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The Evaluation of Non-Coplanar Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Brain stereotactic radiosurgery (뇌 정위적 방사선수술 시 Non-Coplanar Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy의 유용성 평가)

  • Lee, Doo Sang;Kang, Hyo Seok;Choi, Byoung Joon;Park, Sang Jun;Jung, Da Ee;Lee, Geon Ho;Ahn, Min Woo;Jeon, Myeong Soo
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.30 no.1_2
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2018
  • Purpose : Brain Stereotactic Radiosurgery can treat non-invasive diseases with high rates of complications due to surgical operations. However, brain stereotactic radiosurgery may be accompanied by radiation induced side effects such as fractionation radiation therapy because it uses radiation. The effects of Coplanar Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy(C-VMAT) and Non-Coplanar Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy(NC-VMAT) on surrounding normal tissues were analyzed in order to reduce the side effects caused fractionation radiation therapy such as head and neck. But, brain stereotactic radiosurgery these contents were not analyzed. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of NC-VMAT by comparing and analyzing C-VMAT and NC-VMAT in patients who underwent brain stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods and materials : With C-VMAT and NC-VMAT, 13 treatment plans for brain stereotactic radiosurgery were established. The Planning Target Volume ranged from a minimum of 0.78 cc to a maximum of 12.26 cc, Prescription doses were prescribed between 15 and 24 Gy. Treatment machine was TrueBeam STx (Varian Medical Systems, USA). The energy used in the treatment plan was 6 MV Flattening Filter Free (6FFF) X-ray. The C-VMAT treatment plan used a half 2 arc or full 2 arc treatment plan, and the NC-VMAT treatment plan used 3 to 7 Arc 40 to 190 degrees. The angle of the couch was planned to be 3-7 angles. Results : The mean value of the maximum dose was $105.1{\pm}1.37%$ in C-VMAT and $105.8{\pm}1.71%$ in NC-VMAT. Conformity index of C-VMAT was $1.08{\pm}0.08$ and homogeneity index was $1.03{\pm}0.01$. Conformity index of NC-VMAT was $1.17{\pm}0.1$ and homogeneity index was $1.04{\pm}0.01$. $V_2$, $V_8$, $V_{12}$, $V_{18}$, $V_{24}$ of the brain were $176{\pm}149.36cc$, $31.50{\pm}25.03cc$, $16.53{\pm}12.63cc$, $8.60{\pm}6.87cc$ and $4.03{\pm}3.43cc$ in the C-VMAT and $135.55{\pm}115.93cc$, $24.34{\pm}17.68cc$, $14.74{\pm}10.97cc$, $8.55{\pm}6.79cc$, $4.23{\pm}3.48cc$. Conclusions : The maximum dose, conformity index, and homogeneity index showed no significant difference between C-VMAT and NC-VMAT. $V_2$ to $V_{18}$ of the brain showed a difference of at least 0.5 % to 48 %. $V_{19}$ to $V_{24}$ of the brain showed a difference of at least 0.4 % to 4.8 %. When we compare the mean value of $V_{12}$ that Radione-crosis begins to generate, NC-VMAT has about 12.2 % less amount than C-VMAT. These results suggest that if NC-VMAT is used, the volume of $V_2$ to $V_{18}$ can be reduced, which can reduce Radionecrosis.

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The Evaluation of Hybrid-Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Lung Cancer Radiation Therapy (폐암 방사선 치료 시 Hybrid-Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy의 유용성 평가)

