• Title, Summary, Keyword: Urea-molasses

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Effects of Adding Urea and Molasses on Napiergrass Silage Quality

  • Yunus, M.;Ohba, N.;Shimojo, M.;Furuse, M.;Masuda, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1542-1547
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    • 2000
  • To standardize proper formulation of urea and molasses, the former to increase crude protein content of tropical grass and the latter for improving its silage quality, we examined the fermentation quality of silage of fresh and wilted napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) with different levels of urea and molasses with or without lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Silage was made of napiergrass with conditions of fresh young (Exp. 1),young wilted for half day (Exp. 2) and fresh mature (Exp. 3). Chopped plant materials of about 1cm length were ensiled into a laboratory silo and incubated for one month at $25^{\circ}C$. The treatments were the combination of 0, 0.2 and 0.6% of urea and 0, 2 and 5% of molasses (fresh material basis) with or without LAB inoculation. After opening the silo, pH, organic acids, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and total nitrogen (TN) were determined. Addition of molasses significantly (p<0.01) lowered pH values in three experiments. Though molasses addition increased lactic acid production even at a higher level of urea, pH values at 0 and 2% molasses were significantly increased by urea in fresh and wilted young silages, but in fresh mature silage it occurred only when molasses was not added. VBN/TN at 0.6% urea were decreased significantly by the highest molasses in three experiments. Significant increases in TN by the increasing of urea addition were observed at all levels of molasses in wilted young and fresh mature silages. In conclusion, a combination of 5% molasses and 0.6% urea could improve the nutritive and fermentation qualities of napiergrass silage under young, wilting and mature conditions.

EFFECT OF FEEDING STRAW SUPPLEMENTING WITH UREA MOLASSES BLOCK LICK ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SHEEP

  • Hossain, K.B.;Sarker, N.R.;Saadullah, M.;Beg, M.A.H.;Khan, T.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.289-293
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    • 1995
  • The experiment was conducted to study the effect of supplementary urea molasses block lick with rice straw based diet on the performance of sheep. Six indigenous sheep of about two years of age with an average body weight of 12.88 kg, were selected for this experiment They grouped into two by stratified randomization, and the experiment was conducted for a period of 90 days. Sheep of group A was fed rice straw and group B was feed rice straw with urea molasses block lick, beside this both the groups received 66 g wheat bran and 167 g of Ipil-Ipil leaf meat. The study revealed that the average daily gain of live weight per sheep per day was 41 gm and 70 gm in group-A and group-B respectively. From the analysis of variance it was evident that live weight gain in sheep of group B, supplemented with urea molasses block lick was highly significant (p < 0.01). It was also estimated that group A required 8.12 kg DM to gain 1 kg live weight, whereas group B receiving urea molasses block lick required 5.30 kg DM to gain 1 kg live weight. Therefore, feeding rice straw with urea molasses block lick able to utilize more crop-residues efficiently.

GROWTH AND FEED UTILIZATION IN BLACK BENGAL GOATS ON ROAD SIDE GRASS BASED DIET SUPPLEMENT WITH FISH MEAL AND UREA MOLASSES BLOCK

  • Huq, M.A.;Akhter, S.;Hashem, M.A.;Howlider, M.A.R.;Saadullah, M.;Hossain, M.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.155-158
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    • 1996
  • Seventy two Black Bengal goats on road side grass based diet were fed on 0, 20, 40, 80, 100 or 120 g of fish meal (FM)/goat/day with or without ad libitum access to urea molasses block(UMB). The purpose was to assess the interaction of undegradable protein (UDP) and fermentable nitrogen(N) supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and growth of goats. Live weight gain of goats increased linearly with the increasing of dietary fish meal as an undegradable protein source. With the increasing level of fish meal the live weight gain(g/day) was 17, 23, 46, 48, 48 and 52 with urea molasses block and 12, 21, 31, 49, 47 and 47 without urea molasses block. It was concluded that the beneficial effects of urea molasses feeding to accelerate the dry matter intake, TDN intake and nutrient digestibility observed could not be exploited in terms of live weight gain.

