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Evaluating Plant Uptake of Veterinary Antibiotics with Hydroponic Method

  • Park, Saet Byel;Kim, Sun Ju;Kim, Sung Chul
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.242-250
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    • 2016
  • Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) has been used to treat animal disease and to increase animal weight as growth promoter. However, abused usage of VAs can cause production of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment and additionally, residual of VAs in soil can be transferred into crops. Therefore, main objective of this research was to examine bioaccumulation of VAs in sprouts (red cabbage, Brassica Olearacea L. var. Capitata f. rubra and red radish, Raphanus sativus) with hydroponic method. Total of 7 VAs in 2 different classes of VAs (tetracyclcines: tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, sulfonamides: sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethazine, sulfamethiazole, macrolides: tylosin) were evaluated and experiment was conducted with solid phase extraction (SPE)/high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). Initial spiked concentration of 7 VAs was $5mg\;L^{-1}$ and cultivation period was 8 days. Result showed that growth of sprouts was inhibited about 23-27% when VAs was introduced. Amount of bioaccumulated VAs was also differed depending on class of VAs. The highest amount of bioaccmulated VAs was tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole in each class with a concentration of 4.05, $7.73mg\;kg^{-1}$ respectively. Calculated transfer ratio of VAs into crops was also ranged 0.38-54.27%. Overall, bioaccumulation of VAs in crops can be varied depending on crop species and class of VAs. However, further research should be conducted to verify bioaccumulation of VAs in crops in the soil environment.

Relationship of neck disability index, shoulder pain and disability index, and visual analogue scale in individuals with chronic neck pain

  • Hwang, Sujin;Mun, Mee-Hyang
    • Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.111-114
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    • 2013
  • Objective: Several muscles surrounding neck are vital not only for neck motion, but for upper extremities motions as well. Neck pain would affect neck and shoulder disability. The Neck Disability Index (NDI), Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) are increasingly used to evaluate treatment effectiveness after chronic neck pain. The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation of neck pain, shoulder pain, and quality of life in patients with chronic neck pain. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Forty-three patients with neck pain participated in this study. Participants were instructed to place a mark on each item of three clinical measures that best represented their experience of his/her neck and shoulder problem over the last week. The outcome measures of the study were NDI, SPADI, and VAS for neck and shoulder pain and disability. Results: The NDI was significantly correlated with the VAS-Neck, SPADI-Pain, SPADI-Disability, SPADI-Total, and VAS-Shoulder (p<0.05). The VAS-Neck was significantly correlated with the VAS-Neck, SPADI-Pain, SPADI-Disability, SPADI-Total, and VAS-Shoulder (p<0.05). The SPADI-Total was significantly correlated with the NDI, VAS-Neck, SPADI-Pain, SPADI-Disability, and VAS-Shoulder (p<0.05). The SPADI-Pain was significantly correlated with the NDI, VAS-Neck, SPADI-Disability, SPADI-Total, and VAS-Shoulder (p<0.05). The SPADI-Disability was significantly correlated with the NDI, VAS-Neck, SPADI-Total, SPADI-Pain, and VAS-Shoulder (p<0.05). The VAS-Shoulder was significantly correlated with the NDI, VAS-Neck, SPADI-Pain, SPADI-Disability, and SPADI-Total (p<0.05). Conclusions: Neck disability in patients with chronic neck pain should be considered with disability and pain of the shoulder.

A Clinical Pilot Study Comparing Sweet Bee Venom parallel treatment with only Acupuncture Treatment in patient diagnosed with lumbar spine sprain (요추부 염좌로 진단받은 환자에 대한 Sweet Bee Venom 병행 치료와 단독 침 치료의 효과 비교)

  • Shin, Yong-Jeen
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : This study was carried out to compare the Sweet Bee Venom (referred to as Sweet BV hereafter) acupuncture parallel treatment to treatment with acupuncture only for the patient diagnosed with lumbar spine sprain and find a better treatment. Methods : The subjects were patients diagnosed with lumbar spine sprain and hospitalized at Suncheon oriental medical hospital, which was randomly divided into sweet BV parallel treatment group and acupuncture-only group, and other treatment conditions were maintained the same. Then, VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) was used to compare the difference in the treatment period between the two groups from VAS 10 to VAS 0, from VAS 10 to VAS 5, and from VAS 5 to VAS 0. Result & Conclusion : Sweet BV parallel treatment group and acupuncture-only treatment group were compared regarding the respective treatment period, and as the result, the treatment period from VAS 10 to VAS 5 was significantly reduced in sweet BV parallel treatment group compared to the acupuncture-only treatment group, but the treatment period from VAS 5 to VAS 0 did not show a significant difference. Therefore, it can be said that sweet BV parallel treatment is effective in shortening the treatment period and controlling early pain compared to acupuncture-only treatment.

