• Title, Summary, Keyword: Viscum album

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Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Is a Major Enzyme in Korean Mistletoe Lectin-Mediated Regulation of Macrophage Functions

  • Byeon, Se-Eun;Lee, Jae-Hwi;Yu, Tao;Kwon, Moo-Sik;Hong, Sung-Youl;Cho, Jae-Youl
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.293-298
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    • 2009
  • Korean mistletoe lectin (KML) is the major component found in Viscum album var. (coloratum), displaying anti-cancer and immunostimulating activities. Even though it has been shown to boost host immune defense mechanisms, the regulatory roles of KML on the functional activation of macrophages have not been fully elucidated. In this study, regulatory mechanism of KML on macrophage-mediated immune responses was examined in terms of KML-mediated signaling event. KML clearly induced mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-$\alpha$, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phagocytic uptake in RAW264.7 cells. All of these events were strongly suppressed by U0126, whereas TNF-$\alpha$ mRNA was not diminished by SB203580 and SP600125, indicating ERK as a central enzyme managing KML-induced up-regulation of macrophage functions. Indeed, KML strongly induced the phosphorylation of ERK in a time-dependent manner without altering its total level. Therefore, these data suggest that ERK may be a major signaling enzyme with regulatory property toward various KML-mediated macrophage responses.

Effects of dietary Alisma canaliculatum(Alismatis rhizoma), Viscum album (Mistletoe) and Cornus officinalis (Corni fructus) probiotics as feed additives on growth performance and immunity in growing pigs (사료내 택사, 겨우살이 및 산수유 생균제 첨가가 비육돈의 생산성 및 면역성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Ki-Soo;Kim, Gwi-Man;Ji, Hoon;Park, Sung-Wook;Yang, Jeong-Seung;Yang, Chul-Ju
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.375-385
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    • 2010
  • An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing Alisma canaliculatum, Viscum album and Cornus officinalis probiotics on the growth performance and immune response in growing pigs. This experiment was conducted using 120 pigs (crossing of Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire and castrated) which were assigned to 5 treatments in 3 replications with 8 pigs per replications. The dietary treatments were NC group (without antibiotics), PC group (basal+Oxytetracycline 50ppm), AC group (basal+A. canaliculatum 0.5%), VA group (basal+V. album 0.5%) and COP group (basal+C. officinalis probiotics 0.5%). The initial body weights of pigs were 35kg on average and the experiment lasted for 9 weeks. The experimental animals were kept in the pens following a completely randomized design. They were provided the diets adequate for grower stage as recommended by NRC (ME:3,265 kcal/kg and CP:16%). COP fed pigs showed lower weight gain up to 6 weeks of age compared to NC group and other groups without significant differences (P>0.05). The carcass weights of pigs fed VA and COP were significantly higher compared to NC group (P<0.05), Back fat thicknesses groups fed three different additives were higher than NC group and lower then PC group (P<0.05). Crude fat contents in loin meat were significantly lower in groups fed three different additives while moisture contents of those three groups were higher than other groups (P<0.05). The thiobarbituric acid reaction substance (TBARS) value measured at fresh and $2^{nd}$ weeks was lower in additives fed groups but no statistical differences were observed among the treatments (P>0.05). Significantly highest PUFA (16.42g/100g) and ${\omega}$-3 fatty acids (ALA, EPA and DHA) content of meat were observed in COP fed pigs compared to NC group (P>0.05), which might mean that three additives function to enhance serum IgG in pigs. In consequence, it can be suggested that AC, VA and COP may have a potential to replace antibiotics as growth promoter and immune enhancer in the diets for growing pigs.

Anatomical Characteristics of Korean Mistletoe (Viscum album var. coloratum) (한국산 겨우살이(Viscum album var. coloratum)의 해부학적 특성)

  • Kwon, Sung-Min;Jang, Jae-Hyuk;Kim, Chul-Woo;Kim, Kwang-Mo;Yi, Jae-Seon;Kim, Nam-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.268-275
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to understand the anatomical characteristics of Korean mistletoe (Viscum album var. coloratum) and host tree of Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) by the aid of light and scanning electron microscopy. The branch diameter of host tree at the parasitic part by mistletoe is larger than that of non-parasitic part. In the mistletoe, phloem consists of bast fiber and parenchyma cell and xylem is composed of fiber, ray and axial parenchyma cell, and vascular tracheid. The volume of ray parenchyma cell is higher than common wood species and is heterocellular made up of procumbent, upright, and square cells in the mistletoe. In the vascular tracheid of mistletoe, coarse spiral thickenings and bordered pit are present. Due to the insertion of the mistletoe haustorium, some deformed vessels but no tylosis are observed in the mistletoe. The shapes of mistletoe haustorium are sharp, and the destruction of the host tree cells due to the insertion of the mistletoe haustorium are not identified.

