• Title, Summary, Keyword: Urea Excretion

Search Result 92, Processing Time 0.051 seconds

RENAL REGULATION OF UREA EXCRETION DURING UREA INFUSION IN ACUTE HEAT EXPOSED BUFFALOES

  • Chaiyabutr, N.;Buranakarl, C.;Loypetjra, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.5 no.1
    • /
    • pp.81-90
    • /
    • 1992
  • Five buffaloes kept in normal ambient temperature ($30^{\circ}C$) showed no significant changes in the heart rate, respiratory rate, packed cell volume, plasma constituents and renal hemodymics during intravenous infusion of urea for 4 h. The rate of urine flow, fractional urea excretion, urinary potassium excretion and osmolar clearance significantly decreased while the renal urea reabsorption markedly increased during urea infusion. The decrease of fractional potassium excretion was concomitant with the reduction of the rate of urine flow and urine pH. In animals exposed to heat ($40^{\circ}C$) the rectal temperature heart rate and respiratory rate significantly increased while no significant changes in GFR and ERPF were observed. An intravenous infusion of urea in heat exposed animals caused the reduction of the rate of urine flow with no changes in renal urea reabsorption, urine pH and fractional electrolyte excretions. During heat exposure, there were marked increases in concentrations of total plasma protein and plasma creatinine whereas plasma inorganic phosphorus concentration significantly decreased. It is concluded that an increase in renal urea reabsorption during urea infusion in buffaloes kept in normal ambient temperature depends on the rate of urine flow which affect by an osmotic diuretic effect of electrolytes. The limitation of renal urea reabsorption in heat stressed animals would be attributed to an increases in either plasma pool size of nitrogenous substance or body metabolism.

Effects of Cecectomy on Nitrogen Utilization and Nitrogen Excretion in Chickens Fed a Low Protein Diet Supplied with Urea

  • Son, J.H.;Karasawa, Y.;Nahm, K.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.10 no.3
    • /
    • pp.274-276
    • /
    • 1997
  • The effects of cecectomy on nitrogen utilization and nitrogen excretion were examined in single comb white leghorn (SCWL) cockerels fed a 5% protein diet supplied with urea. The cecectomy tended to increase nitrogen balance and nitrogen utilization and significantly decreased uric acid excretion (p < 0.01). Urea and ammonia excretion tended to be about 60% increased and decreased by cecectomy in SCWL cockerels, respectively, but blood ammonia, urea and uric acid concentrations were not affected. The results are in good agreement with those obtained previously in cecum-ligated chickens. It is concluded that the improvement of nitrogen utilization and decreases in urinary uric acid excretion in cecectomized chickens do not result from the modification of cecal fermentation.

RENAL REGULATION OF UREA EXCRETION IN SWAMP BUFFALO FED WITH HIGH PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION

  • Chaiyabutr, N.;Chanpongsang, S.;Loypetjra, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.8 no.3
    • /
    • pp.275-280
    • /
    • 1995
  • The effect of supplemented high protein diet intake on renal urea regulation in swamp buffalo was carried out in the present experiment Five swamp buffalo heifers weighing between 208-284 kg were used for this study. The animals were fed with a supplementary high protein diet and renal function and kinetic parameters for urea excretion were measured. This was compared to a control period where the same animals had been fed only with paragrass and water hyacinth. For 2 months the same animals were fed a mixed of paragrass, water hyacinth plus 2 kgs of a high protein supplement (protein 18.2% DM basis) per head per day. In comparison to the control period, there were no differences in the rate of urine flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), plasma urea concentration and filtered urea. In animals supplemented with high protein intake mean values of urea clearance, excretion rate and the urea urine/plasma concentration ratio markedly increased (p < 0.05) while renal urea reabsorption significantly decreased from 40% to 26% of the quantity filtered. In this same study group urea space distribution and urea pool size increased which coincided with an increase in plasma volume (p < 0.05). Plasma protein decreased while plasma osmolarity increased (p < 0.05). Both urea turnover rate and biological half-life of $^{14}C$-urea were not affected by a supplementary high protein intake. The results suggest that animals supplemented with high protein diets are in a state of dynamic equilibrium of urea which is well balanced between urea excreted into the urine and the amount synthesized. The limitation for renal tubular urea reabsorption would be a change in extra-renal factors with an elevation of the total pool size of nitrogenous substance.

