• Title, Summary, Keyword: Visceral Organs

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Effect of Maternal Undernutrition during Late Pregnancy on Growth and Development of Ovine Fetal Visceral Organs

  • Gao, F.;Liu, Y.C.;Hou, X.Z.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.12
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    • pp.1633-1639
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    • 2009
  • This study investigated the effect of maternal undernutrition during late pregnancy on the growth and development of ovine fetal visceral organs. One hundred Mongolian ewes were mated at a synchronized oestrus and divided into three groups and offered 0.175 MJ ME $kgw^{-0.75}\;d^{-1}$ (Restricted Group1; RG1), 0.33 MJ ME $kgw^{-0.75}\;d^{-1}$ (Restricted Group2; RG2) and ad libitum access to feed (Control Group; CG) during late pregnancy (90 days). Selected animals in each group were slaughtered immediately at d 90 of pregnancy and after parturition (neonatal lambs), and major visceral organs were removed and weighed separately. The results indicated that the weights of lung (p<0.01), spleen (p<0.01), heart (p<0.05), liver (p<0.05) and abomasum (p<0.01) in RG1 were significantly lighter than those of CG. For RG2, only the weights of the lung (p<0.05) and spleen (p<0.01) were significantly lighter than those of CG; when expressed as a percentage of body weight, significance was retained in the spleen (p<0.01) for both restricted groups, but the percentage of brain in RG1 was significantly higher than that in CG (p<0.01). For lung and spleen, the amount of DNA was significantly lower (p<0.01) in both groups of restricted neonatal lambs compared to CG; however, there was a significant difference only between RG1 and CG for protein: DNA ratio (p<0.01). The DNA content of kidney, abomasum and jejunum were decreased (p<0.05) in RG1 neonatal lambs, but protein: DNA ratio in the liver was decreased compared with that of CG (p<0.05). The plane of maternal undernutrition during late pregnancy had a significant effect on the growth and development of fetal visceral organs, which altered ontogeny of fetal organ growth and development. These perturbations in fetal visceral development may have significant implications on postnatal growth and adult health.

Study on the Weight of Visceral Organs and Live Weight of Korean Native Cattle (한빈우(韓牝牛)의 생체중(生體重)과 장기중량(臟器重量)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Chong-Sup;Joh, Tae-Soon;Park, Bong-Joh;Ha, Jeung-Key
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.91-98
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    • 1982
  • This study was conducted to determine the interrelationship between the weight of various visceral organs and the live weight of Korean native cattle with particular regard to female ones. One hundred and eighty-five of 2 to 6 years and one hundred and fifty-six Korean native cow of over 7 years of age were examined at the Busan slaughter house during the lest quarter of 1979. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The average live weight of 72 years old cows examined was 297.09kg, while these weight of visceral organs such as liver, lung, heart, left kidney, right kidney and spleen being 4301.09, 2165.22, 1355.43, 346.74, 350 and 991.30g, respectively. The length, width and thickness of the spleen were 49.0, 12.92 and 2.95cm, respectively. 2. The average live weight of 3 years old cows examined was 306.56kg, while these weight of visceral organs such as liver, lung, heart, left kidney, right kidney and spleen being 4099.07, 2144.44, 1383.33, 326.85, 325.93 and 964.82g, respectively. The length, width and thickness of the spleen were 43.3, 12.37 and 2.80cm, respectively. 3. The average live weight of 4 years old cows examined was 314.67kg, while these weight of visceral organs such as liver, lung, heart, left kidney, right kidney and spleen being 4186.67, 2292.50, 1392.50, 346.67, 343.33 and 932.50g, respectively. The length, width and thickness of the spleen were 47.01, 12.55 and 3.08cm, respectively. 4. The average live weight of 5 years old cows examined was 328.90kg, while these weight of visceral organs such as liver, lung, hearts left kidney, right kidney and spleen being 4465.32, 2394.35, 1493.55, 370.16, 335.97 and 997.58g, respectively, The length, width and thickness of the spleen were 49.17, 12.76 and 3.16cm, respectively. 5. The average live weight of 6 years old cows examined was 334.97kg, while these weight of visceral organs such as liver, lung, heart, left kidney, right kidney and spleen being 4585.29, 2552.79, 1555.89, 364.70, 373.24 and 985.29g, respectively. The length, width and thickness of the spleen were 48.27, 12.66 and 2.78cm, respectively. 6. The average live weight of 156 cows (over 7 years of age) examined was 344.91kg, while these weight of visceral organs such as liver, lung, heart, left kidney, right kidney and spleen being 4730.77, 2651.44, 1554.39, 407.37, 409.42 and 1101.06g, respectively. The length, width and thickness of the spleen were 51.04, 13.21 and 3.08cm, respectively. 7. Total average live weight of 341 cows (from 2 to 6 and over 7 years of age) examined was 332.44kg, while these weight of visceral organs being 4550.95, 2497.13, 1500.76, 380.18, 382.27 and 1047.98g, respectively. The length, width and thickness of the spleen were 52.01, 12.96 and 3.02cm, respectively. 8. The correlation coefficients between the live weight of 341 cows and their visceral organs were found to be highly significant (P<0.01), except fort for the length of spleen

