• Title, Summary, Keyword: Vegetable oil methyl ester

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Renewable Low-viscosity Dielectrics Based on Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters

  • Yu, Hui;Yu, Ping;Luo, Yunbai
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.820-829
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    • 2017
  • Vegetable oil dielectrics have been used in transformers as green alternatives to mineral insulating oils for about twenty years, because of their advantages of non-toxic, biodegradability, and renewability. However, the viscosity of vegetable oils is more than 3 times of mineral oils, which means a poor heat dissipation capacity. To get low-viscosity dielectrics, transesterification and purification were performed to prepare vegetable oil methyl esters in this study. Electrical and physical properties were determined to investigate their potential as dielectrics. The results showed that the methyl ester products had good dielectric strengths, high water saturation and enough fire resistance. The viscosities (at $40^{\circ}C$) were 0.2 times less than FR3 fluid, and 0.7 times less than mineral oil, which indicated superior cooling capacity as we expected. With the assistance of 0.5 wt% pour point depressants, canola oil methyl ester exhibited the lowest pour point ($-26^{\circ}C$) among the products which was lower than FR3 fluid ($-21^{\circ}C$) and 25# mineral oil ($-23^{\circ}C$). Thus, canola oil methyl ester was the best candidate as a low-viscosity vegetable oil-based dielectric. The low-viscosity fluid could extend the service life of transformers by its better cooling capacity compared with nature ester dielectrics.

The Effect of Ultrasonic Energy on Esterification of Vegetable Oil (식물성유지의 에스테르화반응에서 초음파에너지 효과 분석)

  • Lee, Seung-Bum;Lee, Jae-Dong
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.532-535
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    • 2009
  • In this study, the fatty acid methyl ester was prepared from the vegetable oil by inducing ultrasound energy. The ultrasound energy was applied to the esterification reaction for heating and stirring effects. Ultrasonic induction results in the shortened reaction time and brings the increase of the methyl ester yield. However, the continuous introduction of ultrasound during the esterification reaction results in temperature increase, then the over-heating of reaction temperature was ineffective. Therefore, the system temperature was controlled at constant temperature state with the cooling circulation. The ultrasound induction reaction had the fatty acid methyl ester yield of 93% at the reaction time was 30 minutes, faster than the traditional esterification process.

The Variation of Offset Ink Properties According to Methyl Ester of Soy Oil and Resin Molecular Weight (대두유의 Methyl Ester와 수지 분자량에 따른 평판 잉크의 물성 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Jung-Min;Kim, Sung-Bin
    • Journal of the Korean Printing Society
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.45-59
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    • 2011
  • According as gradually increasing the demand for Eco-friendly products it has been progressed fairly development at a field of printing and printing inks. The Inks are used by soy oil beginning of ink industry for preventing environment. Now it is possible to make Eco-friendly inks with vegetable ester. So it is not necessary to use petroleum-based solvents for preventing environment. But There is some problems if using vegetable ester to inks. Vegetable ester has high solubility, it causes misting and low viscosity of the Inks. So resin is required high performance. Thus, in this paper, I studied about the properties variation of the Varnish and inks According to using the phenolic modified rosin ester and Soy oil Methyl esters. The compared in order of average molecular weight by the GPC method, rheological properties were found by rotational rheometer, and emulsion behavior were compared by high speed emulsification tester.

Synthesis of Dimer Acid Methyl Ester Using Base-treated Montmorillonite (염기 처리된 montmorillonite를 이용한 다이머산 메틸에스테르의 합성)

  • Yuk, Jeong Suk;Shin, Jihoon;Kim, Young-Wun
    • Tribology and Lubricants
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.132-138
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    • 2019
  • In this study, we demonstrate the effects of the acidic properties of montmorillonite (MMT), which is commonly used as a catalyst, on the conversion and selectivity of the dimer acid methyl ester (DAME) synthesis. We synthesize DAME by the dimerization of conjugated linoleic acid methyl ester (CLAME) and oleic acid methyl ester using MMT KSF. Incidentally, trimer acid methyl ester was formed as a by-product during the DAME synthesis. There is a necessity to adequately adjust the strength and quantity of the acid site to control the selectivity of DAME. Therefore, we vary the pH of the MMT acid by using various metal hydroxides. The purpose of this study is to increase the yield of monocyclic dimer acid methyl ester, which is a substance with adequate physical properties for industrial applications (e.g., lubricant and adhesive, etc.), using a heterogeneous catalyst. We report the dimerization of fatty acid methyl ester by using base treated-KSF, and apply it to conjugated soybean oil methyl ester. Then, we transmute the acid site properties of KSF, such as pH of 5 wt.% slurry KSF and various alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Ca). Characterization of base treated-KSF using a pH meter, x-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface analysis, and temperature-programmed desorption. We conduct an analysis of CLAME and DAME using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography, and gel permeation chromatography. Through these experiments, we demonstrate the effects of the acidic properties of KSF on the conversion and selectivity of the DAME synthesis, and evaluate its industrial potential by application to waste vegetable oil.

