• Title/Summary/Keyword: Urbanization

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The Relationship Between Urbanization, Education, and GDP Per Capita in Indonesia

  • HARYANTO, Tri;ERLANDO, Angga;UTOMO, Yoga
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.561-572
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    • 2021
  • This study aims to analyze the causality between GDP per capita, urbanization, and education. This also aims to determine the long-term and short-term relationships between economic urbanization, education, and GDP per capita by applying Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Data was obtained from the World Bank and UNDP from 1990 to 2018. The estimation results showed that economic growth and education on urbanization have the strongest causality in VECM. Therefore, they are pull factors with a significant effect in the long and the short term. Some suggestions concerning policy implications were stated, and they include: forming area-based urbanization, where cities within one area are integrated, to get the impact of an agglomeration economy. Also, the government needs to accelerate the distribution of infrastructure and public facilities in various regions to avoid population density in one area due to urbanization, and government needs to pay attention to easier access to education and more equitable ones in various regions. On the contrary, after education is evenly distributed in all regions, the government needs to pay attention to transportation access and infrastructure.

Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Impacts of Urbanization on Groundwater Flow and Salt Transport in a Coastal Aquifer, Suyeong-Gu, Busan, Korea (한국 부산광역시 수영구 지역 해안 대수층 내의 지하수 유동 및 염분 이동에 대한 도시화의 영향 삼차원 수치 모의)

  • Cho, Hyeon-Jo;Kim, Jun-Mo
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2009
  • A series of three-dimensional numerical simulations using a generalized multidimensional hydrodynamic dispersion numerical model is performed to simulate effectively and to evaluate quantitatively impacts of urbanization on density-dependent groundwater flow and salt transport in a coastal aquifer system, Suyeong-Gu, Busan, Korea. A series of steady-state numerical simulations of groundwater flow and salt transport before urbanization with material properties of geologic formations, which are established by numerical modeling calibrations considering all the urbanization factors, is performed first without considering all the urbanization factors. A series of transient-state numerical simulations of groundwater flow and salt transport after urbanization is then performed considering the urbanization factors individually and all together. Finally, the results of both numerical simulations are compared with each other and analyzed. The results of the numerical simulations show that density-dependent groundwater flow, salt transport, and seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer system are intensively and extensively impacted by the urbanization factors. Especially, these urbanization factors result in the changes of the total groundwater volume and salt mass in the coastal aquifer system. However, such impacts of each urbanization factor are not spatially uniform but locally different.

A Study on the Geostatistical Evaluation of Urban and Environmental Structure of Taegu Metropolitan Region (대구광역도시권의 지리통계적 도시환경구조 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Park, In-Hwan;Jang, Gab-Sue
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to evaluate urban environmental structure in Taegu metropolitan region(TMR) with factor analysis, fuzzy set theory, geostatistic and geographic information system(GIS). The factor analysis could choose the representative one out of multiple variables and simplify the evaluation of the urban environmental structure. The fuzzy approach is an attempt to model an aspect of human thinking previously neglected; it starts from the premise that humans don't represent classes of objects as fully disjoint but rather as sets where transitions from membership to non-membership is gradual. The Geographic Information System(GIS) could connect attributes of factor scores derived from factor analysis to digital map by a method so called 'Spatial join'. The results obtained were as follows: Urbanization appearance was concentrated in the large cities, and this appearance was partial extremely, therefore, there has been a structural gap between urban area and agricultural area which was unified into the urban area. All inclinations didn't become worse after sudden urbanization. For example, suburban agriculture was developed as a large scale in the region near the large cities. Then it encouraged farmers in changing their old cultivating methods to the latest ones. But many districts in urban fringe had symptom of urbanization, the districts which were located between large cities have been developed gradually because of urban sprawl, and played a role in connecting each city. Therefore, due to the urbanization, forestry area and agricultural land, well conserved in the agricultural town, could be easily destroyed. In a different way with the urbanization of the Seoul metropolitan region, that of TMR was centralized upon the center of each city, and it was also very partial. But, because so many regions have the potentiality of urbanization, hereafter, the urbanization process in each region is likely to be different multifariously according to the urban management methods.