Evaluation of Urinary Nitrogen Excretion from Plasma Urea Nitrogen in Dry and Lactating Cows

  • Kume, S.;Numata, K.;Takeya, Y;Miyagawa, Y;Ikeda, S.;Kitagawa, M.;Nonaka, K.;Oshita, T.;Kozakai, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.21 no.8
    • /
    • pp.1159-1163
    • /
    • 2008
  • Data of 42 balance measurements from dry and lactating Holstein cows and blood and urine samples from 24 Japanese Black cows were collected to evaluate the potential for predicting urinary nitrogen (N) excretion from plasma urea nitrogen (PUN). Similar positive correlations were obtained between N intake and apparent N absorption in dry and lactating cows. The regression equations of N intake on urinary N excretion varied in dry and lactating cows, and the difference of urinary N excretion between dry and lactating cows was due to the N secretion into milk. Highly positive correlations were observed between urinary N contents and urinary urea N in Japanese Black cows, and urinary urea N increased with increasing PUN. There were positive correlations between N intake and PUN in dry and lactating cows, but PUN and urinary N excretion in lactating cows were higher than in dry cows. There were positive correlations between PUN and urinary N excretion per BW in dry and lactating cows. Although urinary N excretion could be calculated as (N clearance rate of kidneys)PUNBW, high N clearance rate of kidneys, such as 2.08 L/d/kg BW, may be suitable to calculate urinary N excretion in lactating cows, compared with 1.33 L/d/kg BW in dry cows.

A Study on the Utilization of Dietary [15N]urea in Cecal Ligated Chickens (맹장 결찰계(Cecal-ligated Chicken)를 이용한 [15N]urea의 이용성에 관한 연구)

  • Son, Jang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
    • /
    • v.38 no.1
    • /
    • pp.37-43
    • /
    • 2011
  • The effect of cecal ligation on the utilization of dietary [15N]urea in chickens fed 5 % protein diet plus urea were investigated. Nitrogen balance and utilization tended (P<0.01) to increase by cecal ligation. Total uric acid excretion was significantly decrease by (P<0.01) cecal ligation in chickens from origin of diet and urea (P<0.01). Excretion of ammonia was increased in chickens from origin of diet, where as it decreased in chickens an urea diet (P<0.01). Amount of urea nitrogen excretion from origin of urea was significantly decrease (P<0.01) by cecal ligation, but cecal ligated chicken fed 5% protein diet with urea showed 51.6% urea utilization. Result obtained in present study indicates that ceca is having beneficial role for urea utilization in chicken fed protein deficient diets, but ceca do not always positive role for nitrogen utilization.

Effect of Non- Protein Nitrogen on the Biological Utilization of Protein and the Excretion of Nitrogenous Compounds in Chicks (병아리에서 단백질의 생물적 이용성과 요중질소 화합물의 배설에 미치는 비단백태질소의 영향)

  • 고태송;김영범;서인준;남기택
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
    • /
    • v.12 no.1
    • /
    • pp.17-24
    • /
    • 1985
  • In order to investigate an effect of non-protein nitrogen on the biological utilization of protein, hatched single comb White Leghorn male chicks were fed for the first 8 days with a commercial chicks mash, next 6 days with protein-free diet and subsequent 6 days with protein-free diets and protein diets containing 10.59% of crude protein supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%, respectively. During experimental feeding period, chicks fed protein-free diets had intaked gradually lower feed and had shown a similar body weight loss though urea contents were increased. When birds fed protein diets, body weight gain and feed intake were not different among birds fed the graded levels of urea although feed conversions were shown a highering tendency along with increasing urea contents. According as supplemented urea were increased, protein efficiency ratio f (PER) and net protein ratio (NPR) were increased in chicks fed protein-free diets, which were shown a lowering trend in chicks fed protein diets. Effect of supplemented urea on the urinary excretion of uric acid were not found in birds fed protein-free diets, while which were increased in birds fed protein diets with the increase of urea contents. Urea addition did not affect the excretion of total creatine in birds fed protein-free or protein diets. Excretion of ammonia was jogjered in order to increasing level of urea in birds fed protein-free diets, but which were not found any particular effect in birds fed protein diets. Also urea excretion were gradually increased with the increasing contents of urea in protein-free and protein diets. Nitrogen balance of birds fed protein-free diets were minus values, which were increased with increasing urea contents in diets. When birds fed protein diets, nitrogen balance and urinary nitrogen excretion was highered and fecal nitrogen excretion were not altered as urea levels of diets increased. Digestibility of urea nitrogen supplemented in protein-free diets were lowered along with increasing contents of urea, but biological value(BV) and net protein utilization(NPU) was found a highering tendency in birds fed protein-free diet containing 1.5% of urea. When birds fed with protein diets, digestibility, BV and NPU of protein were found a highering trend in birds fed protein diets added with 0.5% of urea.

  • PDF

Nitrogen Metabolism in Lactating Goats Fed with Diets Containing Different Protein Sources

