• Title/Summary/Keyword: Uterine cervical neoplasms

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Management for locally advanced cervical cancer: new trends and controversial issues

  • Cho, Oyeon;Chun, Mison
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.254-264
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    • 2018
  • This article reviewed new trends and controversial issues, including the intensification of chemotherapy and recent brachytherapy (BT) advances, and also reviewed recent consensuses from different societies on the management of locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Intensive chemotherapy during and after radiation therapy (RT) was not recommended as a standard treatment due to severe toxicities reported by several studies. The use of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for pelvic RT planning has increased the clinical utilization of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the evaluation of pelvic lymph node metastasis and pelvic bone marrow. Recent RT techniques for LACC patients mainly aim to minimize toxicities by sparing the normal bladder and rectum tissues and shortening the overall treatment time by administering a simultaneous integrated boost for metastatic pelvic lymph node in pelvic IMRT followed by MRI-based image guided adaptive BT.

Factors Predicting HPV Vaccination Practices among Female College Students (여대생의 인유두종바이러스 예방접종실천 예측요인)

  • Kim, Sun-Hee
    • Korean Parent-Child Health Journal
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.39-47
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the factors predicting HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) vaccination practices among female college students. Methods: A convenience sample of 207 female students attending four universities in one metropolitan city participated. Self-report questionnaires consisted of general characteristics, characteristics related prevention of cervical cancer, knowledge of HPV, knowledge of cervical cancer vaccination, and health beliefs related to HPV vaccination. Data were analyzed by $x^2$ test, independent t-test, and bivariate logistic regression. Results: Factors predicting HPV vaccination practices were information about HPV (OR=3.37), experience of HPV test (OR=12.71), and health beliefs related to HPV vaccination (OR=1.13). Conclusion: In order to increase the practice rate of HPV vaccination, it is necessary to provide simple key information that is easy to understand, rather than expert knowledge about HPV. Therefore, it is necessary to provide a way for college students to get information about virus easily. It is necessary to intervene integrally with the facilitation factor and obstacle factor of vaccination practice.

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Knowledge regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Intention for Vaccination among the Personnel in Korean Military Service (병사들의 자궁경부암, 인유두종 바이러스(HPV)에 대한 지식 및 백신 접종 의향)

  • Shin, Hyunkyung;Park, Hyojung
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.158-168
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV and intention for vaccination in Korean soldiers on active duty. Methods: Participants were 494 army men aged 18 to 26 serving in D area. Knowledge of cervical cancer was measured using the 8 item scale developed by Han et al. (2007) and knowledge of HPV was measured using the 13 item scale developed by Pitts et al. (2009). Collected data were analyzed with t-test, $x^2$-test, and ANOVA. Results: Mean scores for cervical cancer and HPV knowledge were $6.03{\pm}1.52$ and $8.15{\pm}1.75$ respectively and vaccination intention was 75.6%. HPV vaccination intention had significant differences depending on knowledge about cervical cancer (${\chi}^2=12.76$, p=.001), and HPV (${\chi}^2=9.00$, p=.003), education (${\chi}^2=12.24$, p=.002), sexual intercourse after first meeting (${\chi}^2=11.79$, p=.003), and sexual education in the military service (${\chi}^2=12.27$, p=.001). Conclusion: When planning education program for men in military service, it is necessary to consider include content to increase knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV.

Knowledge about Cervical Cancer, Health Beliefs and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Rate in Female University Students (여대생의 자궁경부암 지식, 인유두종바이러스 예방접종 관련 건강신념 및 접종실태)

  • Lee, Eun-Joo;Park, Jeong-Sook
    • Asian Oncology Nursing
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.65-73
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study was a descriptive study to determine knowledge regarding cervical cancer, health beliefs, and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rate of female university students. Methods: The subjects of this study were 777 female university students. The data were collected through interviews using a structured questionnaire from september 1 to October 30, 2010. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and chi-square test. Results: The mean of cervical cancer knowledge was low (13.75 score). Regarding health beliefs about HPV vaccination, the levels of perceived benefit (3.01 score) and seriousness (2.91 score) were relatively high, whereas the levels of perceived barrier (2.09 score) and susceptibility (2.01 score) were relatively low. The rate of HPV vaccination was 5.5%. Conclusion: These results show that concrete educational programs and advertisement are mandated to reduce HPV infection and increase HPV vaccination rate. Also the strategies emphasizing perceived seriousness and benefits of obtaining HPV vaccination are taken into account in developing educational programs in addition to knowledge improvement on HPV and cervical cancer.

Successful pregnancy following transmyometrial embryo transfer after robot-assisted radical trachelectomy

  • Hue, Hye Jeong;Choi, Hyun Ji;Park, Jee Yoon;Suh, Dong Hoon;Lee, Jung Ryeol;Jee, Byung Chul;Kim, Seul Ki
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.184-187
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    • 2021
  • Radical trachelectomy is a fertility-preserving alternative to radical hysterectomy in carefully selected young women with early-stage cervical cancer. However, in cases with subsequent severe cervical stenosis, assisted reproductive techniques can be difficult. This is a case report of a 34-year-old patient who underwent robot-assisted radical trachelectomy and cerclage for early-stage (IB2) adenosquamous carcinoma. Three months after surgery, the patient underwent ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol. As it was impossible to perform transcervical embryo transfer due to the almost complete absence of the cervical opening, transmyometrial embryo transfer under ultrasound guidance was performed. This resulted in a successful singleton pregnancy. This is the first case of successful pregnancy conceived by in vitro fertilization with transmyometrial embryo transfer in a patient who had previously undergone robot-assisted radical trachelectomy.