Estimating Predicted Environmental Concentration of Veterinary Antibiotics in Manure and Soil

  • Kwon, A-Young;Kim, Sung Chul
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.100-104
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    • 2015
  • Adverse effect of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) released into environment has been issued recently and concerns about analysis and management for VAs in the environment were increased. Main objective of this research was to calculate predicted environmental concentration (PEC) of the VAs in soil based on avaiable statistical data and result of previous study such as consumption rate and physiological properties of VAs. Total of 5 VAs, Chlortetracycline (CTC), Oxytetracycline (OTC), Sulfadimethoxine (SDX), Sulfamethazine (SMT), and Tylosin (TYL) were examined. Result showed that calculated PEC value in manure and soil was ordered as SMT > TYL > SDX > CTC > OTC. Range of calculated value for manure and soil was 0.50-67.04 and $0.48-64.45mg\;kg^{-1}$ respectively. Comparing to measured concentration of VAs in manure and soil, lower concentration of VAs in manure and soil was evaluated due to fate and degradation of VAs in manure and soil. Overall, evaluated simple modeling for calculating PEC of VAs in manure and soil can be adapted for preliminary screening purpose in environmental risk assessment and more refined modeling is necessary to examine detailed assessment of VAs in manure and soil.

The evaluation of usefulness for far-infrared radiating under inner-wear on dysmenorrhea (월경통(月經痛)에 대한 원적외선 방사 기능성 under inner-wear의 유용성 평가)

  • Cho, Jung-Hoon;Lee, Kyung-Sub;Yoon, Young-Jin
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.129-136
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: We intended to observe the usefulness of far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear for dysmenorrhea. Methods: We introduced far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear to women in childbearing-age by internet portal site. Then, we preliminarily examined dysmenorrhea severity by VAS(visual analogue scale) questionnaire to women interested in far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear. We selected women scored 5 and above of 10 measurement VAS score. Finally, 121 women were the subject of study and used far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear for one menstrual cycle. Before and after use of far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear, we conducted a questionnaire survey of dysmenorrhea severity by VAS. After that, we compared VAS score before and after use. Also, we studied correlation between frequency of far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear use and ${\Delta}VAS$(VAS score before use minus VAS score after use). For statistics, we used Paired samples test and Spearman's rho correlations, SPSS 13.0 for windows. Results: Before and after use of far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear, VAS score means were different. Frequency of far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear use was correlated to ${\Delta}VAS$. Statistically they showed significant result (p<0.05>. Conclusion: The results showed that dysmenorrhea severity by VAS decreased after far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear use. As frequency of use increased, ${\Delta}VAS$ increased. So we can consider far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear effects dysmenorrhea severity.

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Long-term Results of Stellate Ganglion Block in Patients with Olfactory Dysfunction

  • Moon, Ho Sik;Chon, Jin Young;Lee, Sang Hoon;Ju, Yu Mi;Sung, Choon Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.57-61
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    • 2013
  • Background: Olfactory dysfunction, including anosmia and hyposmia is difficult to treat. Although the mechanism is not well known, stellate ganglion block (SGB) is used to treat olfactory dysfunction. There are no prior studies on the long-term effects of SGB on olfactory dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the continuity of therapeutic effects and patient satisfaction with SGB treatment. Methods: This was a follow-up study carried out via a telephonic survey. The olfactory function of the patient was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS). We checked VAS three times: VAS-I (pre-treatment VAS), VAS-A (post-treatment VAS), and VAS-C (VAS at follow up telephone survey). We divided the subjects into 2 groups according to their responsiveness to SGB: the responsive (R group) and the unresponsive groups (UR group). Patient satisfaction was evaluated using a Likert scale. Results: Out of the 40 subjects, 37 responded to the telephone survey. In the UR group, there was difference in the olfactory function. However, in the R group, there were significant VAS differences; VAS-I was $9.6{\pm}0.7$, VAS-A was $5.1{\pm}4.2$, and VAS-C was $2.7{\pm}$2.7 (P < 0.05). On the Likert scale, patient satisfaction was as follows: grade 1, 17 patients (45.9%); grade 2, 6 patients (16.2%); grade 3, 6 patients (16.2%); and grade 4, 8 patients (21.6%). Conclusions: SGB is a safe, long-lasting, and effective therapeutic modality for olfactory dysfunction treatment.

The clinical observation of 1 case of the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (소염약침으로 치료한 복합부위통증증후군(CRPS) type I 환자 1례 증례보고)

  • Lee, Eun-Jung;Yoon, Il-Ji
    • Journal of Haehwa Medicine
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2009
  • Objective: The objective of this study is to observe the effect of anti-inflammatory herbal acupuncture on the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Methods : Anti-inflammatory herbal acupuncture, A-Shi Point, Sa-am acupunture were used to treat shoulder pain & ROM(range of movement)disorder, chest pain, finger's causalgic pain. We evaluated the patient through VAS(Visual Analog Scale) daily and Physical Examinations Results & Conclusions : After 42days of treatment, shoulder pain was decreased from VAS10 to VAS3, chest pain was decreased from VAS10 to VAS1.5, finger's causalgic pain was decreased from VAS10 to VAS2.5. and the patient showed that the ROM(range of movement) of shoulder was better, oriental treatment is good method for pain relief and better movement.

