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A rock physics simulator and its application for $CO_2$ sequestration process ($CO_2$ 격리 처리를 위한 암석물리학 모의실헝장치와 그 응용)

  • Li, Ruiping;Dodds, Kevin;Siggins, A.F.;Urosevic, Milovan
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.67-72
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    • 2006
  • Injection of $CO_2$ into underground saline formations, due to their large storage capacity, is probably the most promising approach for the reduction of $CO_2$ emissions into the atmosphere. $CO_2$ storage must be carefully planned and monitored to ensure that the $CO_2$ is safely retained in the formation for periods of at least thousands of years. Seismic methods, particularly for offshore reservoirs, are the primary tool for monitoring the injection process and distribution of $CO_2$ in the reservoir over time provided that reservoir properties are favourable. Seismic methods are equally essential for the characterisation of a potential trap, determining the reservoir properties, and estimating its capacity. Hence, an assessment of the change in seismic response to $CO_2$ storage needs to be carried out at a very early stage. This must be revisited at later stages, to assess potential changes in seismic response arising from changes in fluid properties or mineral composition that may arise from chemical interactions between the host rock and the $CO_2$. Thus, carefully structured modelling of the seismic response changes caused by injection of $CO_2$ into a reservoir over time helps in the design of a long-term monitoring program. For that purpose we have developed a Graphical User Interface (GUI) driven rock physics simulator, designed to model both short and long-term 4D seismic responses to injected $CO_2$. The application incorporates $CO_2$ phase changes, local pressure and temperature changes. chemical reactions and mineral precipitation. By incorporating anisotropic Gassmann equations into the simulator, the seismic response of faults and fractures reactivated by $CO_2$ can also be predicted. We show field examples (potential $CO_2$ sequestration sites offshore and onshore) where we have tested our rock physics simulator. 4D seismic responses are modelled to help design the monitoring program.

Patient Setup Aid with Wireless CCTV System in Radiation Therapy (무선 CCTV 시스템을 이용한 환자 고정 보조기술의 개발)

  • Park, Yang-Kyun;Ha, Sung-Whan;Ye, Sung-Joon;Cho, Woong;Park, Jong-Min;Park, Suk-Won;Huh, Soon-Nyung
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.300-308
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    • 2006
  • $\underline{Purpose}$: To develop a wireless CCTV system in semi-beam's eye view (BEV) to monitor daily patient setup in radiation therapy. $\underline{Materials\;and\;Methods}$: In order to get patient images in semi-BEV, CCTV cameras are installed in a custom-made acrylic applicator below the treatment head of a linear accelerator. The images from the cameras are transmitted via radio frequency signal (${\sim}2.4\;GHz$ and 10 mW RF output). An expected problem with this system is radio frequency interference, which is solved utilizing RF shielding with Cu foils and median filtering software. The images are analyzed by our custom-made software. In the software, three anatomical landmarks in the patient surface are indicated by a user, then automatically the 3 dimensional structures are obtained and registered by utilizing a localization procedure consisting mainly of stereo matching algorithm and Gauss-Newton optimization. This algorithm is applied to phantom images to investigate the setup accuracy. Respiratory gating system is also researched with real-time image processing. A line-laser marker projected on a patient's surface is extracted by binary image processing and the breath pattern is calculated and displayed in real-time. $\underline{Results}$: More than 80% of the camera noises from the linear accelerator are eliminated by wrapping the camera with copper foils. The accuracy of the localization procedure is found to be on the order of $1.5{\pm}0.7\;mm$ with a point phantom and sub-millimeters and degrees with a custom-made head/neck phantom. With line-laser marker, real-time respiratory monitoring is possible in the delay time of ${\sim}0.17\;sec$. $\underline{Conclusion}$: The wireless CCTV camera system is the novel tool which can monitor daily patient setups. The feasibility of respiratory gating system with the wireless CCTV is hopeful.

A Feature Re-weighting Approach for the Non-Metric Feature Space (가변적인 길이의 특성 정보를 지원하는 특성 가중치 조정 기법)

