• Title, Summary, Keyword: V600E mutation

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Sensitivity and Usefulness of VE1 Immunohistochemical Staining in Acral Melanomas with BRAF Mutation

  • Suh, Min Song;Choi, Yoo Duk;Lee, Jee-Bum;Lee, Seung-Chul;Won, Young Ho;Yun, Sook Jung
    • Annals of dermatology
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.556-561
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    • 2018
  • Background: Acral melanomas are known to have a low frequency of BRAF mutation, in contrary to higher KIT mutation. Recently, VE1 immunostaining was reported to have a good correlation with BRAF mutation status. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological features of BRAF-mutated acral melanomas and validate the correlation of the VE1 immunohistochemical stains in those cases. Methods: The clinical features (age, sex, anatomical site), and histopathological characteristics of 41 patients with acral melanoma were evaluated. We performed a next-generation sequencing to detect BRAF mutation status. We also determined the correlation of VE1 immunohistochemical staining with BRAF mutation status. Results: Among 19 acral melanomas with BRAF mutation, common histopathological subtype was acral lentiginous melanoma (8/19, 42%) and nodular melanoma (8/19, 42%) and superficial spreading melanoma (3/19, 16%) followed. VE1 immunostaining results were positive in all 15 cases with BRAF V600E mutation (sensitivity 100%), and negative in 4 cases of BRAF non-V600E mutation. However, VE1 immunostaining was negative in all 22 patients with BRAF wild-type. Conclusion: VE1 immunostaining had a good correlation with BRAF V600E mutation status.

Analysis of Differential BRAFV600E Mutational Status in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

  • Jang, Hye-Lim;Kim, Tai-Jeon;Shin, Jae-Ho;Kim, Chul
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 2012
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid cancer, accounting for 95% or more of malignancies in Korea. Recently, many thyroid cancers have been detected owing to the widespread use of ultrasonography in health surveillance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of known prognostic factors with the $BRAF^{V600E}$ mutation and its association features in Korean patients with papillary thyroid carcinomas. The $BRAF^{V600E}$ mutation was detected in 69.1% (256 of 370) of PTC cases. In univariate analysis, the $BRAF^{V600E}$ mutation was significantly associated with tumor size (p < 0.05) and sex. However, it was not significantly associated with other established risk factors, such as age, extrathyroidal extension, and lymph node metastasis. This finding supports the idea that the BRAF mutation plays a role in the early stage of PTC development. This relationship deserves further investigation to clarify whether $BRAF^{V600E}$ is a useful risk factor or prognostic marker for PTC.

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BRAFV600E Mutation is a Strong Preoperative Indicator for Predicting Malignancy in Thyroid Nodule Patients with Atypia of Undetermined Significance Identified by Fine Needle Aspiration (세침흡인검사 결과 Atypia of Undetermined Significance로 진단된 갑상선 결절에서 악성을 예측할 수 있는 위험인자)

  • Choi, Hye Rang;Choi, Bo-Yoon;Cho, Jae Hoon;Lim, Young Chang
    • Korean Journal of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
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    • v.61 no.11
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    • pp.600-604
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    • 2018
  • Background and Objectives This study aimed to identify a reliable preoperative predictive factor for the development of thyroid cancer in patients with atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) identified by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Subjects and Method This was a retrospective cohort study. Two hundred and ninety-nine patients diagnosed with AUS by preoperative FNAB who underwent curative thyroid surgery at our institution between September 2005 and February 2014 were analyzed. Clinical, radiological and molecular features were investigated as preoperative predictors for postoperative permanent malignant pathology. Results The final pathologic results revealed 36 benign tumors including nodular hyperplasia, follicular adenoma, adenomatous goiter, nontoxic goiter, and lymphocytic thyroiditis, as well as 263 malignant tumors including 1 follicular carcinoma and 1 invasive follicular carcinoma; the rest were papillary thyroid carcinomas. The malignancy rate was 87.9%. The following were identified as risk factors for malignancy by univariate analysis: $BRAF^{V600E}$ gene mutation, specific ultrasonographic findings including smaller nodule size, low echogenicity of the nodule, and irregular or spiculated margin (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that only $BRAF^{V600E}$ mutation was a statistically significant risk factor for malignancy (p<0.05). When $BRAF^{V600E}$ mutation was positive, 98.5% of enrolled patients developed malignant tumors. In addition, the diagnostic rate of malignancy in these cases was approximately 16-fold higher than BRAF-negative cases. Conclusion Patients with AUS thyroid nodules should undergo $BRAF^{V600E}$ gene mutation analysis to improve diagnostic accuracy and if the mutation is confirmed, surgery is recommended due to the high risk of malignancy.