  • Santos, A.B.;Pereira, M.L.A.;Silva, H.G.O.;Pedreira, M.S.;Carvalho, G.G.P.;Ribeiro, L.S.O.;Almeida, P.J.P.;Pereira, T.C.J.;Moreira, J.V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.27 no.5
    • /
    • pp.658-666
    • /
    • 2014
  • This study aimed to evaluate urea excretion, nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed with diets containing different protein sources in the concentrate (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, aerial part of cassava hay and leucaena hay). Four Alpine goats whose mean body weight was $42.6{\pm}6.1kg$ at the beginning of the experiment, a mean lactation period of $94.0{\pm}9.0days$ and a production of $1.7{\pm}0.4kg$ of milk were distributed in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square with four periods of 15 days. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 103.0 g/kg of CP, 400 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Diet containing cottonseed meal provided (p<0.05) increased excretion of urea and urea nitrogen in the urine (g/d and mg/kg of BW) when compared with leucaena hay. The diets affected the concentrations of urea nitrogen in plasma (p<0.05) and excretion of urea nitrogen in milk, being that soybean meal and cottonseed meal showed (p<0.05) higher than the average aerial part of the cassava hay. The use of diets with cottonseed meal as protein source in the concentrate in feeding of lactating goats provides greater nitrogen excretion in urine and negative nitrogen balance, while the concentrate with leucaena hay as a source of protein, provides greater ruminal microbial protein synthesis.

A Study on Nitrogen Intake and Excretion in Young Korean Adult Women on Normal Diet (정상식이를 섭취하는 여대생들의 질소 섭취 및 배설에 관한 연구)

  • 김주연
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.20 no.2
    • /
    • pp.90-103
    • /
    • 1987
  • A study was conducted to measure nitrogen intake and excretion in young korean women on their normal diet and leading normal activity level. Dietary survey by food record, fecal and urinary samples were collected for 3 days in 19 healthy female college students in Korea. On one of the 3 days, duplicate of one-day diet was collected from each subjects. Mean daily intakes of energy and protein were calculated from food recorded. Duplicate diet samples and pooled fecal samples were analyzed for N content. Pooled urine samples were analyzed for total N, urea N, and creatinine content. Apparent N absorption, apparent N balance and urea N/creatinine N were calculated to evaluate protein nutritional status. The results obtained are summarized as following ; 1) Accordingly to food record, mean daily intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate and far were 1535.2 $\pm$53.78Kcal, 55.95$\pm$2.97g(total nitrogen 8.95$\pm$0.45g), 254.13$\pm$10.31g and 39.24$\pm$2.76 g, providing 14.6%, 66.2%, 19.2% of total energy respectively. 2) Nitrogen intake by chemical analysis was 7.16$\pm$0.31g/day (protein 44.75$\pm$1.94kg/day) providing 82.39$\pm$4.58% of nitrogen intake by food record. The difference of total nitrogen intake between food record and chemical analysis in diets was significant(p<0.05). 3) Mean daily fecal nitrogen excretion was 1.38$\pm$0.10g and then mean apparent digesbility of protein was 80.53$\pm$5.21%. 4) Mean daily urinary nitrogen excretion, urea N excretion and creatinine excretion were 6.03$\pm$0.30g, 4.52$\pm$0.22g, and 0.88$\pm$0.04g respectively. Urinary urea nitrogen was 75.2$\pm$1.38% of total urinary nitrogen excretion and urinary nitrogen was 85.4$\pm$3.56% of total nitrogen intake by chemical analysis. 5) Mean urea N/creatinine N ration was 14.01$\pm$0.77. 6) Mean nitrogen balance was -0.244$\pm$0.33g/day. From the above results, it is concluded that the subjects in this study seem to be in marginal protein nutritional status and therefore should increase dietary protein intake.

  • PDF

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Potassium and Urea on the Metabolism of Magnesium in Goat (산양(山羊)에 있어서 Potassium 및 Urea가 Magnesium의 대사(代謝)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kwon, Oh-deog;Lee, Hyun-beom
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
    • /
    • v.25 no.1
    • /
    • pp.41-48
    • /
    • 1985
  • In the present studies, the effects of dietary high-potassium and high-urea on the metabolism of magnesium, calcium and potassium were checked as an aid to clarify the pathogenesis of hypomagnesaemia(so-called grass tetany) in ruminant. A total of 5 Korean native female goats kept in metabolic cage were received high-potassium(Mg: 0.25%, Ca: 0.94%, K: 5.41%), high-urea(Mg: 0.25%, Ca: 0.94%, K: 0.72%) or control(Mg: 0.25%, Ca: 0.94, K: 0.72%) ration for 15 or 21 days. Daily intakes, fecal and urinary excretions and serum concentrations of magnesium, calcium and potassium were measured with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results obtained were summarized as follows: In high-potassium group, absorption, urinary excretion and serum concentration of magnesium were significantly (p<0.01, p<0.01 and p<0.05 respectively) decreased compared with the control group. On the other hand, the body retention was significantly (p<0.01) increased. However, no clinical symptom of hypomagnesaemic tetany was observable throughout the experimental period. No significant effects on the metabolism and seurm content of calcium were detected in the high-potassium group. In the high-potassium group, significant increase in absorption (p<0.01), urinary excretion (p<0.05) and body retention (p<0.01) of potassium were recognized. However, no significant difference in the concentration of serum was observable between the two groups. In high-urea group, no significant difference in the metabolism of magnesium and potassium or in the serum content were recognized compared with the control group. In high-urea group, tthe absorption, urinary excretion, body retention and serum content of calcium were decreased compared with the control group.

  • PDF