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Function Disease Symptom And Organ Coordination of Tri-Energizer Based on the Materiality of Tri-Energizer (삼초유형(三焦有形)으로 살펴본 삼초(三焦)의 기능(機能), 병증(病證) 및 장부배합(臟腑配合))

  • Yoon, Chang-Yeol
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2013
  • Objective & Method : By investigating physiological function of tri-energizer, symptoms, and organ coordination, we obtained following conclusion. Tri-energizer is the membrane structure that surrounds the five visceral organs and six hollow organs, and filled with fluid. Tri-energizer acts as the passage for the flow of qi energy. Result & Conclusion : Therefore, dysfunction of the tri-energizer is caused by abnormal evaporation and metabolism. Upper-energizer regulates cardiopulmonary function, middle-energizer regulates spleen and stomach functions, and lower-energizer regulates liver, kidneys, small and large intestines, and bladder functions. Such a functional specialization is possible by receiving the source of qi through the wall wrapping around the internal organs. Tri-energizer represents the exterior and interior relationship by acting as the membrane structure supporting the five visceral organs and six hollow organs and at the same time, as the pericardium surrounding the heart.

Source And Identity Supporting The Theory of Materiality of Tri-Energizer in Nei Jing ("내경(內經)"에 나타난 삼초유형(三焦有形)의 근거(根據) 및 삼초(三焦)의 실체(實體))

  • Yoon, Chang-Yeol
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2012
  • Objective & Method : We investigated the identity of tri-energizer, which was originally described in Huang Di Nei Jing and claimed by traditional scholars, and drew the following conclusions. Result & Conclusion : According to Huang Di Nei Jing tri-energizer is one of the six hollow-organs and is called hollow organs for digestion and elimination, water guffer organ, or solitary hollow organ. It is believed that tri-energizer is regarded as the existing entity based on following several different sources; it functions as the course of channels, regulates wind and link and physiological function-especially intrinsic function of upper, middle, lower internal organs. It also controls syndromes and dysfunction of an illness, the surface of the body, and the cracked surface of the skin. Finally, bold and timidity depend on the tri-energizer. Experts determined the true nature of tri-energizer types. Experts include: Yu Tuan from the Ming dynasty, Tang Jong Hai and Ye Lin from the Qing dynasty, and Zhang Xi Chun from the Zhunghua Minguo period. These experts' claims are based on shape and forms of tri-energizer. Our examinations of anatomical and physiological basis on tri-energizers showed that, in a narrow sense, tri-energizer indicates visceral and parietal peritoneum and omentum surrounding the internal organs, and in a broad sense, indicates the overall membrane wrapping around the whole internal organs including five visceral organs and six hollow organs.