Toxicity of lectin extracted from Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) in chicks and its immunoadjuvant activity on Newcastle disease virus vaccines (한국산 겨우살이(Viscum album coloratum)로부터 추출된 lectin의 닭에 대한 독성 및 뉴캐슬병 백신의 특이면역 증강 효과)

  • Yeo, Sang-Geon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.215-224
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    • 2006
  • In order to search the availability of the lectin extracted from Korean mistletoe(Viscum album coloratum) as an adjuvant for the avian vaccines, attempts were made to determine toxicity of the lectin in chicks and its immunostimulating activity on the inactivated vaccines against Newcastle disease virus(NDV). For the determination of toxicity, the lectin was injected into the thigh muscle of SPF chicks(Charles River) of 1-week-old and observed hematologically and pathologically. For the determination of immunostimulating effects, lectin-adjuvanted, inactivated NDV vaccines were injected into the thigh muscle of SPF chicks in the same age group. Sera of the chicks were examined for the hemagglutination-inhibition(HI) antibodies induced, their HI titers and reaction to the NDV antigens. The data were further compared with those from aluminum hydroxide [$Al(OH)_3$]-adjuvanted vaccines and vaccines without adjuvant, and the results are as follows. There were no significant changes observed in the values of RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC, AST, ALT, BUN, creatinine and total proteins in the chicks administered with lectin of 1.1, 2.2 and $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ body weight, which means the lectin has no effects on blood values and functions of liver and kidney. In histopathologic observation, no lesions were observed in the brain, heart, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, thymus and bursa of Fabricius of the chicks administered with lectin of 1.1, 2.2 and $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ body weight. There were inflammatory lesions, such as congestion, hemorrhage, edema, infiltration of macrophages and coagulation necrosis observed in the thigh muscle of chicks administered with lectin of $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ body weight, whereas no changes were observed in 1.1 and $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ lectin administered chicks. In chicks immunized with lectin($4.4{\mu}g/kg$ of body weight)-adjuvanted B1, LaSota and Ulster 2C vaccines, HI titers in reciprocal values for $log_2$ were 1.8-2.2 at 1 week after vaccination, which was similar with those of 1.5-2.9 by $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines. The HI titers by the lectin-adjuvanted vaccines reached to 3.9-5.3 at 4 weeks, whereas those by the $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines were more high as 7.3-9.3. Meanwhile, the immunostimulating effects of the lectin were recognized while compared to the HI titers with 2.4-3.7 in chicks immunized with vaccines without adjuvants at 4 weeks after vaccination. The chicks immunized with lectin-adjuvanted vaccines were enough to resist challenges by Kyojeongwon strain, a very virulent NDV at 4 weeks after vaccination as well as chicks immunized with $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines. The HI titers by the lectin-adjuvanted vaccines reached to high level as 8.7-10.3 as those with 8.2-9.6 by the $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines at 6 weeks after vaccination, which may be the booster effects by the challenge virus. Antibodies specific to the HN and F antigens of NDV were observed in the sera of both chicks immunized with lectin-adjuvanted vaccines and $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines.

Total Polyphenol Content and Antioxidative Activities of Mistletoe(Viscum album) Extracts by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (초임계 이산화탄소를 이용한 겨우살이(Mistletoe, Viscum album) 추출물의 폴리페놀 함량 및 항산화 활성)

  • Jang, Tae-Oh;Yoo, Yang-Hoon;Hwang, Yong-Chul;Kim, Hyun-Ku;Woo, Hyun-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.20-24
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    • 2010
  • This study was performed to investigate antioxidant activities of Mistletoe (MS) extracts by measuring electron donating ability (EDA), super oxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity and total polyphenol content (TPC). The extracts were obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide, hot-water and ethanol extraction. EDAs was the higher in ethanol extract (70.53%) than water (36.73%) or supercritical carbon dioxide extract (15.73% at 400 bar, $30^{\circ}C$) at concentration of 10 mg/mL. However, SOD-like activities and TPCs were the highest in the supercritical carbon dioxide extract. At concentration of 1 mg/mL, supercritical carbon dioxide extract (22.54% at 200 bar, $40^{\circ}C$) was higher SOD activity than water (7.85%) and ethanol extract (6.12%). Regarding TPCs of MS extracts, the content was the highest in supercritical carbon dioxide extract (17.57 wt% catechin equivalent at 200 bar, $50^{\circ}C$) followed by ethanol and water extract. These results suggest that it can be useful to develop functional foods using antioxidative active compounds of MS with high polyphenol contents.