  • Lee Robert-Samuel;Kim Sang-Hee;Park Ho-Hyun;Lee Seok-Lyong;Chung Chin-Wan
    • Journal of KIISE:Databases
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.372-383
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    • 2006
  • Among the approaches to image database management, content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is viewed as having the best support for effective searching and browsing of large digital image libraries. Typical CBIR systems allow a user to provide a query image, from which low-level features are extracted and used to find 'similar' images in a database. However, there exists the semantic gap between human visual perception and low-level representations. An effective methodology for overcoming this semantic gap involves relevance feedback to perform feature re-weighting. Current approaches to feature re-weighting require the number of components for a feature representation to be the same for every image in consideration. Following this assumption, they map each component to an axis in the n-dimensional space, which we call the metric space; likewise the feature representation is stored in a fixed-length vector. However, with the emergence of features that do not have a fixed number of components in their representation, existing feature re-weighting approaches are invalidated. In this paper we propose a feature re-weighting technique that supports features regardless of whether or not they can be mapped into a metric space. Our approach analyses the feature distances calculated between the query image and the images in the database. Two-sided confidence intervals are used with the distances to obtain the information for feature re-weighting. There is no restriction on how the distances are calculated for each feature. This provides freedom for how feature representations are structured, i.e. there is no requirement for features to be represented in fixed-length vectors or metric space. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of our approach and in a comparison with other work, we can see how it outperforms previous work.

A Study on Intuitive IoT Interface System using 3D Depth Camera (3D 깊이 카메라를 활용한 직관적인 사물인터넷 인터페이스 시스템에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Jongsub;Hong, June Seok;Kim, Wooju
    • The Journal of Society for e-Business Studies
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.137-152
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    • 2017
  • The decline in the price of IT devices and the development of the Internet have created a new field called Internet of Things (IoT). IoT, which creates new services by connecting all the objects that are in everyday life to the Internet, is pioneering new forms of business that have not been seen before in combination with Big Data. The prospect of IoT can be said to be unlimited in its utilization. In addition, studies of standardization organizations for smooth connection of these IoT devices are also active. However, there is a part of this study that we overlook. In order to control IoT equipment or acquire information, it is necessary to separately develop interworking issues (IP address, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, NFC, etc.) and related application software or apps. In order to solve these problems, existing research methods have been conducted on augmented reality using GPS or markers. However, there is a disadvantage in that a separate marker is required and the marker is recognized only in the vicinity. In addition, in the case of a study using a GPS address using a 2D-based camera, it was difficult to implement an active interface because the distance to the target device could not be recognized. In this study, we use 3D Depth recognition camera to be installed on smartphone and calculate the space coordinates automatically by linking the distance measurement and the sensor information of the mobile phone without a separate marker. Coordination inquiry finds equipment of IoT and enables information acquisition and control of corresponding IoT equipment. Therefore, from the user's point of view, it is possible to reduce the burden on the problem of interworking of the IoT equipment and the installation of the app. Furthermore, if this technology is used in the field of public services and smart glasses, it will reduce duplication of investment in software development and increase in public services.

Design and Implementation of the SSL Component based on CBD (CBD에 기반한 SSL 컴포넌트의 설계 및 구현)

  • Cho Eun-Ae;Moon Chang-Joo;Baik Doo-Kwon
    • Journal of KIISE:Computing Practices and Letters
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.192-207
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    • 2006
  • Today, the SSL protocol has been used as core part in various computing environments or security systems. But, the SSL protocol has several problems, because of the rigidity on operating. First, SSL protocol brings considerable burden to the CPU utilization so that performance of the security service in encryption transaction is lowered because it encrypts all data which is transferred between a server and a client. Second, SSL protocol can be vulnerable for cryptanalysis due to the key in fixed algorithm being used. Third, it is difficult to add and use another new cryptography algorithms. Finally. it is difficult for developers to learn use cryptography API(Application Program Interface) for the SSL protocol. Hence, we need to cover these problems, and, at the same time, we need the secure and comfortable method to operate the SSL protocol and to handle the efficient data. In this paper, we propose the SSL component which is designed and implemented using CBD(Component Based Development) concept to satisfy these requirements. The SSL component provides not only data encryption services like the SSL protocol but also convenient APIs for the developer unfamiliar with security. Further, the SSL component can improve the productivity and give reduce development cost. Because the SSL component can be reused. Also, in case of that new algorithms are added or algorithms are changed, it Is compatible and easy to interlock. SSL Component works the SSL protocol service in application layer. First of all, we take out the requirements, and then, we design and implement the SSL Component, confidentiality and integrity component, which support the SSL component, dependently. These all mentioned components are implemented by EJB, it can provide the efficient data handling when data is encrypted/decrypted by choosing the data. Also, it improves the usability by choosing data and mechanism as user intend. In conclusion, as we test and evaluate these component, SSL component is more usable and efficient than existing SSL protocol, because the increase rate of processing time for SSL component is lower that SSL protocol's.

