same types. A model for predicting visual search performance was proposed and the model was validated by human search data. Additionally, this study found that human subjects always did not use a constant ratio of the whole visual lobe size for each type of targets in visual search process. The more conspicuous the target is, the more ratio of the whole visual lobe size human subjects use. The model that can predict human performance in multiple-target search may facilitate visual inspection plan in manufacturing.

Usability Evaluation of Text-based Search and Visual Search of a Multidisciplinary Library Database (상용 학술데이터베이스의 텍스트 기반 검색과 비주얼검색의 사용성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Ae
    • Journal of the Korean Society for information Management
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.111-129
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    • 2009
  • This study examined the usability of text-based search and visual search of a large multidisciplinary library database to provide an empirical analysis of the acceptability of visual systems in the information retrieval environment. It also examined if there are differences in the usability assessment based on experimental order. The results indicated that the text-based search supported users' search behaviors more efficiently than the visual search. Also the text-based search was rated higher than the visual search in terms of user perceptions of four usability factors.

Modeling the Visual Target Search in Natural Scenes

  • Park, Daecheol;Myung, Rohae;Kim, Sang-Hyeob;Jang, Eun-Hye;Park, Byoung-Jun
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.705-713
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    • 2012
  • Objective: The aim of this study is to predict human visual target search using ACT-R cognitive architecture in real scene images. Background: Human uses both the method of bottom-up and top-down process at the same time using characteristics of image itself and knowledge about images. Modeling of human visual search also needs to include both processes. Method: In this study, visual target object search performance in real scene images was analyzed comparing experimental data and result of ACT-R model. 10 students participated in this experiment and the model was simulated ten times. This experiment was conducted in two conditions, indoor images and outdoor images. The ACT-R model considering the first saccade region through calculating the saliency map and spatial layout was established. Proposed model in this study used the guide of visual search and adopted visual search strategies according to the guide. Results: In the analysis results, no significant difference on performance time between model prediction and empirical data was found. Conclusion: The proposed ACT-R model is able to predict the human visual search process in real scene images using salience map and spatial layout. Application: This study is useful in conducting model-based evaluation in visual search, particularly in real images. Also, this study is able to adopt in diverse image processing program such as helper of the visually impaired.

A Study of Web based Screening for Visual Stress Syndrome (웹 기반의 시각적 스트레스 증후군 선별에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Young-Gun
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.91-99
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    • 2009
  • A visual stress may provoke migraine, cephalalgia, intervene a long term reading and learning capability and reduce the productivity of a laborer who uses computer for a good while. In this study, a web based screening tool for visual stress was developed, it applied to 72 visually normal young persons in parallel with traditional questionnaire about symptoms of visual stress. To estimate visual stress, It is proposed to measure difference of visual search time of Han Gul characters as targets between visual stressful pattern and non-visual stressful pattern as global background of characters. As a result of test, 5 subjects were screened whose mean visual search time in the stressful pattern with 6 CPD spatial frequency increase significantly more than in none stressful pattern(t-test, one-tailed, p=$1.0407\times10^{-11}$). 2 of them were diagnosed as mild visual stress syndrome in the clinic. None had visual distortion and 50% of subjects had visual discomfort in results of the questionnaire. Correlation between visual search time increase rate and normalized number of visual discomfort may be slight(C. coefficient=0.1355). This study may contribute as a basic research for screening person with migraine, visual reading disabilities and VDT syndrome. It is required to apply the test to visual reading disabilities, migraine with visual distortion and/or visual discomfort as well as normal person for higher reliability of the screening tool.

Visual Search Models for Multiple Targets and Optimal Stopping Time (다수표적의 시각적 탐색을 위한 탐색능력 모델과 최적 탐색정지 시점)

  • Hong, Seung-Kweon;Park, Seikwon;Ryu, Seung Wan
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.165-171
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    • 2003
  • Visual search in an unstructured search field is a fruitful research area for computational modeling. Search models that describe relationship between search time and probability of target detection have been used for prediction of human search performance and provision of ideal goals for search training. Until recently, however, most of models were focused on detecting a single target in a search field, although, in practice, a search field includes multiple targets and search models for multiple targets may differ from search models for a single target. This study proposed a random search model for multiple targets, generalizing a random search model for a single target which is the most typical search model. To test this model, human search data were collected and compared with the model. This model well predicted human performance in visual search for multiple targets. This paper also proposed how to determine optimal stopping time in multiple-target search.