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The Impact Assessment of Urbanization on the Atmospheric Environment (도시화가 대기환경에 미치는 영향평가)

  • Lee, Hyoun-Young
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.73-86
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    • 1995
  • This paper demonstrates Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has to be applied for development projects with regard to the ecological, economical and social aspects before any decisions made in the project. Korea has confronted various environmental problems during the last fifteen years, even though EIA has been enacted since 1981. The role of impact assessment in planning and policy processes should be emphasized to investigate the magnitude and intensity of the adverse influences of economic development. In the Seoul Metropolitan Region, it is necessary to apply EIA all urban projects to reduce the adverse effects of urbanization. Special attention should be given to the climatological effects throughout the urbanization process in Korea to keep the urban area energy-efficient. This study intends not only to establish basic data for national-and regional-based land-use policy in the environmental aspects, but also to provide the basic data for the possible climate model (scenarios) that may provide spatial and temporal variability by analyzing the actual climatic record. There is a noticeable impact of urbanization on the atmospheric environment in the Seoul Metropolitan Region. In this sense, the climatic aspect must be taken into consideration in the process of EIA to mitigate the well-known climatic alterations of urbanization. Moreover, the techniques of assessment should be improved by developing geo-reference data sets to build models of the global climate in response to the man-made environmental change.

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The use of Gradient Analysis in Spatial Understanding of Urbanization (단계적 변화 분석(gradient analysis)을 적용한 도시화의 공간적 평가)

  • Lee, Dong-Kun;Choe, Hye-Yeong
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.357-366
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    • 2008
  • It is certain that urbanization has transformed the ecological consequences severely, but urban ecosystem is not fully understood yet. Urban growth is not like a static form and it spreads spatially and temporally. Therefore in studying urban ecosystem, it is important to relate the spatial pattern of urbanization to ecological processes. Using gradient analysis, we attempted to quantify the urbanization's spatial impacts in Daejeon-city and Cheonan-city, Chungcheong-province, Korea. Because of Multifunctional Administrative City Planning (MACP), a lot of development projects are planned in Chungcheong-province, Korea. It's important to study about original cities' patterns and impacts. These results can be adopted to future city planning. So several measures such as fragmentation, vegetation index, surface temperature, population density, and income rate were computed along a 75km long and 3km wide transect. The results showed that Daejeon-city has a wider urban center, lower vegetation indexes, and higher surface temperature than Cheonan-city. Therefore in the perspective of urban environments and sustainable urbanism, it seems that Cheonan-city is better than Daejeon-city. The changes along the transect have important ecological implications, and quantifying the urbanization gradient is an important step in understanding urban ecology.

Does Urbanization Indeed Increase Disaster Damages? - Lessons from Gyeonggi Province, South Korea (도시화가 자연재해를 늘리는가? - 경기도 사례를 중심으로)

  • Choi, Choong-Ik
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.3-27
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    • 2010
  • This study empirically investigates whether urbanization triggers urban disaster damages in the metropolitan areas of Korea by applying panel data analysis. Issues are approached with respect to the perspective that increased natural disaster damages are closely related with urbanization. This paper describes the conceptual framework of disaster management to understand the factors that determine urban disaster damages in Korea. This study used a simplified model with some key factors for analysis, because flood damage factors in urban areas are too diverse, and a full understanding of every cause is not feasible. The results indicate that urbanization does not necessarily lead to increasing urban disaster damages and if properly managed, urbanization can actually reduce urban disaster damage.