UREA-MOLASSES AND COTTONSEED-MOLASSES SUPPLEMENTS FOR DAIRY GOATS

  • Sarwiyono, Sarwiyono;Mcllroy, B.K.M.H.;Dixon, R.M.;Holme, J.H.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.653-658
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    • 1992
  • Crossbred dairy does were fed a roughage diet (IVOMD 56%, N 2.27%) ad libitum, and supplemented with urea-molasses (3% W : W) (UM) at levels on an air dry basis of 1.5% or 3% of liveweight or an iso-energetic, iso-nitrogenous mixture of cottonseed meal and molasses (25 : 75 w : w) (CM). Eight does, four lower-producers and four higher-producers (1.9 and 2.5 kg/day respectively in week 7 of lactation) arranged in two Latin Squares, received each of the four diets for three weeks. Dry matter, digestible organic matter and N intakes were higher for high-producers and high levels of supplement but did not differ between nitrogen sources. Milk production was higher by high-producers; interactions were significant between level of supplement and production group and between level of supplement and N-source, with maximum production by high producers on high levels of CM. The main effects of level of supplement were only significant for production or composition. and total solids; N-source did not have significant effects on liveweight, milk production or composition. We conclude that does of moderate capacity for milk production, receiving a diet of two-thirds moderate quality roughage, one third urea-molasses, will not respond to increased level of supplementation or to replacement of urea with cottonseed meal.

Nitrogen Retention and Chemical Composition of Urea Treated Wheat Straw Ensiled with Organic Acids or Fermentable Carbohydrates

  • Sarwar, M.;Khan, M. Ajmal;Nisa, Mahr-un
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.1583-1591
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    • 2003
  • The influence of varying levels of urea and additives on nitrogen (N) retention and chemical composition of wheat straw was studied. The wheat straw was treated with 4, 6 and 8% urea and ensiled with 1.5, 2 and 2.5% of acetic or formic acid and 2, 4 and 6% of corn steep liquor (CSL) or acidified molasses for 15 days. The N content of wheat straw was significantly different across all treatments. The N content of urea treated wheat straw was increased with the increasing level of urea. The N content was higher in urea treated wheat straw ensiled with acetic or formic acid as compared to urea treated wheat straw ensiled without these organic acids. The N content of urea treated wheat straw was further enhanced when it was ensiled with CSL or acidified molasses. This effect was significant across all levels of urea used to treat the wheat straw. Nitrogen retention in urea treated wheat straw was decreased linearly as the urea level was increased to treat the wheat straw. The N content was increased linearly when higher levels of CSL or acidified molasses were used to ensile the urea treated wheat straw. Most of the N in urea treated wheat straw was held as neutral detergent insoluble N (NDIN). The NDIN content was increased linearly with the increasing levels of urea and additives. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents were higher in urea treated wheat straw ensiled with acetic or formic acid as compared to urea treated wheat straw ensiled without additive. The NDF content further increased in urea treated wheat straw ensiled with CSL and acidified molasses. The entire increase in NDF content was because of fiber bound N. The hemicellulose content of urea treated wheat straw ensiled with CSL or acidified molasses was higher as compared to urea treated wheat straw ensiled with acetic or formic acid. The acid detergent fiber content of urea treated wheat straw ensiled with or without additives remained statistically non-significant. The cellulose contents of wheat straw was linearly reduced when urea level was increased from 4 to 6 and 8% to treat the wheat straw. This effect was further enhanced when urea treated wheat straw was ensiled with different additives. The results of the present study indicated that fermentable carbohydrates might improve the Nitrogen retention and bring the favorable changes in physiochemical nature of wheat straw. However, biological evaluation of urea treated wheat straw ensiled with fermentable carbohydrates is required.

Effect of Molasses or Rice Gruel Inclusion to Urea Supplemented Rice Straw on Its Intake, Nutrient Digestibilities, Microbial N Yield, N Balance and Growth Rate of Native (Bas indicus) Growing Bulls