  • Lee, Geon Ho;Kang, Hyo Seok;Choi, Byoung Joon;Park, Sang Jun;Jung, Da Ee;Lee, Du Sang;Ahn, Min Woo;Jeon, Myeong Soo
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: In the Lung, the VMAT rotates continuously and examines radiation. That increases the low doses to normal lung. Due to that, the incidence of radiation pneumonia among radiation side effects may increase. The cause of radiation pneumonia is the lower dose area of the lungs. The H-VMAT was applied to patients who applied to reduce radiation in the lower doses of the lungs. We wanted to assess the usefulness of the H-VMAT by comparing the radiation doses to the low dose areas of the lungs and the normal organs. Materials and Methods: A total of 26 patients who applied for a H-VMAT procedure were applied to the patient. The prescription dose applied to total dose 44 Gy from 22 divisions. For each patient, a plan was implemented with Conventional RT, VMAT and H-VMAT. Conventional RT was carried out in four to five fields each, considering the size, location, shape, and location of the PTV. In the case of a VMAT plan, the two Half ARC, three Half ARC method and the two Full ARC were planned. The H-VMAT was planned by adding two Static fields in the VMAT, taking into account the dose of the lung and the tolerance dose of the organs. Results: In the NSCLC, the lung doses $V_5$ and $V_{10}$ of the lungs except for the treatment plan volume were the lowest with $55.40{\pm}13.39%$ and $32.05{\pm}11.37%$ of H-VMAT. And, in the SCLC, the lung doses of V5 and V10 were the lowest at $64.32{\pm}16.15%$ and $35.50{\pm}9.91%$, respectively. The spinal dose of VMAT in NSCLC was $21.15{\pm}4.02Gy$, which was 7.94 Gy lower than other treatment methods. The lowest spinal dose was delivered at $19.72{\pm}1.82Gy$ for SCLC. The mean dose delivered to the esophagus was also $17.44{\pm}2.04Gy$ and $17.84{\pm}9.20Gy$ in SCLC and NSCLC, respectively. Conclusion: When comparing the value of the surrounding normal organ dose, the VMAT showed that less doses were transmitted from the heart, esophagus and spinal cord than the rest of the treatment plan. However, it was similar to VMAT in normal organs except for the spinal cord. VMAT has increased doses of some normal organs but did not exceed the tolerance dose. It showed a low value in $V_5$, $V_{10}$. When comparing Conventional RT, VMAT, and H-VMAT, If the dose to the heart, esophagus and spinal cord is lower than the tolerance dose, it is thought to reduce the incidence of radiation pneumonia by applying H-VMAT that show the benefits of low doses of the lungs.

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Planning Aspects of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy and Intensity Modulated Radio therapy in Carcinoma Left Breast - A Comparative Study

  • Ekambaram, Varadharajan;Velayudham, Ramasubramanian;Swaminathan, Shiyama;Loganathan, Padmanabhan;Swaminathan, Vijaya
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.1633-1636
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    • 2015
  • Background: The advantages of Rapid Arc plans versus Intensity modulated radiotherapy plans for Carcinoma left breast were analyzed. Materials and Methods: In this study 20 Post mastectomy carcinoma left breast patients were analyzed. Both Intensity modulated Radiotherapy and Rapid Arc plans were generated for these patients. IMRT plans with 7 beams in an arc fashion and VMAT plans with two semi arcs were made to achieve 95% dose coverage to 100% volume. The plans were evaluated using Dose volume Histograms. Results: The mean Conformity and Homogeneity index in VMAT is found to be 1.05 and 0.065 respectively whereas in IMRT it was 1.07 and 0.069. The 20% volume of Heart received a mean dose of 960cGy in VMAT and 1300cGy in IMRT. The mean dose was 1236cGy in VMAT and 1870cGy in IMRT. The ipsilateral Lung received 3395cGy to 5% volume and 1840cGy to 20% volume on an average and the mean dose was 1205cGy in VMAT, while the same were found to be 3525cGy, 2012cGy and 1435cGy respectively in IMRT. The Contralateral Lung received a mean dose of 505cGy in VMAT and 553cGy in IMRT. The mean Monitor units in VMAT were 512MU and 1170MU in IMRT. The NTID in VMAT is $108.8{\times}10^5Gycm^3$ and $110.1{\times}10^5Gycm^3$ in IMRT. Conclusions: The target coverage, homogeneity and Conformity index were better in VMAT plans. The Ipsilateral Lung and heart dose were very less in VMAT plans. The Contralateral Lung dose and the Normal Tissue Integral Dose were also lesser in VMAT plans however the difference is not very appreciable. The MU in VMAT plans is almost 50% that of the IMRT plans which results in the reduction of treatment time. On the whole VMAT proves to be a better modality for treating Ca. Left Breast Patients.

