• Title, Summary, Keyword: VEGFC

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Prognostic Impact of Elevation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Family Expression in Patients with Non-small Cell lung Cancer: an Updated Meta-analysis

  • Zheng, Chun-Long;Qiu, Chen;Shen, Mei-Xiao;Qu, Xiao;Zhang, Tie-Hong;Zhang, Ji-Hong;Du, Jia-Jun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.1881-1895
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    • 2015
  • Background: The vascular endothelial growth factor family has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis. The prognostic value of each vascular endothelial growth factor family member, particular VEGF/VEGFR co-expression, in patients with non-small lung cancer remains controversial. Materials and Methods: Relevant literature was identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science. Studies evaluating expression of VEGFs and/or VEGFRs by immunohistochemistry or ELISA in lung cancer tissue were eligible for inclusion. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from individual study were pooled by using a fixed- or random-effect model, heterogeneity and publication bias analyses were also performed. Results: 74 studies covering 7,631 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Regarding pro-angiogenesis factors, the expression of VEGFA (HR=1.633, 95%CI: 1.490-1.791) and VEGFR1 (HR=1.924, 95%CI: 1.220-3.034) was associated separately with poor survival. Especially, VEGFA over-expression was an independent prognostic factor in adenocarcinoma (ADC) (HR=1.775, 95%CI: 1.384-2.275) and SCC (HR=2.919, 95%CI: 2.060-4.137). Co-expression of VEGFA/VEGFR2 (HR=2.011, 95%CI: 1.405-2.876) was also significantly associated with worse survival. For lymphangiogenesis factors, the expression of VEGFC (HR=1.611, 95%CI: 1.407-1.844) predicted a poor prognosis. Co-expression of VEGFC/VEGFR3 (HR=2.436, 95%CI: 1.468-4.043) emerged as a preferable prognostic marker. Conclusions: The expression of VEGFA (particularly in SCC and early stage NSCLC), VEGFC, VEGFR1 indicates separately an unfavorable prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Co-expression VEGFA/VEGFR2 is comparable with VEGFC/VEGFR3, both featuring sufficient discrimination value as preferable as prognostic biologic markers.

A Tale of Two Models: Mouse and Zebrafish as Complementary Models for Lymphatic Studies

  • Kim, Jun-Dae;Jin, Suk-Won
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.37 no.7
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    • pp.503-510
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    • 2014
  • Lymphatic vessels provide essential roles in maintaining fluid homeostasis and lipid absorption. Dysfunctions of the lymphatic vessels lead to debilitating pathological conditions, collectively known as lymphedema. In addition, lymphatic vessels are a critical moderator for the onset and progression of diverse human diseases including metastatic cancer and obesity. Despite their clinical importance, there is no currently effective pharmacological therapy to regulate functions of lymphatic vessels. Recent efforts to manipulate the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C (VEGFC) pathway, which is arguably the most important signaling pathway regulating lymphatic endothelial cells, to alleviate lymphedema yielded largely mixed results, necessitating identification of new targetable signaling pathways for therapeutic intervention for lymphedema. Zebrafish, a relatively new model system to investigate lymphatic biology, appears to be an ideal model to identify novel therapeutic targets for lymphatic biology. In this review, we will provide an overview of our current understanding of the lymphatic vessels in vertebrates, and discuss zebrafish as a promising in vivo model to study lymphatic vessels.

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Family in Cancer

  • Riaz, Syeda Kiran;Iqbal, Yasmeen;Malik, Muhammad Faraz Arshad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.1677-1682
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    • 2015
  • Cancer progression is attained by uncontrolled cell division and metastasis. Increase in tumor size triggers different vascular channel formation to address cell nutritional demands. These channels are responsible for transferring of nutrients and gaseous to the cancer cells. Cancer vascularization is regulated by numerous factors including vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs). These factors play an important role during embryonic development. Members included in this group are VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, PIGF and VEGFD which markedly influence cellular growth and apoptosis. Being freely diffusible these proteins act in both autocrine and paracrine fashions. In this review, genetic characterization these molecules and their putative role in cancer staging has been elaborated. Prognostic significance of these molecules along with different stages of cancer has also been summarized. Brief outline of ongoing efforts to target hot spot target sites against these VEGFs and their cognate limitations for therapeutic implications are also highlighted.