Anatomical Characteristics of Korean Mistletoe [Viscum album var. coloratum(Kom.) Ohwi] Stem (한국산 겨우살이 수간의 조직특성)

  • Lee, Bo-Duk;Park, Beyung-Su
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.287-292
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    • 2009
  • Recently, the consumption of mistletoe[Viscum album var. coloratum(Kom.) Ohwi] is increasing because of its good medical effectiveness with the increased concern on the natural medicines and foods. The result obtained from the investigation on the stem tissues of the mistletoe and the oriental chestnut oak, a host plant species, are as follows. Haustorium from the seeds of the mistletoe after their sticking to the branches of the host plant penetrates into the bark where it forms the endophyte system through the active cell division. The endophyte grown in the cambium of the host plant makes the stems and leaves as the outer tissues in a certain time. Even through lignification of the host wood in the branches the oriental chestnut oak was not progressive, its tylosis coas developed partially assembly due to the formation of the endophyte. The stems of the mistletoe consisted of vascular tracheid, selereid, and ray and axial parenchyma, classified as a hardwood without vessels. The vascular tracheids seemed to take a role instead of the vessels in the mistletoe plant from the result that the pits of the vessels in the host branches are linked to the vessel-form tracheid in the mistletoe stems. The constituent ratio of the sclereid cells in the mistletoe stems increased with aging. Furthermore their ratio of the parenchyma cells was higher, which contained the more cell content, compared with the cells of the general woody plant species.

Effect of M11C (Non-lectin Components) Obtained from Korean Mistletoe on the $IL-1\beta$ Secretion from Mouse Splenocytes (쥐의 비장세포로부터 $IL-1\beta$ 분비에 있어서 한국산 겨우살이 추출물 M11C (비렉틴 구성물질)의 효과)

  • Jun, Myung-Ha;Kang, Tae-Bong;Chang, Sung-Ho;Choi, Wahn-Soo;Seong, Nak-Sul;Her, Erk
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.38-45
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    • 2007
  • Korean mistletoe (Viscum album L) extract has been found to posses immunoregulating activity. In this study, Korean mistletoe extract, M11C (non-lectin components), was used to know whether this extract activates splenocytes to secret interleukin $1\beta(IL-1\beta)$. The splenocytes were treated with M11C, and then collected the supernatant and cell lysate that were prepared to analyze the level of $IL-1\beta$, using ELISA, immunoblotting, and RT-PCR. Maximum effective dose and time of M11C on $IL-1\beta$ secretion from splenocytes were $200{\mu}g/m\ell$ and 8 hours, respectively. Treatment dose and time for the maximum expression of $IL-1\beta$ mRNA were $200{\mu}g/m\ell$ and 4 hours, respectively. Saccharide degradation enzyme Viscozyme L completely blocked the effect of M11C on $IL-1\beta$ secretion from splenocytes. As the result, among non-lectin components saccharide could be regarded as a main component for $IL-1\beta$ expression from splenocytes.

Induction of Quinone Reductase by Extracts of Traditional Medicinal Plants (Quinone reductase 유도활성 측정에 의한 약용식물의 항암활성 검색)

  • Jin, Hai-Hong;Kim, Dong-Man;Hyun, Chang-Kee
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.168-174
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    • 2001
  • Induction of phase II enzymes is a major mechanism of chemoprevention. The induction levels of quinone reductase (QR) activity in cultured murine hepatoma (Hepa 1c1c7) cells by 80%-methanol extracts of traditional medicinal plants were measured. Among the tested 81 plants, the extracts of Aralia continentalis, Magnolia obovata, and Viscum album were found to induce QR activities over 250%. The maximum induction levels obtained were 401.9%, 270.5%, and 301.8% by treatments of the extracts of A. continentalis $(318\;{\mu}g/ml)$, M. obovata $(53.8\;{\mu}g/ml)$ and V. album $(80.6\;{\mu}g/ml)$, respectively. These QR induction activities were more potent than those of the known QR inducers, t-butylhydroquinone (170.1%) and ${\beta}-naphthoflavone$ (320.0%).

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NK cell and macrophage activation is associated with anti metastatic effect of Korean mistletoe lectins

  • Yoon, Taek-Joon;Yoo, Yung-Choon;Kang, Tae-Bong;Lee, Kyung-Bok;Kim, Jong-Bae
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.148.2-149
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    • 2003
  • The inhibitory effect of the lectins (KML-C) isolated from Korean mistletoe (KM; Viscum album coloratum), on tumor metastases produced by highly metastatic murine tumor cells, B 16-BL6 melanoma, colon 26-M3.1 carcinoma and L5178Y-ML25 lymphoma cells, was investigated in syngeneic mice. (omitted)

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