Evaluating efficiency of Coaxial MLC VMAT plan for spine SBRT (Spine SBRT 치료시 Coaxial MLC VMAT plan의 유용성 평가)

  • Son, Sang Jun;Mun, Jun Ki;Kim, Dae Ho;Yoo, Suk Hyun
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.313-320
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    • 2014
  • Purpose : The purpose of the study is to evaluate the efficiency of Coaxial MLC VMAT plan (Using $273^{\circ}$ and $350^{\circ}$ collimator angle) That the leaf motion direction aligned with axis of OAR (Organ at risk, It means spinal cord or cauda equine in this study.) compare to Universal MLC VMAT plan (using $30^{\circ}$ and $330^{\circ}$ collimator angle) for spine SBRT. Materials and Methods : The 10 cases of spine SBRT that treated with VMAT planned by Coaxial MLC and Varian TBX were enrolled. Those cases were planned by Eclipse (Ver. 10.0.42, Varian, USA), PRO3 (Progressive Resolution Optimizer 10.0.28) and AAA (Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm Ver. 10.0.28) with coplanar $360^{\circ}$ arcs and 10MV FFF (Flattening filter free). Each arc has $273^{\circ}$ and $350^{\circ}$ collimator angle, respectively. The Universal MLC VMAT plans are based on existing treatment plans. Those plans have the same parameters of existing treatment plans but collimator angle. To minimize the dose difference that shows up randomly on optimizing, all plans were optimized and calculated twice respectively. The calculation grid is 0.2 cm and all plans were normalized to the target V100%=90%. The indexes of evaluation are V10Gy, D0.03cc, Dmean of OAR (Organ at risk, It means spinal cord or cauda equine in this study.), H.I (Homogeneity index) of the target and total MU. All Coaxial VMAT plans were verified by gamma test with Mapcheck2 (Sun Nuclear Co., USA), Mapphan (Sun Nuclear Co., USA) and SNC patient (Sun Nuclear Co., USA Ver 6.1.2.18513). Results : The difference between the coaxial and the universal VMAT plans are follow. The coaxial VMAT plan is better in the V10Gy of OAR, Up to 4.1%, at least 0.4%, the average difference was 1.9% and In the D0.03cc of OAR, Up to 83.6 cGy, at least 2.2 cGy, the average difference was 33.3 cGy. In Dmean, Up to 34.8 cGy, at least -13.0 cGy, the average difference was 9.6 cGy that say the coaxial VMAT plans are better except few cases. H.I difference Up to 0.04, at least 0.01, the average difference was 0.02 and the difference of average total MU is 74.1 MU. The coaxial MLC VMAT plan is average 74.1 MU lesser then another. All IMRT verification gamma test results for the coaxial MLC VMAT plan passed over 90.0% at 1mm / 2%. Conclusion : Coaxial MLC VMAT treatment plan appeared to be favorable in most cases than the Universal MLC VMAT treatment planning. It is efficient in lowering the dose of the OAR V10Gy especially. As a result, the Coaxial MLC VMAT plan could be better than the Universal MLC VMAT plan in same MU.

Evaluating efficiency of Split VMAT plan for prostate cancer radiotherapy involving pelvic lymph nodes (골반 림프선을 포함한 전립선암 치료 시 Split VMAT plan의 유용성 평가)