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Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Hot Flush Relief Efficacy and Safety of Yiseontang-gami in Climacteric Women with Hot Flushes (갱년기 여성의 안면홍조에 대한 이선탕가미방(二仙湯加味方)의 증상 완화 효과 및 안전성 평가를 위한 임상연구)

  • Jung, Su-Kyoung;Kim, Dong-Il
    • Journal of Oriental Medical Thermology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: To evaluate the hot flush relief efficacy of Yiseontang-gami in climacteric women with hot flushes, a vasomotor symptom. Methods: The 20 subjects who signing on the clinical trial written consent by self-will is registered this clinical trial after decided suitable by selection and exception standard, after take a medical experiment and checkup according to clinical trial plan. Registered subject should valuated by settled schedule after take the testing medicine(Yiseontang-gami)during thirty-day. The evaluating indexes of this trial are hot flush VAS, hot flush frequency, hot flush consistence time, sweating VAS, palpitation VAS, sleep disturbance VAS, MRS, MENQOL, PGA. Results: The results were as follows 1. 4 subjects dropped out of the clinical trial and 16 subjects completed it. 2. After Yiseontang-gami treatment, hot flush VAS, hot flush frequent, sweating VAS, Palpitation VAS, sleep disturbance VAS improved significantly. 3. After Yiseontang-gami treatment, hot flush consistence time was not improved significantly. 4. After Yiseontang-gami treatment, blood test value were not different significantly. Conclusion: In this clinical trial we consider that Yiseontang-gami is suitable treatment for the hot flushes and related symptoms.

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Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Hot Flush Relief Efficacy and Safety of Yiseontang-gami in Climacteric Women with Hot Flushes (갱년기 여성의 안면홍조에 대한 이선탕가미방(二仙湯加味方)의 증상완화 효과 및 안전성 평가를 위한 임상연구)

  • Jung, Su-Kyoung;Kim, Dong-Il
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.75-89
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: To evaluate the hot flush relief efficacy of Yiseontang-gami in climacteric women with hot flushes, a vasomotor symptom. Methods: The 20 subjects who signing on the clinical trial written consent by self-will is registered this clinical trial after decided suitable by selection and exception standard, after take a medical experiment and checkup according to clinical trial plan. Registered subject should valuated by settled schedule after take the testing medicine(Yiseontang-gami)during thirty-day. The evaluating indexes of this trial are hot flush VAS, hot flush frequency, hot flush consistence time, sweating VAS, palpitation VAS, sleep disturbance VAS, MRS, MENQOL, PGA. Results: The results were as follows 1. 4 subjects dropped out of the clinical trial and 16 subjects completed it. 2. After Yiseontang-gami treatment, hot flush VAS, hot flush frequent, sweating VAS. Palpitation VAS, sleep disturbance VAS improved significantly. 3. After Yiseontang-gami treatment, hot flush consistence time was not improved significantly. 4. After Yiseontang-gami treatment, blood test value were not different significantly. Conclusion: In this clinical trial we consider that Yiseontang-gami is suitable treatment for the hot flushes and related symptoms.

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Measuring Utility Weights with VAS, TTO and EQ-5D for Severe Stomach Cancer (VAS(Visual Analogue Scale), TTO(Time Trade-Off), EQ-5D(EuroQol-5 Dimension) 방법을 이용한 중증위암의 효용가중치 측정)

  • Kim, Hyun-Jeong;Rhee, Jinn-Ie;Lee, Eui-Kyung
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.176-181
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    • 2008
  • Stomach cancer shows the highest incidence among cancer patients in Korea and it deteriorates the patients' health-related quality of life considerably. This study measured utility weights of severe stomach cancer symptoms using VAS (Visual Analogue Scale), TTO (Time-trade Off) and EQ-5D (EuroQol-5 Dimension) methods. A survey questionnaire was developed to describe the symptoms of severe stomach cancer comprehensively and concisely using VAS, TTO and EQ-5D. A face-to-face interview was conducted for 21 cancer inpatients in a hospital and 25 non-patients. The mean utility weight is 0.498 for VAS, 0.375 for EQ-5D and 0.300 for TTO. Using VAS or TTO methods, there were no statistically significant differences between patients and non-patients while there was significant difference in EQ-5D. The utility weight with VAS and EQ-5D has shown similar trend - higher score in patient group, male and aged while it has opposite trend with TTO.