BRAF Mutations in Iranian Patients with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

  • Ranjbari, Nastran;Almasi, Sara;Mohammadi-asl, Javad;Rahim, Fakher
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.2521-2523
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    • 2013
  • Background: Papillary thyroid cancer or papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid cancer. The fact that it occasionally occurs in women aged 30-40 years old suggests that genetic alterations are involved its genesis. Recently, activator mutations in BRAF gene have been relatively frequently discovered. Materials and Methods: In this study, we tested 63 DNA samples from PTC patients to identify the V600E mutation frequency in the Ahvaz population. DNA was isolated from formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) PTC tumor tissues. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP and confirmed by direct DNA sequencing of a subset of PCR products. PCR-RFLP data were reported as genotype frequencies and percentages. Results: Forty nine out of 63 patients (77.8%) had a mutated heterozygote form while 14 (22.2%) showed normal genotype but none demonstrated a mutant homozygote genotype. The frequency of V600E mutation was significantly high in PTC patients. Conclusions: These findings support involvement of V600E mutations in PTC occurrence in Iran. Assessment of correlations between BRAF V600E mutations and papillary thyroid cancer progression needs to be performed.

BRAF-Mutated Colorectal Cancer Exhibits Distinct Clinicopathological Features from Wild-Type BRAF-Expressing Cancer Independent of the Microsatellite Instability Status

  • Jang, Min Hye;Kim, Sehun;Hwang, Dae Yong;Kim, Wook Youn;Lim, So Dug;Kim, Wan Seop;Hwang, Tea Sook;Han, Hye Seung
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.38-46
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    • 2017
  • In patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), the BRAF V600E mutation has been reported to be associated with several clinicopathological features and poor survival. However, the prognostic implications of BRAF V600E mutation and the associated clinicopathological characteristics in CRCs remain controversial. Therefore, we reviewed various clinicopathological features, including BRAF status, in 349 primary CRCs and analyzed the relationship between BRAF status and various clinicopathological factors, including overall survival. Similar to previous studies conducted in Eastern countries, the incidence of the BRAF V600E mutation in the current study was relatively low (5.7%). BRAF-mutated CRC exhibits distinct clinicopathological features from wild-type BRAF-expressing cancer independent of the microsatellite instability (MSI) status. This mutation was significantly associated with a proximal tumor location (P = 0.002); mucinous, signet ring cell, and serrated tumor components (P < 0.001, P = 0.003, and P = 0.008, respectively); lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.004); a peritumoral lymphoid reaction (P = 0.009); tumor budding (P = 0.046); and peritoneal seeding (P = 0.012). In conclusion, the incidence of the BRAF V600E mutation was relatively low in this study. BRAF-mutated CRCs exhibited some clinicopathological features which were also frequently observed in MSI-H CRCs, such as a proximal location; mucinous, signet ring cell, and serrated components; and marked peritumoral lymphoid reactions.

Expression of Sodium-Iodide Symporter Depending on Mutational Status and Lymphocytic Thyroiditis in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