Viscosity Characteristics of Waste Cooking Oil with Ultrasonic Energy Irradiation

  • Kim, Tae Han;Han, Jung Keun
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.429-433
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: While rapeseed oil, soy bean oil, palm oil and waste cooking oil are being used for biodiesel, the viscosity of them should be lowered for fuel. The most widely used method of decreasing the viscosity of vegetable oil is to convert the vegetable oil into fatty acid methyl ester but is too expensive. This experiment uses ultrasonic energy, instead of converting the vegetable oil into fatty acid methyl ester, to lower the viscosity of the waste cooking oil. Methods: For irradiation treatment, the sample in a beaker was irradiated with ultrasonic energy and the viscosity and temperature were measured with a viscometer. For heating treatment, the sample in a beaker was heated and the viscosity and temperature were measured with a viscometer. Kinematic viscosity was calculated by dividing absolute viscosity with density. Results: The kinematic viscosity of waste cooking oil and cooking oil are up to ten times as high as that of light oil at room temperature. However, the difference of two types of oil decreased by four times as the temperature increased over $83^{\circ}C$. When the viscosity by the treatment of ultrasonic energy irradiation was compared to one by the heating treatment to the waste cooking oil, the viscosity by the treatment of ultrasonic energy irradiation was lower by maximum of 22% and minimum of 12%, than one by the heating treatment. Conclusions: Ultrasonic energy irradiation lowered the viscosity more than the heating treatment did, and ultrasonic energy irradiation has an enormous effect on fuel reforming.

Synthesis and Characterization of Soybean-based Ester Insulation Oils (대두유 에스테르계 절연유의 합성과 분석)

  • Han Dong-Hee;Cho Han-Goo;Han Se-Won;Oh Dae-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.40-45
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    • 2006
  • Electrical insulation is one of the most important parts in a high voltage apparatus. Traditionally mineral oils and synthetic esters have been widely used as dielectric coolants for power transformers. Recently, researchers are interested in the environmentally friendly vegetable oil from the environmental viewpoint. This paper reports on the synthesis and characterization of soybean based ester oils. Two different types of soybean based transformer oils, named as methyl ester and isopropyl ester were synthesized. The synthesis of these esters was achieved by transesterification reactions between soybean oil and alcohol in the presence of catalyst. The GC and NMR spectroscopic analysis of the esters have been performed. It was observed that isopropyl ester has better thermal resistance than methyl ester by TGA. Also, two esters have a good breakdown voltage and electrical resistance.

Conversion of Vegetable Oil into Biodiesel Fuel by Continuous Process (연속공정에 의한 식물유의 바이오디젤유 전환)

  • Hyun, Young-Jin;Kim, Hae-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.327-334
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    • 2002
  • Transesterfication of vegetable oils and methanol with alkaline catalyst was carried out to produce biodiesel fuel by continuous process. The process consists of two static mixers, one tubular reactor and two coolers and gave $96{\sim}99$% of methyl ester yield from soybean oil and rapeseed oil. Experimental variables were the molar ratios of methanol to vegetable oil, alkaline catalyst contents, flow rates, mixer element number. The optimum ranges of operating variables were as follows; reaction temperature of $70^{\circ}C$, l:6 of molar ratio of methanol to oil, O.4%(w/w) sodium hydroxide based on oil, static mixer elements number of 24 and 4 min. residence time.

The Transesterification Prediction of Vegetable Oils Based on Viscosity Changes (점도변화에 의한 식물유의 전이 에스테르화 추산)

  • Hyun, Young-Jin;Kim, Hae-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.12-18
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    • 2006
  • The transesterification of vegetable oils into Biodiesel at $60^{\circ}C$ was performed on the rotary viscometer. The overall yield(%) of fatty acid methyl ester from canola oil at optimum conditions was 95%. The viscosities of fatty acid methyl esters were predicted by Orrick and Erbarr's model. The overall yield increased as the viscosities of fatty acid methyl esters decreased. The limiting molar ratio of methanol to oil appeared to be 1:5. The content of sodium hydroxide as the optimum catalyst appeared to be 0.5wt%.

Study on the synthesis and characterization of soybean based transformer oils (대두유 에스테르계 절연유의 합성과 분석)

  • Han, Dong-Hee;Cho, Han-Goo;Han, Se-Won;Ahn, Myeong-Sang;Oho, Dae-Hee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.244-245
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    • 2005
  • Electrical insulation is one of the most important parts in a high voltage apparatus. Traditionally mineral oils and synthetic esters have been widely used as dielectric coolants for power transformers. Recently, researchers are interested in the environmental friendly vegetable oil from environmental viewpoint. This paper reports on the synthesis and characterization of soybean based ester oils. Two different types of soybean based transformer oils, named as methyl ester and isopropyl ester were synthesized. The synthesis of these esters was achieved by transesterification reactions of soybean oil and alcohol in the presence of catalyst. The GC and NMR spectroscopic analysis of the esters have been performed. The thermal stability of the esters was determined by thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA).

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