  • Chowdhury, S.A.;Huque, K.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.145-151
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    • 1998
  • The possibility of using rice gruel compared to that of the cane molasses as a source of readily fermentable energy for a urea supplemented straw diet has been studied. Twelve native growing bulls of $237{\pm}8.7kg $ live weight and months old were randomly allocated to three treatments fed solely rice straw enriched with : (1) 3% urea (US), (2) 3% urea + 15% molasses (UMS) and (3) 3% urea + 30% rice gruel (UGS). The feeding trial continued for sixty days. Organic matter (OM) intake was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the UMS ( $64g/kg\;W^{0.75}/d$) followed by UGS ($53g/kg\;W^{0.75}/d$) and US ($49g/kg\;W^{0.75}/d$). Estimated (from digestible OM intake) metabolizable energy (ME) intake were 396, 348 and $301kJ/kg\;W^{0.75}/d$ for UMS, UGS and US respectively. The maintenance (i.e., no change in live weight) ME intake calculated to be $308{\pm}7.4kJ/kg\;W^{0.75}/d$. Urinary purine derivatives excretion was nonsignificantly higher in the UMS (51.73 mmol/d), followed by UGS (42.53 mmol/d) and US (35.26 mmol/d). The estimated microbial N (MN) yield were 21.10, 14.00 and 11.60 g/d for UMS, UGS and US respectively. For each MJ increase in ME intade, MN yield increased by $1.29{\pm}0.134g$. Observed live weight changes during the experimental period were 292, 125 and -19 g/d respectively for UMS, UGS and US. It was concluded that supplementation of readily fermentable N (urea) alone was not enough to optimize the rumen function and a source of readily fermentable energy was required. Rice gruel was less effective than molasses as fermentable energy source to remove a restriction on voluntary intake and provide less amino acids of microbial origin for absorption from the small intestine, Thus more substrate for protein synthesis and gluconeogenesis were available for growth in the molasses than the rice gruel supplemented animals. However, in situation where molasses is not available or costly, rice gruel does appear to have a place as readily fermentable energy source on a urea supplemented straw diet.

Improvement of Nutritive Value and In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Leucaena Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation

  • Phesatcha, K.;Wanapat, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.1136-1144
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    • 2016
  • Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a $3{\times}3$ factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM) and the second was urea (U) supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1%) silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased $NH_3$-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also suggested that the combination use of M and U supplementation level was at 2% and 1%, respectively.

Catalytic Supplementation of Urea-molasses on Nutritional Performance of Male Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Calves

  • Sahoo, A.;Elangovan, A.V.;Mehra, U.R.;Singh, U.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.621-628
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    • 2004
  • Twenty male buffalo calves of 6-9 months of age (average body weight, 97 kg) were randomly allocated into two main groups of four (control) and sixteen (supplemented) calves. The supplemented group was further divided in to four equal sub-groups, with the two groups supplemented with a liquid preparation of urea-molasses, UML1, containing fish meal and UML2, containing formaldehyde treated deoiled mustard cake (FDMC) and the other two, with a semi-solid preparation, UMC1 with FDMC and deoiled rice bran (DORB) contributing similar level of CP as in UML2 and UMC2 with double the level of FDMC to that in UMC1. The control group was fed with DORB along with ad libitum wheat straw at 40:60 ratios. The rest of the groups were fed on the above diet supplemented with 500 g (as fed basis) of urea-molasses preparations. The experimental feeding was carried out for 24 weeks including a metabolism trial towards the end of experimental feeding. Daily feed intake and fortnightly change in live weight were also recorded during the study. Catalytic supplementation of 500 g urea-molasses induced 8-25% higher voluntary feed intake of wheat straw, resulting in 15-25% higher DM and OM intake. The digestibility of DM, OM, total carbohydrate, NDF, ADF, hemicellulose and cellulose in all the dietary groups were comparable. The CP digestibility of calves in supplemented groups were higher (p<0.05) than the control group. The balance of nutrients, viz. N, Ca and P, was also higher in the supplemented groups. Significantly higher intake of digestible CP coupled with other digestible nutrients attributed to higher TDN (1.67-1.78 vs. 1.37 kg) and ME (5.94-6.31 vs. 4.87 Mcal) intake in urea-molasses supplemented groups which resulted in higher live weight gain compared to that in control group (p<0.01). Between the supplements, UML2 and UMC2 faired non-significantly, indicating formalin treated mustard cake as a suitable replacement to fishmeal in the supplement. The overall ranking based on intake and digestibility of nutrients, live weight gain, economic evaluation and input-output relationship revealed that the rations with UML2 and UMC1 to be of greater value compared to other types. From the study it can be concluded that young ruminants can be reared successfully on a basal diet of deoiled rice bran and wheat straw supplemented with cheaper urea-molasses-mineral mix.