Comparison of Yanluozi's and Huatuo's visceral figures (『연라자내경도(煙蘿子內境圖)』와 『화타선생내조도(華佗先生內照圖)』의 비교)

  • Koo, In-Mo;Kim, Hag-Dong;Kim, Ki-Wook;Lee, Byung-Wook
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.41-56
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    • 2015
  • Objectives : This research is aimed to compare the visceral figures published during the Song Dynasty, and to reveal the differences between anatomical and physiological knowledge in the presence of Taoist theoretical background and in its absence. It is also aimed to discuss the theoretical differences among existing medicines. Methods : First, we will find the commonalities and the differences in the drawings describing the internal organs of a human body in the two publications, and study what made such commonalities and differences and how they affected medical theories. Secondly, we will analyze and update the internal organ data specified in the two publications as it relates to the five viscera and six bowls. Finally, we will analyze the commonalities and the differences, and study the background and the significance of medical theories. Results & Conclusions : 1. The positions of the liver and the spleen in the drawing of the Yanluozi's and Huatuo's visceral figures are inverted in the drawing of the Huatuo's visceral figures. The positions of other internal organs are similar. 2. The section of the five viscera in the Yanluozi's and Huatuo's visceral figures describes the Taoist gods necessary to build up discipline by the means of meditation. 3. In the Zhutidian's visceral theory, a belly button is recognized as a very important organ for the activity of life. 4. In the Huatuo's visceral figures, the 'Zangzhen' generated from foods is described as the energy source for the vitality of the five viscera. 5. The Huatuo's visceral figures mentioned the functionality of a gall bladder and an Tripple Energizer, which was not mentioned in the Yanluozi's and Huatuo's visceral figures. 6. Both the "Yanluozi's and Huatuo's visceral figures" and the "Huatuo's visceral figures" specify that the moisture filtered through small intestines turns into urine.

Quantitative analysis of lipid hydroperoxides levels in peripheral organs of Juvenile Visceral Steatosis (JVS) Mice at 1 month of age

  • Seiichi Matsugo;Miki Saito;Fumihiko Yasui;Kazuo Sasaki;Li, Meng-Xian;Masahisa Horiuchi;Takeyori Saheki
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.415-417
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    • 2002
  • Juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse is an animal model of the systemic camitine deficiency. JVS mice first develop fatty liver following cardiac hypertrophy. hyperammonemia, etc. To clarify the relationship between fatty liver and other symptoms. lipid hydroperoxides levels of peripheral oragans in JVS mice at 1 month were determined by the use of phosphine derivatives. We also report here a new method to quantitate the lipid components level in fatty liver of JVS mice.

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Metabolic Components of Energy Expenditure in Growing Beef Cattle - Review -

  • Caton, J.S.;Bauer, M.L.;Hidari, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.702-710
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    • 2000
  • A large portion of total energy expenditure associated with ruminant livestock production goes towards maintenance. Approximately 55% of whole body energy use is consumed by visceral tissues (including internal organs) with the majority of this going to the liver and gastrointestinal tract. Muscle and adipose tissues consume about 27% of total body energy expenditure. Metabolic components within the viscera responsible for the majority of energy consumption include ion transport, protein turnover, substrate cycling, and urea synthesis (liver). Within muscle tissue of growing animals ion transport and protein turnover account for most of the energy expenditure. Protein synthesis consumes approximately 23% of whole body energy use and visceral tissues account for proportionally more of whole body protein synthesis than skeletal muscle. Research efforts focused on improving energetic efficiency of the tissues and metabolic mechanisms responsible for the majority of whole animal energy expenditure should provide information leading to more efficient production of an edible product.