Comparison of Deep Learning Frameworks: About Theano, Tensorflow, and Cognitive Toolkit (딥러닝 프레임워크의 비교: 티아노, 텐서플로, CNTK를 중심으로)

  • Chung, Yeojin;Ahn, SungMahn;Yang, Jiheon;Lee, Jaejoon
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2017
  • The deep learning framework is software designed to help develop deep learning models. Some of its important functions include "automatic differentiation" and "utilization of GPU". The list of popular deep learning framework includes Caffe (BVLC) and Theano (University of Montreal). And recently, Microsoft's deep learning framework, Microsoft Cognitive Toolkit, was released as open-source license, following Google's Tensorflow a year earlier. The early deep learning frameworks have been developed mainly for research at universities. Beginning with the inception of Tensorflow, however, it seems that companies such as Microsoft and Facebook have started to join the competition of framework development. Given the trend, Google and other companies are expected to continue investing in the deep learning framework to bring forward the initiative in the artificial intelligence business. From this point of view, we think it is a good time to compare some of deep learning frameworks. So we compare three deep learning frameworks which can be used as a Python library. Those are Google's Tensorflow, Microsoft's CNTK, and Theano which is sort of a predecessor of the preceding two. The most common and important function of deep learning frameworks is the ability to perform automatic differentiation. Basically all the mathematical expressions of deep learning models can be represented as computational graphs, which consist of nodes and edges. Partial derivatives on each edge of a computational graph can then be obtained. With the partial derivatives, we can let software compute differentiation of any node with respect to any variable by utilizing chain rule of Calculus. First of all, the convenience of coding is in the order of CNTK, Tensorflow, and Theano. The criterion is simply based on the lengths of the codes and the learning curve and the ease of coding are not the main concern. According to the criteria, Theano was the most difficult to implement with, and CNTK and Tensorflow were somewhat easier. With Tensorflow, we need to define weight variables and biases explicitly. The reason that CNTK and Tensorflow are easier to implement with is that those frameworks provide us with more abstraction than Theano. We, however, need to mention that low-level coding is not always bad. It gives us flexibility of coding. With the low-level coding such as in Theano, we can implement and test any new deep learning models or any new search methods that we can think of. The assessment of the execution speed of each framework is that there is not meaningful difference. According to the experiment, execution speeds of Theano and Tensorflow are very similar, although the experiment was limited to a CNN model. In the case of CNTK, the experimental environment was not maintained as the same. The code written in CNTK has to be run in PC environment without GPU where codes execute as much as 50 times slower than with GPU. But we concluded that the difference of execution speed was within the range of variation caused by the different hardware setup. In this study, we compared three types of deep learning framework: Theano, Tensorflow, and CNTK. According to Wikipedia, there are 12 available deep learning frameworks. And 15 different attributes differentiate each framework. Some of the important attributes would include interface language (Python, C ++, Java, etc.) and the availability of libraries on various deep learning models such as CNN, RNN, DBN, and etc. And if a user implements a large scale deep learning model, it will also be important to support multiple GPU or multiple servers. Also, if you are learning the deep learning model, it would also be important if there are enough examples and references.

A Study on Understanding about the Korean movie of Internet user in China: Focused on the Reply of Movie Web-site in China and Korea (한.중 인터넷 이용자들의 한국영화 이해에 관한 비교 연구: <엽기적인 그녀> 영화 사이트의 관람후기 게시판을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Jei-Young;Choi, Jeong-Ki
    • Korean journal of communication and information
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    • v.34
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    • pp.196-243
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    • 2006
  • The popularity of Korea pop culture, which called as the name of "Korea wave", has started to spread out in China and other Asian states from late-1990's. The study about "Korea wave" until now, however, have prevailed within an economic point of view. So, I would like to clarify that this dissertation raises a question in exiting argument and explains the identity of "Korea wave" by investigating the details of pop culture contents of Korea, and understanding of chinese receiver. It shows that chinese receiver, watching the movie , has estimated in the affirmative viewpoint after I have analyzed a reply of movie web-site in China. The main features of this analysis prove that there are a lot of good estimation when chinese receiver have seen that movie because it has been well-matched with emotion and fun of story and attraction in the movie. In that order, Some Chinese netizen evaluated that there are some negative point of view as the main actress has a strange and crazy behavior. I have also found that Korea pop culture contents has not given to them good image and chinese receiver had a tendency to view objectively to classify with strength and weakness. Analysis to contrast understanding of Chinese netizen with Korea netizen showed that Korea netizen emphasized fun of story, however, Chinese netizen showed that they had a lot of opinion to be fresh and realistic relatively. In conclusion, I would like herewith to identify that there are some differences between Chinese netizen and Korean netizen after contacting the movie. The reason has showed that understanding about the same object can be a great deal of various consideration in two more diverse cultures which have many different social-cultural and historical situation.