Comprehensive Analysis of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C Related Factors in Stomach Cancer

  • Liu, Yong-Chao;Zhao, Jing;Hu, Cheng-En;Gan, Jun;Zhang, Wen-Hong;Huang, Guang-Jian
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.1925-1929
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    • 2014
  • Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), which contributes to lymphatic metastasis (LM) in malignant disease, is one of the most important factors involved in physical and pathological lymphangiogenesis. Some VEGF-C related factors such as sine oculis homeobox homolog (SIX) 1, contactin (CNTN) 1 and dual specificity phosphatase (DUSP) 6 have been extensively studied in malignancies, but their expression levels and associations have still to be elucidated in stomach cancer. Methods: We detected their expression levels in 30 paired stomach cancer tissues using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression and clinical significance of each factor was analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. The correlation among all the factors was performed by Spearman rank correlation analysis. Results: The results suggest that VEGF-C and CNTN1 are significantly correlated with tumor size, SIX1 with the age and CNTN1 also with the cTNM stage. There are significant correlations of expression levels among VEGF-C, SIX1, CNTN1 and DUSP6. Conclusions: There exists an important regulatory crosstalk involving SIX1, VEGF-C, CNTN1 and DUSP6 in stomach cancer.

Alk3/Alk3b and Smad5 Mediate BMP Signaling during Lymphatic Development in Zebrafish

  • Kim, Jun-Dae;Kim, Jongmin
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.270-274
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    • 2014
  • Lymphatic vessels are essential to regulate interstitial fluid homeostasis and diverse immune responses. A number of crucial factors, such as VEGFC, SOX18, PROX1, FOX2C, and GJC2, have been implicated in differentiation and/or maintenance of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). In humans, dysregulation of these genes is known to cause lymphedema, a debilitating condition which adversely impacts the quality of life of affected individuals. However, there are no currently available pharmacological treatments for lymphedema, necessitating identification of additional factors modulating lymphatic development and function which can be targeted for therapy. In this report, we investigate the function of genes associated with Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling in lymphatic development using zebrafish embryos. The knock-down of BMP type II receptors, Bmpr2a and Bmpr2b, and type I receptors, Alk3 and Alk3b, as well as SMAD5, an essential cellular mediator of BMP signaling, led to distinct lymphatic defects in developing zebrafish. Therefore, it appears that each constituent of the BMP signaling pathway may have a unique function during lymphatic development. Taken together, our data demonstrate that BMP signaling is essential for normal lymphatic vessel development in zebrafish.

GENE EXPRESSION FOR LYMPHANGIOGENIC FACTORS IN ORAL MUCOSAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA (구강점막 편평상피세포암에서 림프관형성 유전자 발현)

  • Park, Young-Wook;Kim, Seong-Gon;Kim, So-Hee;Kim, Han-Seok;Kim, Min-Keun
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.453-460
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    • 2009
  • Background and Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, VEGF-D and their tyrosine kinase receptor, VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-3 are recently known to have lymphangiogenic activities in various tumor types. Oral mucosal squamous cell carcinoma (OMSCC) easily metastasizes to cervical lymph nodes, so we determined the expression levels of VEGF-C, VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: We performed Western blot analyses with 4 OMSCC cultured tumor cell lines (SCC9, KB, YD-10B, YD-38), and with 7 surgical specimens of OMSCC for the detection of VEGF-C, VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 proteins. Expression of VEGF-C mRNA as well as mRNA for VEGFR-3 in 4 OMSCC cell lines (KB, SCC-4, SCC-9, YD-10B) was investigated by RT-PCR. We also measured VEGFC/VEGF-D protein concentrations in the media and protein concentration of VEGFR-3 in cell lysates of 4 OMSCC cell lines (SCC9, KB, YD-10B, YD-38) using commerical ELISA kits. Finally, we performed immunoprecipitation for the detection of VEGF-C in cell lysates of 4 OMSCC cells (KB, SCC-4, SCC-9, YD-10B) and real-time RT-PCR for the quantification of VEGF-C mRNA. Results: In the result of Western blotting with cell lysates of 4 OMSCC cells, we could not detect the protein expression of VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and VEGFR-3. But, all tumor tissues demonstrated VEGF-C and VEGFR-3. VEGF-C mRNA was detected at various levels in 4 OMSCC cell lines. Moreover, OMSCC cells secreted VEGF-C, not VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 was also detected in cell lysates of OMSCC by ELISA. Immunoprecipitation and real-time RT-PCR revealed VEGF-C was also expressed in 4 OMSCC cell lines. Conclusion: Taken together, tumor cells of OMSCC secrete VEGF-C, not VEGF-D. And VEGFR-3 is expressed tumor cells as well as OMSCC tumor tissues, needs further study.