• Title, Summary, Keyword: VEGF

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VEGF-C and VEGF-D Expression and its Correlation with Lymph Node Metastasis in Esophageal Squamous Cell Cancer Tissue

  • Yang, Zeng;Wang, Yong-Gang;Su, Kai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.271-274
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    • 2015
  • Background: To explore vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and VEGF-D expression and its correlation with lymph node metastasis in esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) tissue. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical methods were applied to detect the levels of VEGF-C and VEGF-D expression in 64 surgicall removal ESCC tissues, tissues adjacent to cancer and normal tissues, and the relationship between VEGF-C and VEGF-D expression and lymph node metastasis was analyzed. Results: Both VEGF-C and VEGF-D were expressed by varying degrees in esophageal cancer tissue, the tissue adjacent to cancer and normal tissue, and the positive expression rate went down successively. The positive expression rates of VEGF-C (59.4%) and VEGF-D (43.8%) in esophageal cancer tissue were significantly higher than in the tissue adjacent to cancer (34.4%, 15.6%) and normal tissue (20.3%, 12.5%), respectively, in which significant differences were manifested (p<0.01). Positive expression rates of VEGF-C and VEGF-D in esophageal cancers with lymph node metastasis were markedly higher than without such metastasis (p<0.01), while those in the tissue with TNM staging I~II were markedly lower than that with TNM staging III~IV (p<0.01). Conclusions: Both VEGF-C and VEGF-D are highly expressed in ESCC tissue, which may be related to the lymph node metastasis of cancer cells. Hence, VEGF-C and VEGF-D can be clinically considered as important reference indexes of lymph node metastasis in esophageal cancer.

The Correlation between the Expression of E-cadherin, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and the Real Extent of Lymph Node Metastases using Cytokeratin 18 in Early Gastric Cancer (조기위암에서 E-cadherin, VEGF-C, VEGF-D의 발현과 Cytokeratin 18로 면역화학염색 한 림프절 전이와의 연관성)

  • Kim, Dae Hoon;Yun, Hyo Yung;Song, Young Jin;Ryu, Dong Hee;Min, In Choel;Sung, Rohyun;Lee, Sang Eok
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.70-78
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: VEGF-C and VEGF-D are angiogenetic factors, and abnormal expression of E-cadherin hasa role in the progression of gastric carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the expression of E-cadherin, VEGF-C and VEGF-D with the presence of lymph node metastases (LNM) using cytokeratin 18 in early gastric cancer (EGC). Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical staining for E-cadherin, VEGF-C and VEGF-D was performed in 49 EGC patients from March 1997 to December 2002. To evaluate the real extent of LNM, 1,562 lymph nodes from 49 patients were re-examined with the use of cytokeratin 18. Results: Eleven (0.7%) LNM were newly found in 12.2% (n=6) of patients. The real LNM rate was 3.6% in mucosal invasive (m) cancer and 38.1% in submucosal invasive (sm). Stage migration was seen in three patients (6.1%). Abnormal expression of E-cadherin was detected in 36.7% of the patients and expression of VEGF-C and VEGF-D was detected in 16.3% and 36.7% of the patients, respectively. Abnormal expression of E-cadherin was significantly correlated with tumor differentiation (P=0.0103) and Lauren classification (P<0.0001). There was no positive relationship of VEGF-C and VEGF-D expression with the clinicopathological findings for EGC including LNM. However, the frequency of lymph node metastases was significantly higher in patients that demonstrated abnormal expression of E-cadherin with positive immunoreactivity of VEGF-C or VEGF-D (P=0.031). Conclusion: In present study, we could not demonstrate a relationship between the presence of LNM and expression of VEGF-C and VEGF-D in EGC. However, VEGF-C or VEGF-D expression, in addition to the abnormal expression of E-cadherin, was correlated with the real extent of LNM in EGC.