Effect of Urea-Molasses Cake Supplementation of Swamp Buffaloes Fed Rice Straw or Grasses on Rumen Environment, Feed Degradation and Intake

  • Van Thu, Nguyen;Uden, Peter
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.631-639
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    • 2001
  • Two experiments were carried out concerning the effects of urea-molasses cake (UMC) and its separate components as supplements on rumen environment, in sacco feed degradability and intake of swamp buffaloes fed rice straw, grasses or a mixture of grasses and rice straw. Experiment 1 was a change-over design with 4 animals and 6 treatments. The buffaloes were fed rice straw ad libitum, and the experimental treatments were: no supplementation (R); 700 g of the complete urea-molasses cake (RUMC); 53.2 g urea (RU); 276 g rice bran and 52.5 coconut meal (RRC); 26.6 g salt, 26.6 g bone meal and 2.1 g trace minerals (RMi); and 25 g molasses (RMo). Experiment 2 was a Latin square design with four diets and four animals. The treatments were: rice straw ad libitum and mixed grass (RG) at 2.5 g dry matter per kg live weight (LW); RG plus 700 g urea-molasses cake (RGUMC); mixed grass ad libitum (G); and G plus 700 g cake (GUMC). In both experiments the supplements were fed once daily. In Exp. 1 although the rumen pH was significantly different (p<0.05) among diets, it varied only from 6.90 to 7.06. The ruminal ammonia was also significantly (p<0.05) different among the diets with RUMC significantly higher than R. Total bacterial and protozoal counts were significantly (p<0.05) higher for the RUMC, RU, RMo and RRC diets. Total feed and rice straw intakes were highest for RUMC (p<0.05) and lowest for the RMi and RMo diets, but in sacco degradability of four different roughages were not significantly different among diets. In Exp. 2, rumen pHs of the diets differed significantly and (p<0.01) ranged from 7.04 - 7.19. Ruminal $NH_3-N$ concentrations (mg/100 ml) were also significantly different (p<0.05), and higher for the RGUMC, G and GUMC diets. The total counts of bacteria and protozoa were significantly (p<0.05) higher for the RGUMC, G and GUMC diets. The total feed intake and roughage intake were significantly (p<0.05) higher for the RGUMC, G and GUMC diets compared to the RG diet. Correspondingly, LW changes also differed among treatments (p=0.06). It was concluded that there were significant increases in rumen $NH_3-N$ concentration, microbial populations and feed intake in the buffaloes by UMC supplementation, whereas the significant difference in in sacco DM degradation was not found by any type of supplementation. There seemed to be a need of a combination of urea, molasses, minerals and other protein nitrogen sources to enhance rice straw intake. Adding grass to the rice straw diet at 0.25% LW (DM) should also be considered to maintain buffalo rumen function and production with UMC supplementation, when rice straw is the main roughage.

Feeding Value of Urea Treated Wheat Straw Ensiled with or without Acidified Molasses in Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

  • Khan, M. Ajmal;Sarwar, Muhammad;Nisa, M.;Khan, M.S.;Bhatti, S.A.;Iqbal, Z.;Lee, W.S.;Lee, H.J.;Kim, H.S.;Ki, K.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.645-650
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    • 2006
  • Thirty early lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes, six animals in each group, were used in a completely randomized design to examine the feeding value of 4% urea treated wheat straw (UTWS) ensiled with 6% or without acidified molasses. Five experimental diets were formulated. The control ration was balanced to contain 30% DM from UTWS ensiled without acidified molasses. The other four diets were formulated to have 30, 40, 50 and 60% DM from UTWS ensiled with 6% acidified molasses, respectively. Dry matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intakes were higher in buffaloes fed diets containing UTWS ensiled with acidified molasses compared with those fed a diet containing UTWS ensiled without acidified molasses. Intake of DM was not significantly different in buffaloes fed diets containing varying levels of UTWS ensiled with acidified molasses. A similar trend was observed for crude protein (CP) intake. Apparent DM and NDF digestibilities were significantly higher in buffaloes fed diets containing UTWS ensiled with acidified molasses compared with those fed UTWS ensiled without acidified molasses. However, differences in DM and NDF digestibilities were non-significant across buffaloes fed diets containing varying levels of UTWS ensiled with acidified molasses. Milk yield (4% fat corrected) was significantly higher in buffaloes fed diets containing UTWS ensiled with acidified molasses than those fed a diet containing UTWS ensiled without acidified molasses. Milk yield was similar in buffaloes fed varying level of UTWS ensiled with acidified molasses. Milk CP, true protein, solid-not-fat and total solids were similar in buffaloes fed UTWS ensiled with or without acidified molasses. The UTWS ensiled with 6% acidified molasses can be included at up to 60% DM of lactating buffalo rations without any ill effect on productivity.