Malignant Tumors of the Female Reproductive System

  • Weiderpass, Elisabete;Labreche, France
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.166-180
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    • 2012
  • This review summarizes the epidemiology of cancer of the female reproductive system and associated lifestyle factors. It also assesses the available evidence for occupational factors associated with these cancers. Cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers are relatively common, and cause significant cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide, whereas vulvar, vaginal, fallopian tube cancers, and choriocarcinomas are very rare. As several lifestyle factors are known to play a major role in the etiology of these cancers, very few published studies have investigated possible relationships with occupational factors. Some occupational exposures have been associated with increased risks of these cancers, but apart from the available evidence on the relationships between asbestos fibers and ovarian cancer, and tetrachloroethylene and cervical cancer, the data is rather scarce. Given the multifactorial nature of cancers of the female reproductive system, it is of the utmost importance to conduct occupational studies that will gather detailed data on potential individual confounding factors, in particular reproductive history and other factors that influence the body's hormonal environment, together with information on socio-economic status and lifestyle factors, including physical activity from multiple sources. Studies on the mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the female reproductive organs are also needed in order to elucidate the possible role of chemical exposures in the development of these cancers.

Influences of Sex-related Knowledge, Sex-related Attitude, and Knowledge of Cervical Cancer on Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus in Female High School Students (여고생의 성지식, 성태도 및 자궁경부암 지식이 인유두종바이러스 지식에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoo, Myung Sook
    • Journal of Korean Academic Society of Home Health Care Nursing
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.291-299
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of sex-relatedl knowledge, sex-related attitude and knowledge of cervical cancer on knowledge of human papilloma virus (HPV) among female high school students. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with a convenience sample of 545 second-grade female high school students of three different schools. Results: Knowledge of HPV was positively correlated with sex-related knowledge (r=.36, p<.001), sex-related attitude (r=.14 p=.001) and knowledge of cervical cancer (r=.62, p<.001). Significant predictors affecting knowledge of HPV among female high school students were knowledge of cervical cancer (${\beta}$=.57) and sex-related knowledge (${\beta}$=.11), explaining 39.6% of the variance in knowledge of cervical cancer among female high school students (F=178.34, p<.001). Conclusion: Based on the outcomes of this study, in order to improve knowledge of HPV among female high school students, school based sexual education linked to HPV and cervical cancer must be included in the curriculum.

Knowledge Level of Human Papillomavirus, Cervical Cancer and Vaccination Status among Mothers with Daughters in High School (여고생 딸을 둔 어머니의 인유두종 바이러스와 자궁경부암 지식 및 딸의 인유두종 백신접종 실태)

  • Yoo, Myung-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.105-114
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine knowledge level of human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical cancer, and vaccination status among Korean mothers' with a daughter in high school. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with a convenience sample of 234 Korean mothers. Results: The mean score of HPV knowledge level was 4.21 out of 20, and cervical cancer knowledge was 3.88 out of 7. There were low levels of daughters' who received HPV vaccination (3.8%) and high levels of mothers' intention to get their daughters' vaccinated with HPV (85.0%). The major barrier to HPV vaccination was the concern for side effect from the vaccination. The most effective recommendation for HPV vaccination came from health care providers. Conclusion: HPV educational programs targeting mothers of daughters in high school is needed. Future studies need to determine actual HPV vaccination rates and factors related to high uptake using a larger sample from various socioeconomic background.

Prevalence of Abnormal Papanicolaou Test Results and Related Factors among Women Living in Zanjan, Iran

  • Maleki, Azam;Ahmadnia, Elahe;Avazeh, Azar;Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh;Molaei, Behnaz;Jalilvand, Ahmad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.6935-6939
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    • 2015
  • Background: Currently, a comprehensive program for screening and early detection of cervical cancer does not exist in Iran. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and some related factors among women living in Zanjan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Zanjan on 4274 married women aged 20-65 years. The study participants were selected through two-stage cluster sampling. After obtaining written consent, demographic and fertility questionnaires were completed. Samples from cervix were obtained through a standard method using the Rover Cervex- Brush. Evaluation and interpretation of the samples were reported using the Bethesda 2001 method. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression models. Results: Most inflammatory changes in the samples were mild (37.4%). Abnormal atypical changes in the epithelial cells were found in 4.04%. The highest percentage of abnormal changes in the epithelial cells was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (1.9%). Abnormal results of Pap smear was significantly and independently associated with age, papillomavirus infection, and lack of awareness about Pap smear tests. Conclusions: Given the high prevalence of inflammatory and precancerous changes in this study, compared to other studies in Iran and other Muslim countries, and the effect of demographic variables and individual factors on abnormal results, increasing the awareness of women and their families regarding the risk factors for cervical cancer, preventive measures such as screening, and timely treatment seem necessary.