Seasonal Variation in Fatty Acid Composition in Female Pen Shell (Atrina Pectinata)

  • Baik Sung-Hyun;Kim Kang-Jeon;Choo Jong-Jae;Choe Sun-Nam;Chung Ee-Yung;Park Kwan Ha
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.261-264
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    • 2001
  • Seasonal variation in fatty acid profiles was examined in the visceral mass and the posterior adductor muscle of the female pen shell, Atrina pectinata. Total percentages of saturated fatty acids were similar between the two organs, and there was not a prominent seasonal change in both tissues. While the percentages of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) in the visceral mass were higher than those in the posterior adductor muscle, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were high in the posterior adductor muscle. HUFA contents, especially in $20: 5\omega3$, $22: 5\omega3$ and $22: 6\omega3$, markedly decreased in September in the visceral mass, and this decrease was associated with a corresponding total MUFAs in the same organ. A similar pattern of change in September was noted in the posterior adductor muscle MUFAs and HUFAs. These results indicate that $20:\omega3$ and $22:\omega3$ HUFA changes in the visceral mass and posterior adductor muscle reflect the reproductive stages in pen shell.

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Seasonal Variations in Biochemical Components of the Visceral Mass and Adductor Muscle in the Pen Shell, Atrina pectinata

  • Baik Sung-Hyun;Kim Kang-Jeon;Chung Ee-Yung;Choo Jong-Jae;Park Kwan Ha
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.18-24
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    • 2001
  • Seasonal content changes of the three key nutrients for organisms, protein, lipid and glycogen, were analyzed for a whole year to delineate the seasonal energy strategy in pen shells, Atrina pectinata. Two metabolically important organs, the visceral mass and the posterior adductor muscle, were examined. Protein in the visceral mass rose in April and stayed at the level until June followed by the constant minimum value between August and November. The protein contents in the posterior adductor muscle increased sharply in April and again in July, followed by a gradual decline thereafter. Total lipid contents in the visceral mass gradually increased between January and May, and then slowly decreased until September since which a new weak increase was noticed. Lipid levels in the adductor muscle rapidly dropped in June and July. Glycogen contents in the visceral mass rapidly increased between February and June, followed by a drastic drop in July. This reduced visceral glycogen level was maintained up to September, and a gradual reduction ensued. Glycogen contents in the adductor muscle steadily but markedly increased from April reaching the maximum in August, and then slowly declined thereafter. These results suggest that an accelerated protein and lipid synthesis occurs in the gonad when the pen shell undergoes the ripe stage of gametogenesis, but the levels of these two nutrients decrease on spawning. With this gonadal process, regular protein synthesis and lipid storage in the posterior adductor muscle are temporarily arrested. The most important nutrient reserves that support gonad developmental cycles in a long term seem to be glycogen of the posterior adductor muscle.

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Effects of Skip-a-day Feeding Program in Early Growing Stage on Compensatory Growth and Development of Visceral Organs Following Realimentation in Male Broiler Chicks (성장초기의 격일급이가 육계 수컷의 후기 보상성장과 장기발달에 미치는 효과)

  • You, D.C.;Lee, B.D.;Lee, S.K.;Han, S.W.;Im, J.S.;Seo, O.S.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 1996
  • A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of skip-a-day feeding program in early growing stage of male broiler chicks on the compensatory growth, and development of visceral organs during the later realimentation period. Day-old 328 male broiler chickens( Avian x Avian) were divided into control(ad libitum feeding) and skip-a-day feeding(limited feeding) treatments. Each treatment was consisted of 4 pens( replicates) of 41 birds each. Chickens on the skip-a-day program were fasted every other day during the second wk of age(8~15 d of age). During the starter period(0~4 wk), chickens were fed a commercial crumble diet. A commercial pellet diet was fed to chickens during the finishing period( 5~8 wk). Chickens were group-weighed every week, and one bird was selected from each pen to measure carcass characteristics. The skip-a-day program delayed the growth rate of male broilers up to 4 wk of age(P

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