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Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Acute Asthma (급성 천식환자에서 Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor와 Matrix Metalloproteinase-9)

  • Park, Kang-Seo;Jin, Hung-Yong;Choi, Eu-Gene;Lee, Heung-Bum;Rhee, Yang-Keun;Lee, Yong-Chul
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.530-539
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    • 2001
  • Background : Bronchial asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways that is associated with airway remodeling. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent, multifunctional cytokine that contributes to angiogenesis and inflammation. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a major proteolytic enzyme that in duces bronchial remodeling in asthma. However, there is no data available on the possible role of the VEGF or on the potential relationship between the VEGF and MMP-9 in acute asthma. Therefore, the VEGF was studied to determine whether or not it participates in airway inflammation during acute asthma. An additional aim of this study was to determine whether or not the VEGF levels correlated with the MMP-9 levels in the sputum of acute asthma patients. Methods: Both the VEGF and MMP-9 levels were measured by an enzyme immunoassay and zymographic analysis in the sputum of patients with either stable asthma or with acute asthma. The VEGF and MMP-9 levels were also evaluated during a spontaneous asthma attack. Results : The VEGF levels were significantly higher in the sputum of acute asthmatic patients than in either the stable patients the control subjects. The VEGF levels in the sputum during asthma exacerbation were significantly higher than those on the remission days, and those levels decreased after asthma therapy. In acute asthmatic patients, the VEGF levels in the sputum correlated with the number of neutrophils and eosinophils. In addition, a significant correlation was established between the VEGF and MMP-9 levels in the sputum. Conclusion : These results suggest that VEGF overproduction is associated with airway inflammation during acute asthma and is related to the MMP-9 function.

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GENE EXPRESSION FOR LYMPHANGIOGENIC FACTORS IN ORAL MUCOSAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA (구강점막 편평상피세포암에서 림프관형성 유전자 발현)

  • Park, Young-Wook;Kim, Seong-Gon;Kim, So-Hee;Kim, Han-Seok;Kim, Min-Keun
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.453-460
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    • 2009
  • Background and Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, VEGF-D and their tyrosine kinase receptor, VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-3 are recently known to have lymphangiogenic activities in various tumor types. Oral mucosal squamous cell carcinoma (OMSCC) easily metastasizes to cervical lymph nodes, so we determined the expression levels of VEGF-C, VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: We performed Western blot analyses with 4 OMSCC cultured tumor cell lines (SCC9, KB, YD-10B, YD-38), and with 7 surgical specimens of OMSCC for the detection of VEGF-C, VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 proteins. Expression of VEGF-C mRNA as well as mRNA for VEGFR-3 in 4 OMSCC cell lines (KB, SCC-4, SCC-9, YD-10B) was investigated by RT-PCR. We also measured VEGFC/VEGF-D protein concentrations in the media and protein concentration of VEGFR-3 in cell lysates of 4 OMSCC cell lines (SCC9, KB, YD-10B, YD-38) using commerical ELISA kits. Finally, we performed immunoprecipitation for the detection of VEGF-C in cell lysates of 4 OMSCC cells (KB, SCC-4, SCC-9, YD-10B) and real-time RT-PCR for the quantification of VEGF-C mRNA. Results: In the result of Western blotting with cell lysates of 4 OMSCC cells, we could not detect the protein expression of VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and VEGFR-3. But, all tumor tissues demonstrated VEGF-C and VEGFR-3. VEGF-C mRNA was detected at various levels in 4 OMSCC cell lines. Moreover, OMSCC cells secreted VEGF-C, not VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 was also detected in cell lysates of OMSCC by ELISA. Immunoprecipitation and real-time RT-PCR revealed VEGF-C was also expressed in 4 OMSCC cell lines. Conclusion: Taken together, tumor cells of OMSCC secrete VEGF-C, not VEGF-D. And VEGFR-3 is expressed tumor cells as well as OMSCC tumor tissues, needs further study.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibits irradiation-induced Apoptosis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (혈관내피세포에서 Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor가 방사선에 의해 유도된 apoptosis에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee Song Jae;Kim Dong-Yun
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.165-174
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    • 2002
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been identified as a peptide growth factor specific for vascular endothelial cells. In this study, we examined the effect of VEGF on radiation induced apoptosis and receptor/second messenger signal transduction pathway for VEGF effect in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). VEGF was found to protect HUVECs against the lethal effects of ionizing radiation by inhibiting the apoptosis induced in these cells by radiation exposure. VEGF (1-30 ng/ml) dose dependently inhibited apoptosis by irradiation. Pre-treatment with Flt-1 and Flk-l/KDR receptor blocked the VEGF-in duced antiapoptotic effect. Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-kinase) specific inhibitor, Wortman in and LY294002, blocked the VEGF-induced antiapoptotic effect. These data suggest that VEGF may play an important role in survival of HUVECs due to the prevention of apoptotic cell death caused by some stresses such as ionizing radiation.