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Location Service Modeling of Distributed GIS for Replication Geospatial Information Object Management (중복 지리정보 객체 관리를 위한 분산 지리정보 시스템의 위치 서비스 모델링)

  • Jeong, Chang-Won;Lee, Won-Jung;Lee, Jae-Wan;Joo, Su-Chong
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartD
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    • v.13D no.7
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    • pp.985-996
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    • 2006
  • As the internet technologies develop, the geographic information system environment is changing to the web-based service. Since geospatial information of the existing Web-GIS services were developed independently, there is no interoperability to support diverse map formats. In spite of the same geospatial information object it can be used for various proposes that is duplicated in GIS separately. It needs intelligent strategies for optimal replica selection, which is identification of replication geospatial information objects. And for management of replication objects, OMG, GLOBE and GRID computing suggested related frameworks. But these researches are not thorough going enough in case of geospatial information object. This paper presents a model of location service, which is supported for optimal selection among replication and management of replication objects. It is consist of tree main services. The first is binding service which can save names and properties of object defined by users according to service offers and enable clients to search them on the service of offers. The second is location service which can manage location information with contact records. And obtains performance information by the Load Sharing Facility on system independently with contact address. The third is intelligent selection service which can obtain basic/performance information from the binding service/location service and provide both faster access and better performance characteristics by rules as intelligent model based on rough sets. For the validity of location service model, this research presents the processes of location service execution with Graphic User Interface.

Development of an Aerodynamic Simulation for Studying Microclimate of Plant Canopy in Greenhouse - (2) Development of CFD Model to Study the Effect of Tomato Plants on Internal Climate of Greenhouse - (공기유동해석을 통한 온실내 식물군 미기상 분석기술 개발 - (2)온실내 대기환경에 미치는 작물의 영향 분석을 위한 CFD 모델개발 -)

  • Lee In-Bok;Yun Nam-Kyu;Boulard Thierry;Roy Jean Claude;Lee Sung-Hyoun;Kim Gyoeng-Won;Hong Se-Woon;Sung Si-Heung
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.296-305
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    • 2006
  • The heterogeneity of crop transpiration is important to clearly understand the microclimate mechanisms and to efficiently handle the water resource in greenhouses. A computational fluid dynamic program (Fluent CFD version 6.2) was developed to study the internal climate and crop transpiration distributions of greenhouses. Additionally, the global solar radiation model and a crop heat exchange model were programmed together. Those models programmed using $C^{++}$ software were connected to the CFD main module using the user define function (UDF) technology. For the developed CFD validity, a field experiment was conducted at a $17{\times}6 m^2$ plastic-covered mechanically ventilated single-span greenhouse located at Pusan in Korea. The CFD internal distributions of air temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity at 1m height were validated against the experimental results. The CFD computed results were in close agreement with the measured distributions of the air temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity along the greenhouse. The averaged errors of their CFD computed results were 2.2%,2.1%, and 7.7%, respectively.

Development of Quality Assurance Program for the On-board Imager Isocenter Accuracy with Gantry Rotation (갠트리 회전에 의한 온-보드 영상장치 회전중심점의 정도관리 프로그램 개발)

  • Cheong, Kwang-Ho;Cho, Byung-Chul;Kang, Sei-Kwon;Kim, Kyoung-Joo;Bae, Hoon-Sik;Suh, Tae-Suk
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.212-223
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    • 2006
  • Positional accuracy of the on-board imager (OBI) isocenter with gantry rotation was presented in this paper. Three different type of automatic evaluation methods of discrepancies between therapeutic and OBI isocenter using digital image processing techniques as well as a procedure stated in the customer acceptance procedure (CAP) were applied to check OBI isocenter migration trends. Two kinds of kV x-ray image set obtained at OBI source angle of $0^{\circ},\;90^{\circ},\;180^{\circ},\;270^{\circ}$ and every $10^{\circ}$ and raw projection data for cone-beam CT reconstruction were used for each evaluation method. Efficiencies of the methods were also estimated. If a user needs to obtain an isocenter variation map with full gantry rotation, a method taking OBI image for every $10^{\circ}$ and fitting with 5th order polynomial was appropriate. However for a mere quality assurance (QA) purpose of OBI isocenter accuracy, it was adequate to use only four OBI Images taken at the OBI source angle of $0^{\circ},\;90^{\circ},\;180^{\circ}\;and\;270^{\circ}$. Maximal discrepancy was 0.44 mm which was observed between the OBI source angle of $90^{\circ}\;and\;180^{\circ}$ OBI isocenter accuracy was maintained below 0.5 mm for a year. Proposed QA program may be helpful to Implement a reasonable routine QA of the OBI isocenter accuracy without great efforts.

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