  • Mun, Jun Ki;Son, Sang Jun;Kim, Dae Ho;Seo, Seok Jin
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.145-156
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    • 2015
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of Split VMAT planning(Contouring rectum divided into an upper and a lower for reduce rectum dose) compare to Conventional VMAT planning(Contouring whole rectum) for prostate cancer radiotherapy involving pelvic lymph nodes. Materials and Methods : A total of 9 cases were enrolled. Each case received radiotherapy with Split VMAT planning to the prostate involving pelvic lymph nodes. Treatment was delivered using TrueBeam STX(Varian Medical Systems, USA) and planned on Eclipse(Ver. 10.0.42, Varian, USA), PRO3(Progressive Resolution Optimizer 10.0.28), AAA(Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm Ver. 10.0.28). Lower rectum contour was defined as starting 1cm superior and ending 1cm inferior to the prostate PTV, upper rectum is a part, except lower rectum from the whole rectum. Split VMAT plan parameters consisted of 10MV coplanar $360^{\circ}$ arcs. Each arc had $30^{\circ}$ and $30^{\circ}$ collimator angle, respectively. An SIB(Simultaneous Integrated Boost) treatment prescription was employed delivering 50.4Gy to pelvic lymph nodes and 63~70Gy to the prostate in 28 fractions. $D_{mean}$ of whole rectum on Split VMAT plan was applied for DVC(Dose Volume Constraint) of the whole rectum for Conventional VMAT plan. In addition, all parameters were set to be the same of existing treatment plans. To minimize the dose difference that shows up randomly on optimizing, all plans were optimized and calculated twice respectively using a 0.2cm grid. All plans were normalized to the prostate $PTV_{100%}$ = 90% or 95%. A comparison of $D_{mean}$ of whole rectum, upperr ectum, lower rectum, and bladder, $V_{50%}$ of upper rectum, total MU and H.I.(Homogeneity Index) and C.I.(Conformity Index) of the PTV was used for technique evaluation. All Split VMAT plans were verified by gamma test with portal dosimetry using EPID. Results : Using DVH analysis, a difference between the Conventional and the Split VMAT plans was demonstrated. The Split VMAT plan demonstrated better in the $D_{mean}$ of whole rectum, Up to 134.4 cGy, at least 43.5 cGy, the average difference was 75.6 cGy and in the $D_{mean}$ of upper rectum, Up to 1113.5 cGy, at least 87.2 cGy, the average difference was 550.5 cGy and in the $D_{mean}$ of lower rectum, Up to 100.5 cGy, at least -34.6 cGy, the average difference was 34.3 cGy and in the $D_{mean}$ of bladder, Up to 271 cGy, at least -55.5 cGy, the average difference was 117.8 cGy and in $V_{50%}$ of upper rectum, Up to 63.4%, at least 3.2%, the average difference was 23.2%. There was no significant difference on H.I., and C.I. of the PTV among two plans. The Split VMAT plan is average 77 MU more than another. All IMRT verification gamma test results for the Split VMAT plan passed over 90.0% at 2 mm / 2%. Conclusion : As a result, the Split VMAT plan appeared to be more favorable in most cases than the Conventional VMAT plan for prostate cancer radiotherapy involving pelvic lymph nodes. By using the split VMAT planning technique it was possible to reduce the upper rectum dose, thus reducing whole rectal dose when compared to conventional VMAT planning. Also using the split VMAT planning technique increase the treatment efficiency.

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Adjuvant Radiotherapy after Breast Conserving Treatment for Breast Cancer:A Dosimetric Comparison between Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy and Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy

  • Liu, Zhe-Ming;Ge, Xiao-Lin;Chen, Jia-Yan;Wang, Pei-Pei;Zhang, Chi;Yang, Xi;Zhu, Hong-Cheng;Liu, Jia;Qin, Qin;Xu, Li-Ping;Lu, Jing;Zhan, Liang-Liang;Cheng, Hong-Yan;Sun, Xin-Chen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.3257-3265
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    • 2015
  • Background: Radiotherapy is an important treatment of choice for breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery, and we compare the feasibility of using dual arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT2), single arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT1) and Multi-beam Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (M-IMRT) on patients after breast-conserving surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with breast cancer (half right-sided and half left-sided) treated by conservative lumpectomy and requiring whole breast radiotherapy with tumor bed boost were planned with three different radiotherapy techniques: 1) VMAT1; 2) VMAT2; 3) M-IMRT. The distributions for the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were compared. Dosimetries for all the techniques were compared. Results: All three techniques satisfied the dose constraint well. VMAT2 showed no obvious difference in the homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index (CI) of the PTV with respect to M-IMRT and VMAT1. VMAT2 clearly improved the treatment efficiency and can also decrease the mean dose and V5Gy of the contralateral lung. The mean dose and maximum dose of the spinal cord and contralateral breast were lower for VMAT2 than the other two techniques. The very low dose distribution (V1Gy) of the contralateral breast also showed great reduction in VMAT2 compared with the other two techniques. For the ipsilateral lung of right-sided breast cancer, the mean dose was decreased significantly in VMAT2 compared with VMAT1 and M-IMRT. The V20Gy and V30Gy of the ipsilateral lung of the left-sided breast cancer for VMAT2 showed obvious reduction compared with the other two techniques. The heart statistics of VMAT2 also decreased considerably compared to VMAT1 and M-IMRT. Conclusions: Compared to the other two techniques, the dual arc volumetric modulated arc therapy technique reduced radiation dose exposure to the organs at risk and maintained a reasonable target dose distribution.