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Prognostic Value of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Resected Gastric Cancer

  • Liu, Lei;Ma, Xue-Lei;Xiao, Zhi-Lan;Li, Mei;Cheng, Si-Hang;Wei, Yu-Quan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3089-3097
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    • 2012
  • Background and Aims: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potential prognostic biomarker for patients with resected gastric cancer. However, its role remains controversial. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature. Methods: Relevant literature was identified using Medline and survival data from published studies were collected following a methodological assessment. Quality assessment of eligible studies and meta-analysis of hazard ratio (HR) were performed to review the correlation of VEGF overexpression with survival and recurrence in patients with gastric cancer. Results: Our meta-analysis included 44 published studies with 4,794 resected patients. VEGF subtype for the prediction of overall survival (OS) included tissue VEGF (HR=2.13, 95% CI 1.71-2.65), circulating VEGF (HR=4.22, 95% CI 2.47-7.18), tissue VEGF-C (HR=2.21, 95% CI 1.58-3.09), tissue VEGF-D (HR=1.73, 95% CI 1.25-2.40). Subgroup analysis showed that HRs of tissue VEGF for OS were, 1.78 (95% CI 0.90-3.51) and 2.31 (95% CI 1.82-2.93) in non-Asians and Asians, respectively. The meta-analysis was also conducted for disease free survival (DFS) and disease specific survival (DSS). Conclusion: Positive expression of tissue VEGF, circulating VEGF, VEGF-C and VEGF-D were all associated with poor prognosis in resected gastric cancer. However, VEGF demonstrated no significant prognostic value for non-Asian populations. Circulating VEGF may be better than tissue VEGF in predicting prognosis.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Upregulates Follistatin in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

  • Oh, In-Suk;Kim, Hwan-Gyu
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.201-206
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    • 2004
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), plays a key role in angiogenesis. Many endogenous factors can affect angiogenesis in endothelial cells. VEGF is known to be a strong migration, sprouting, survival, and proliferation factor for endothelial cells during angiogenesis in endothelial cells. Searching for novel genes involved in VEGF signaling during angiogenesis, we carried out differential display polymerase chain reaction on RNA from VEGF-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In this study, follistatin (FS) differentially expressed in VEGF-treated HUVECs, compared with controls. Addition of VEGF (10ng/L) produced an approximately 11.8-fold increase of FS mRNA. F5 or VEGF produced approximately 1.8- or 2.9-fold increases, respectively, in matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) secretion for 12h, compared to the addition of a control buffer. We suggest that VEGF may affect the angiogenic effect of HUVECs, through a combination of the direct effects of VEGF itself, and the indirect effects mediated via induction of FS in vitro.

Pharmacokinetics and Biodistribution in Mice of pCK-VEGF Expressing Human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (마우스에서 VEGF발현 Naked DNA 벡터인 pCK-VEGF의 약동력학 및 조직내 분포)

  • 도현미;고준일;이종진;손미원;조홍찬;김종묵;김병문;김선영
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2001
  • We recently developed a high efficiency expression vectors pCK, which drives a high level of gene expression in the skeletal muscles of mice. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of pCK-VEGF expressing human VEGF165 after intravenous or intramuscular administration. The quantity of pCK-VEGF in the tissues of mice was measured by the PCR method which has a detection limit of approximately 1 pg of the exogenously added plasmid. In the case of intravenous administration, the half life of the pCK-VEGF plasmid in the bloodstream was 1.68 min. After intra-muscular administration, the half life of pCK-VEGF plasmid in the bloodstream was 6.78 min. At 90 min post-administration, 30% of the injected pCK-VEGF was found at the site of injection, where it persisted for up to 8 hours. Less than 1.6% of the injected pCK-VEGF plasmid DNA was detected in highly vascularized tissues such as the lung, kidney; and liver at 90 min post-administration, but the plasmid was undetectable at later time points. These results suggested that intramuscularly administrated pCK-VEGF persisted for longer periods of time in muscles than in other tissues and that direct intra-muscular injection of pCK-VEGF might be useful for local therapeutic angiogenesis.