Annotation Technique Development based on Apparel Attributes for Visual Apparel Search Technology (비주얼 의류 검색기술을 위한 의류 속성 기반 Annotation 기법 개발)

  • Lee, Eun-Kyung;Kim, Yang-Weon;Kim, Seon-Sook
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.731-740
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    • 2015
  • Mobile (smartphone) search engine marketing is increasingly important. Accordingly, the development of visual apparel search technology to obtain easier and faster access to visual information in the apparel field is urgently needed. This study helps establish a proper classifying system for an apparel search after an analysis of search techniques for apparel search applications and existing domestic and overseas apparel sites. An annotation technique is developed in accordance with visual attributes and apparel categories based on collected data obtained by web crawling and apparel images collecting. The categorical composition of apparel is divided into wearing, image and style. The web evaluation site traces the correlations of the apparel category and apparel factors as dependent upon visual attributes. An appraisal team of 10 individuals evaluated 2860 pieces of merchandise images. Data analysis consisted of correlations between apparel, sleeve length and apparel category (based on an average analysis), and correlation between fastener and apparel category (based on an average analysis). The study results can be considered as an epoch-making mobile apparel search system that can contribute to enhancing consumer convenience since it enables an effective search of type, price, distributor, and apparel image by a mobile photographing of the wearing state.

Visual Search Model based on Saliency and Scene-Context in Real-World Images (실제 이미지에서 현저성과 맥락 정보의 영향을 고려한 시각 탐색 모델)

  • Choi, Yoonhyung;Oh, Hyungseok;Myung, Rohae
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.389-395
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    • 2015
  • According to much research on cognitive science, the impact of the scene-context on human visual search in real-world images could be as important as the saliency. Therefore, this study proposed a method of Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) modeling of visual search in real-world images, based on saliency and scene-context. The modeling method was developed by using the utility system of ACT-R to describe influences of saliency and scene-context in real-world images. Then, the validation of the model was performed, by comparing the data of the model and eye-tracking data from experiments in simple task in which subjects search some targets in indoor bedroom images. Results show that model data was quite well fit with eye-tracking data. In conclusion, the method of modeling human visual search proposed in this study should be used, in order to provide an accurate model of human performance in visual search tasks in real-world images.

Memory in visual search: Evidence from search efficiency (시각 탐색에서의 기억: 탐색 효율성에 근거한 증거)

  • Baek Jongsoo;Kim Min-Shik
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2005
  • Since human visual system has limited capacity for visual information processing, it should select goal-relevant information for further processing. There have been several studies that emphasized the possible involvement of memory in spatial shift of selective attention (Chun & Jiang, 1998, 1999; Klein, 1988; Klein & MacInnes, 1999). However, other studies suggested the inferiority of human visual memory in change detection(Rensink, O'Regan, & Clark, 1997; Simons & Levin, 1997) and in visual search(Hotowitz & Wolfe, 1998). The present study examined the involvement of memory in visual search; whether memory for the previously searched items guides selective attentional shift or not. We investigated how search works by comparing visual search performances in three different conditions; full exposure condition, partial exposure condition, and partial-to-full exposure condition. Revisiting searched items was allowed only in full exposure condition and not in either partial or partial-to-full exposure condition. The results showed that the efficiencies of attentional shift were nearly identical for all conditions. This finding implies that even in full exposure condition the participants scarcely re-examined the previously searched items. The results suggest that instant memory can be formed and used in visual search process. These results disagree with the earlier studies claiming thar visual search has no memory. We discussed the problems of the previous research paradigms and suggested some alternative accounts.

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