Evaluation of the Modified Hybrid-VMAT for multiple bone metastatic cancer (다중표적 뼈 전이암의 하이브리드 세기변조(modified hybrid-VMAT) 방사선치료계획 유용성 평가)

  • Jung, Il Hun;Cho, Yoon Jin;Chang, Won Suk;Kim, Sei Joon;Ha, Jin Sook;Jeon, Mi Jin;Jung, In Ho;Kim, Jong Dea;Shin, Dong Bong;Lee, Ik Jae
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.30 no.1_2
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    • pp.161-167
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    • 2018
  • Purpose : This study evaluates the usefulness of the Modified Hybrid-VMAT scheme with consideration of background radiation when establishing a treatment plan for multiple bone metastatic cancer including multiple tumors on the same axis. Materials and Methods : The subjects of this study consisted of five patients with multiple bone metastatic cancer on the same axis. The planning target volume(PTV) prescription dose was 30 Gy, and the treatment plan was established using Ray Station(Ray station, 5.0.2.35, Sweden). In the treatment plan for each patient, two or more tumors were set as one isocenter. A volumetric modulated arc therapy(VMAT) plan, a hybrid VMAT(h) plan with no consideration of background radiation, and a modified hybrid VMAT(mh) with consideration of background radiation were established. Then, using each dose volume histogram(DVH), the PTV maximum dose($D_{max}$), mean dose($D_{mean}$), conformity index(CI), and homogeneity index(HI) were compared among the plans. In addition, the organ at risk(OAR) of each treatment site was evaluated, and the total MU(Monitor Unit) and treatment time were also analyzed. Results : The PTV $D_{max}$ values of VMAT, VMAT(h) and VMAT(mh) were 3188.33 cGy, 3526 cGy, and 3285.67 cGy, the $D_{mean}$ values were 3081 cGy, 3252 cGy, and 3094 cGy; the CI values were $1.35{\pm}0.19$, $1.43{\pm}0.12$, and $1.30{\pm}0.06$; the HI values were $1.06{\pm}0.01$, $1.14{\pm}0.06$, and $1.09{\pm}0.02$; and the VMAT(h) OAR value was increased 3 %, and VMAT(mh) OAR value was decreased 18 %, respectively. Furthermore, the mean MU values were 904.90, 911.73, and 1202.13, and the mean beam on times were $128.67{\pm}10.97$, $167.33{\pm}7.57$, and $190.33{\pm}4.51$ respectively. Conclusions : Applying Modified Hybrid-VMAT when treating multiple targets can prevent overdose by correcting the overlapping of doses. Furthermore, it is possible to establish a treatment plan that can protect surrounding normal organs more effectively while satisfying the inclusion of PTV dose. Long-term follow-up of many patients is necessary to confirm the clinical efficacy of Modified Hybrid-VMAT.

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Comparison and evaluation of volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy plans for postoperative radiation therapy of prostate cancer patient using a rectal balloon (직장풍선을 삽입한 전립선암 환자의 수술 후 방사선 치료 시 용적변조와 세기변조방사선치료계획 비교 평가)

  • Jung, hae youn;Seok, jin yong;Hong, joo wan;Chang, nam jun;Choi, byeong don;Park, jin hong
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2015
  • Purpose : The dose distribution of organ at risk (OAR) and normal tissue is affected by treatment technique in postoperative radiation therapy for prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to compare dose distribution characteristic and to evaluate treatment efficiency by devising VMAT plans according to applying differed number of arc and IMRT plan for postoperative patient of prostate cancer radiation therapy using a rectal balloon. Materials and Methods : Ten patients who received postoperative prostate radiation therapy in our hospital were compared. CT images of patients who inserted rectal balloon were acquired with 3 mm thickness and 10 MV energy of HD120MLC equipped Truebeam STx (Varian, Palo Alto, USA) was applied by using Eclipse (Version 11.0, Varian, Palo Alto, USA). 1 Arc, 2 Arc VMAT plans and 7-field IMRT plan were devised for each patient and same values were applied for dose volume constraint and plan normalization. To evaluate these plans, PTV coverage, conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) were compared and $R_{50%}$ was calculated to assess low dose spillage as per treatment plan. $D_{25%}$ of rectum and bladder Dmean were compared on OAR. And to evaluate the treatment efficiency, total monitor units(MU) and delivery time were considered. Each assessed result was analyzed by average value of 10 patients. Additionally, portal dosimetry was carried out for accuracy verification of beam delivery. Results : There was no significant difference on PTV coverage and HI among 3 plans. Especially CI and $R_{50%}$ on 7F-IMRT were the highest as 1.230, 3.991 respectively(p=0.00). Rectum $D_{25%}$ was similar between 1A-VMAT and 2A-VMAT. But approximately 7% higher value was observed on 7F-IMRT compare to the others(p=0.02) and bladder Dmean were similar among the all plan(P>0.05). Total MU were 494.7, 479.7, 757.9 respectively(P=0.00) for 1A-VMAT, 2A-VMAT, 7F-IMRT and at the most on 7F-IMRT. The delivery time were 65.2sec, 133.1sec, 145.5sec respectively(p=0.00). The obvious shortest time was observed on 1A-VMAT. All plans indicated over 99.5%(p=0.00) of gamma pass rate (2 mm, 2%) in portal dosimetry quality assurance. Conclusion : As a result of study, postoperative prostate cancer radiation therapy for patient using a rectal balloon, there was no significant difference of PTV coverage but 1A-VMAT and 2A-VMAT were more efficient for dose reduction of normal tissue and OARs. Between VMAT plans. $R_{50%}$ and MU were little lower in 2A-VMAT but 1A-VMAT has the shortest delivery time. So it is regarded to be an effective plan and it can reduce intra-fractional motion of patient also.