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Sanguiin H-6 Blocks Endothelial Cell Growth through Inhibition of VEGF Binding to VEGF Receptor

  • Lee Sung-Jin;Lee Hak-Kyo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1270-1274
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    • 2005
  • The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in angiogenesis, which is a process where new blood vessels develop from the endothelium of a pre-existing vasculature. VEGF exerts its activity by binding to its receptor tyrosine kinase, KDR/Flk-1, which is expressed on the surface of endothelial cells. A methanol extract and organic solvent (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, aqueous) fractions from Rubus coreanus were examined for their inhibitory effects on VEGF binding to the VEGF receptor. The methanol extract from the crude drug were found to significantly inhibit VEGF binding to the VEGF receptor ($IC_{50}$$\thickapprox$27 $\mu$g/mL). Among the fractions examined, the aqueous fraction from the medicinal plant showed potent inhibitory effects against the binding of KDR/Flk-1-Fc to immobilized $VEGF_{165}$ in a dose­dependent manner ($IC_{50}$$\thickapprox$11 $\mu$g/mL). Sanguiin H-6 was isolated as an active principle from the aqueous fraction, and inhibited the binding of KDR/Flk-1-Fc to immobilized $VEGF_{165}$ in a dose­dependent manner ($IC_{50}$$\thickapprox$0.3 $\mu$g/mL). In addition, sanguiin H-6 efficiently blocked the VEGF­induced HUVEC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner ($IC_{50}$$\thickapprox$7.4 $\mu$g/mL) but had no effect on the growth of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. This suggests that sanguiin H-6 might be a potential anti-angiogenic agent.

Clinical Significance of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Patients with Lung Cancer and Tuberculous Pleurisy (폐암 및 결핵성 흉막염에서 Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor의 임상적 의의)

  • Im, Byoung-Kook;Oh, Yoou-Jung;Sheen, Seung-Soo;Lee, Keu-Sung;Park, Kwang-Joo;Hwang, Sung-Chul;Lee, Yi-Hyeong;Choi, Jin-Hyuk;Lim, Ho-Young
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.171-181
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    • 2001
  • Background : Angiogenesis is an essential process for the growth and metastatic ability of solid tumors. One of the key factors known to be capable of stimulating tumor angiogenesis is the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The serum VEGF concentration has been shown to be a useful parameter related to the clinical features and prognosis of lung cancer and has been recently applied to a the malignant pleural effusion showing a correlation with the biochemical parameters. The VEGF has been shown to play a role in the inflammatory diseases, but rarely in the tuberculosis (TB). The serum and pleural fluid VEGF levels were measured in patients with lung cancer and TB. Their relationship with the clinical and laboratory parameters and repeated measurement 3 months after various anticancer treatments were evaluated to assess the utility of the VEGF as a tumor marker. Methods : Using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the VEGF conoentration was measured in both sera and pleural effusions collected from a total of 85 patients with lung cancer, 13 patients with TB and 20 healthy individuals. Results : The serum VEGF levels in patients with lung cancer ($619.9{\pm}722.8pg/ml$) were significantly higher than those of healthy controls ($215.9{\pm}191.1pg/ml$), However, there was no significant difference between the VEGF levels in the lung cancer and TB patients. The serum VEGF levels were higher in large cell and undifferentiated carcinoma than in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The serum VEGF levels of lung cancer patients revealed no significant relationship with the various clinical parameters. The VEGF concentrations in the malignant effusion ($2,228.1{\pm}2,103.0pg/ml$) were significantly higher than those in the TB effusion ($897.6{\pm}978.8pg/ml$). In the malignant pleural effusion, the VEGF levels revealed significant correlation with the number of red blood cells (r=0.75), the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)(r=0.70), and glucose concentration (r=-0.55) in the pleural fluid. Conclusion : The serum VEGF levels were higher in the lung cancer patients. The VEGF levels were more elevated in the malignant pleural effusion than in the tuberculous effusion. In addition, the VEGF levels in the pleural fluid were several times higher than the matched serum values suggesting a local activation and possible etiologic role of VEGF in the formation of malignant effusions. The pleural VEGF levels showed a significant correlation with the numbers of red blood cells, LDH and glucose concentrations in the pleural fluid, which may represent the tumor burden.

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