  • Song, Young Shin;Park, Young Joo
    • International journal of thyroidology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.152-159
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    • 2018
  • Background and Objectives: Sodium-iodine symporter (NIS) is a marker for the degree of differentiation in thyroid cancer. The genetic factors or microenvironment surrounding tumors can affect transcription of NIS. In this study, we investigated the NIS mRNA expression according to mutational status and coexistent lymphocytic thyroiditis in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Materials and Methods: The RNA expression levels of NIS in the samples from database of The Caner Genome Atlas (TCGA; n=494) and our institute (n=125) were analyzed. Results: The PTCs with the $BRAF^{V600E}$ mutation and the coexistence of $BRAF^{V600E}$ and TERT promoter mutations showed significantly lower expression of NIS (p<0.001, respectively), and those with BRAF-like molecular subtype also had reduced expression of NIS (p<0.001). NIS expression showed a positive correlation with thyroid differentiation score (r=0.593, p<0.001) and negative correlations with expressions of genes involved in ERK signaling (r=-0.164, p<0.001) and GLUT-1 gene (r=-0.204, p<0.001). The PTCs with lymphocytic thyroiditis showed significantly higher NIS expression (p=0.013), regardless of mutational status. Conclusion: The NIS expression was reduced by the $BRAF^{V600E}$ mutation and MAPK/ERK pathway activation, but restored by the presence of lymphocytic thyroiditis.

Treatment of Vemurafenib-Resistant SKMEL-28 Melanoma Cells with Paclitaxel

  • Nguyen, Dinh Thang;Phan, Tuan Nghia;Kumasaka, Mayuko Y.;Yajima, Ichiro;Kato, Masashi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.699-705
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    • 2015
  • Vemurafenib has recently been used as drug for treatment of melanomas with $BRAF^{V600E}$ mutation. Unfortunately, treatment with only vemurafenib has not been sufficiently effective, with recurrence after a short period. In this study, three vemurafenib-resistant $BRAF^{V600E}$ melanoma cell lines, $A375P^R$, $A375M^R$ and SKMEL-$28^R$, were established from the original A375P, A375M and SKMEL-28 cell lines. Examination of the molecular mechanisms showed that the phosphorylation levels of MEK and ERK, which play key roles in the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway, were reduced in these three cell lines, with increased phosphorylation levels of pAKTs limited to SKMEL-$28^R$ cells. Treatment of SKMEL-$28^R$ cells with 100 nM paclitaxel resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased cellular proliferation, invasion and colony formation via reduction of expression levels of EGFR and pAKTs. Moreover, vemurafenib-induced pAKTs in SKMEL-$28^R$ were decreased by treatment with an AKT inhibitor, MK-2206. Taken together, our results revealed that resistance mechanisms of $BRAF^{V600E}$-mutation melanoma cells to vemurafenib depended on the cell type. Our results suggested that paclitaxel should be considered as a drug in combination with vemurafenib to treat melanoma cells.

Mechanism of Resistance and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition of BRAF(V600E) Mutation Thyroid Anaplastic Cancer to BRAF(V600E) Inhibition Through Feedback Activation of EGFR (BRAF(V600E) 돌연변이 갑상선 역형성암에서 BRAF(V600E) 억제에 의한 EGFR 발현 증가가 표적치료에 대한 저항성발현과 상피-간질세포이행과정에 미치는 영향분석)

  • Byeon, Hyung Kwon;Na, Hwi Jung;Yang, Yeon Ju;Park, Jae Hong;Kwon, Hyeong Ju;Chang, Jae Won;Ban, Myung Jin;Kim, Won Shik;Shin, Dong Yeob;Lee, Eun Jig;Koh, Yoon Woo;Choi, Eun Chang
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.53-61
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    • 2014
  • Background and Objectives : Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma(ATC) is a rare but highly aggressive thyroid malignancy that is associated with an extremely poor survival despite the best multidisciplinary care. BRAF(V600E) mutation is detected in about a quarter of ATC, but unlike its high treatment response to selective BRAF inhibitor (PLX4032) in metastatic melanoma, the treatment response of ATC is reported to be low. The purpose of this study is to investigate the innate resistance mechanism responsible for this low treatment response to BRAF inhibitor and its effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT). Materials and Methods : Two ATP cell lines, 8505C and FRO were selected and treated with PLX4032 and its drug sensitivity and effects on cell migration and EMT were examined and compared. Further investigation on the changes in signals responsible for the different treatment response to PLX4032 was carried out and the same experiment was performed on both orthotopic and ectopic xenograft mouse models. Results : FRO cell line was more sensitive to PLX4032 treatment compared to 8505C cell line. The resistance to BRAF inhibition in 8505C was due to increased expression of EGFR. Effective inhibition of both EGFR and p-AKT was achieved after dual treatment with BRAF inhibitor(PLX4032) and EGFR inhibitor(Erlotinib). Similar results were confirmed on in vivo study. Conclusion : EGFR-mediated reactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and MAPK pathway contributes to the relative insensitivity of BRAF(V600E) mutant ATC cells to PLX4032. Dual inhibition of BRAF and EGFR leads to sustained treatment response including cell invasiveness.