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Comparison of Dosimetrical and Radiobiological Parameters on Three VMAT Techniques for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

  • Kang, Seong-Hee;Chung, Jin-Beom;Kim, Kyung-Hyeon;Kang, Sang-Won;Eom, Keun-Yong;Song, Changhoon;Kim, In-Ah;Kim, Jae-Sung
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: To compare the dosimetrical and radiobiological parameters among various volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques using restricted and continuous arc beams for left-sided breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer without regional nodes were retrospectively selected and prescribed the dose of 42.6 Gy in 16 fractions on the planning target volume (PTV). For each patient, three plans were generated using the $Eclipse^{TM}$ system (Varian Medical System, Palo Alto, CA) with one partial arc 1pVMAT, two partial arcs 2pVMAT, and two tangential arcs 2tVMAT. All plans were calculated through anisotropic analytic algorithm and photon optimizer with 6 MV photon beam of $VitalBEAM^{TM}$. The same dose objectives for each plan were used to achieve a fair comparison during optimization. Results: For PTV, dosimetrical parameters such as Homogeneity index, conformity index, and conformal number were superior in 2pVMAT than those in both techniques. $V_{95%}$, which indicates PTV coverage, was 91.86%, 96.60%, and 96.65% for 1pVMAT, 2pVMAT, and 2tVMAT, respectively. In most organs at risk (OARs), 2pVMAT significantly reduced the delivered doses compared with the other techniques, excluding the doses to contralateral lung. For the analysis of radiobiological parameters, a significant difference in normal tissue complication probability was observed in ipsilateral lung while no difference was observed in the other OARs. Conclusions: Our study showed that 2pVMAT had better plan quality and normal tissue sparing than 1pVMAT and 2tVMAT but not for all parameters. Therefore, 2pVMAT could be considered the priority choice for the treatment planning for left breast cancer.

Volumetric modulated arc therapy for carotid sparing in the management of early glottic cancer

  • Kim, Young Suk;Lee, Jaegi;Park, Jong In;Sung, Wonmo;Lee, Sol Min;Kim, Gwi Eon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.18-25
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Radiotherapy of the neck is known to cause carotid artery stenosis. We compared the carotid artery dose received between volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and conventional fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans in patients with early glottic cancer. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one early glottic cancer patients who previously underwent definitive radiotherapy were selected for this study. For each patient, double arc VMAT, 8-field IMRT, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), and lateral parallel-opposed photon field radiotherapy (LPRT) plans were created. The 3DCRT plan was generated using lateral parallel-opposed photon fields plus an anterior photon field. VMAT and IMRT treatment plan optimization was performed under standardized conditions to obtain adequate target volume coverage and spare the carotid artery. Dose-volume specifications for the VMAT, IMRT, 3DCRT, and LPRT plans were calculated with radiotherapy planning system. Monitor units (MUs) and delivery time were measured to evaluate treatment efficiency. Results: Target volume coverage and homogeneity results were comparable between VMAT and IMRT; however, VMAT was superior to IMRT for carotid artery dose sparing. The mean dose to the carotid arteries in double arc VMAT was reduced by 6.8% compared to fixed-field IMRT (p < 0.001). The MUs for VMAT and IMRT were not significantly different (p = 0.089). VMAT allowed an approximately two-fold reduction in treatment delivery time in comparison to IMRT (3 to 5 minutes vs. 5 to 10 minutes). Conclusion: VMAT resulted in a lower carotid artery dose compared to conventional fixed-field IMRT, and maintained good target coverage in patients with early glottic cancer.