Induction of Resistance to BRAF Inhibitor Is Associated with the Inability of Spry2 to Inhibit BRAF-V600E Activity in BRAF Mutant Cells

  • Ahn, Jun-Ho;Han, Byeal-I;Lee, Michael
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.320-326
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    • 2015
  • The clinical benefits of oncogenic BRAF inhibitor therapies are limited by the emergence of drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the role of a negative regulator of the MAPK pathway, Spry2, in acquired resistance using BRAF inhibitor-resistant derivatives of the BRAF-V600E melanoma (A375P/Mdr). Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression of Spry2 was higher in A375P cells harboring the BRAF V600E mutation compared with wild-type BRAF-bearing cells (SK-MEL-2) that are resistant to BRAF inhibitors. This result suggests the ability of BRAF V600E to evade feedback suppression in cell lines with BRAF V600E mutations despite high Spry2 expression. Most interestingly, Spry2 exhibited strongly reduced expression in A375P/Mdr cells with acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors. Furthermore, the overexpression of Spry2 partially restored sensitivity to the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 in two BRAF inhibitor-resistant cells, indicating a positive role for Spry2 in the growth inhibition induced by BRAF inhibitors. On the other hand, long-term treatment with PLX4720 induced pERK reactivation following BRAF inhibition in A375P cells, indicating that negative feedback including Spry2 may be bypassed in BRAF mutant melanoma cells. In addition, the siRNA-mediated knockdown of Raf-1 attenuated the rebound activation of ERK stimulated by PLX4720 in A375P cells, strongly suggesting the positive role of Raf-1 kinase in ERK activation in response to BRAF inhibition. Taken together, these data suggest that RAF signaling may be released from negative feedback inhibition through interacting with Spry2, leading to ERK rebound and, consequently, the induction of acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors.

Relation between RASSF1A Methylation and BRAF Mutation in Thyroid Tumor (갑상선 종양에서 RASSF1A 메틸화와 BRAF 유전자 변이에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Kyoung Ho;Jung, Kwang Yoon;Baek, Seung Kuk;Woo, Jeong Soo;Cho, Jae Gu;Kwon, Soon Young
    • International journal of thyroidology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.123-129
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    • 2018
  • Background and Objectives: Hypermethylation of the tumor suppressor gene RASSF1A and activating mutation of BRAF gene have been recently reported in thyroid cancers. To investigate the role of these two epigenetic and genetic alterations in thyroid tumor progression, methylation of RASSF1A and BRAF mutation were examined in thyroid tumors. Materials and Methods: During 2007 to 2017, 69 papillary carcinomas, 18 nodular hyperplasia, 3 follicular carcinomas, and 13 follicular adenomas were selected. The methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) technique was used in detecting RASSF1A methylation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single-stranded conformation polymorphism and sequencing were used for BRAF gene mutation study. Results: The hypermethylation of the RASSF1A gene was found in 84.6%, 100% and 57.9% of follicular adenomas, follicular carcinomas, and papillary carcinomas, respectively. Nodular hyperplasia showed a hypermethylation in 33.3%. The BRAF mutation at V600E was found in 60.7% of papillary carcinoma and 27.0% of nodular hyperplasia, but none of follicular neoplasms. The BRAF mutation was correlated with the lymph node metastasis and MACIS clinical stage. There is an inverse correlation between RASSF1A methylation and BRAF mutation in thyroid lesions. Conclusion: Epigenetic inactivation of RASSF1A through aberrant methylation is considered to be an early step in thyroid tumorigenesis, and the BRAF mutation plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of papillary carcinoma, providing a genetic marker.