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Effect of Climate Change and Urbanization on Flow and BOD Concentration Duration Curves (기후변화 및 도시화에 따른 유황곡선 및 BOD 농도지속곡선 변화)

  • Park, Kyung-Shin;Chung, Eun-Sung;Kim, Sang-Ug;Lee, Kil-Seong
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.42 no.12
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    • pp.1091-1102
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    • 2009
  • This study developed an integrated approach to climate change and urbanization impact assessment by linking models of SDSM (statistical downscaling model), HSPF (hydrological simulation program?Fortran) and ICM (impervious cover model). A case study of the Anyangcheon watershed illustrated how the proposed framework can be used to analyze the impacts of climate change and urbanization in terms of flood control, water security and water quality. The evaluation criteria were the variations of flow and pollutant concentration duration curves. In this study, nine scenarios including three climate (present condition, A1B and A2) and three urbanization scenarios were analyzed using HSPF model. As a result, climate change is a large influence on the flowrate and the urbanization affects the pollutant concentration. Therefore, the impacts of both climate change and urbanization must be included into the watershed management and water resources planning for sustainable development.

Intervention Analysis of Urbanization Effect on Rainfall Data at the Seoul Rain Gauge Station (서울지점 강우자료에 나타난 도시화의 간섭 분석)

  • Yoo, Chul-Sang;Kim, Dae-Ha;Park, Sang-Hyoung;Kim, Byung-Su;Park, Chang-Yeol
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.40 no.8
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    • pp.629-641
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    • 2007
  • This study estimated the urbanization effect of Seoul, the largest city in Korea, on its rainfall. For a comparative analysis, two different data sets are used: One is the precipitation data at the Jeonju rain gauge station, which has a relatively long record length but least urbanization effect, and the other at the Ichon rain gauge station, which has a short record length but located very near to Seoul with least urbanization effect. Also, the difference of the rainfall between Seoul and Jeonju rain gauge stations, as an indicator of urbanization effect, is quantified by use of the intervention model. As a result, it was found that the maximum rainfall intensity of the annual maximum rainfall events shows the increasing trend, its duration the decreasing trend, and the mean intensity the decreasing trend especially after 1960. Also, the quantification of urbanization effect using the intervention model shows that the increasing trend of rainfall intensity and total volume is still on going.

Urbanization Effect on the Observed Warming in Korea during the Recent Half Century (우리나라의 기온상승-도시효과인가 지구온난화인가)

  • 윤진일
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.58-63
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    • 2002
  • Since the rapid urbanization period coincides with the start of global warming, climate data might be contaminated with urbanization effect in Korea. Monthly normals of daily minimum, maximum, and mean temperature of 14 stations were calculated for 1951-1980 and 1971-2000 periods. Differences in two temperature normals were regressed to the natural logarithms of population increase at corresponding 14 cities from 1966 to 1990. The regression models were used to remove potential effects of urbanization from the apparent warming, and to determine the net contribution of global warming to the temperature change in Korea during the recent half century. According to the model calculation, there was little evidence of global warming in the warm season (May through November), while urbanization effect was common in all season except April. Up to 0.5$^{\circ}C$ warming of nighttime temperature was found to be induced by urbanization. Cool season temperature was increased by up to 0.6$^{\circ}C$ due mainly to the global warming of daytime temperature.

Study on the Climate Change and the Urbanization Effect in Busan (부산의 도시기후 변화 경향과 도시화 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Myung-Hee;Lee, Joon-Soo;Ahn, Ji-Suk;Shu, Young-Sang;Han, In-Seng;Kim, Hae-Dong
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.401-409
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    • 2012
  • This study examines the climatological variability of urban area and the increase of temperature by urbanization using the observed data of Busan and Mokpo during the last 100 years (1910~2010). The results are as follows. First, the maximum temperature in Busan during the last 100 years has increased by $1.5^{\circ}C$ while average temperature and the minimum temperature have increased by $1.6^{\circ}C$ and $2^{\circ}C$. In Mokpo, the maximum temperature and average temperature have increased by $1^{\circ}C$ and the minimum temperature has increased by $0.8^{\circ}C$. The increase of urban temperature appeared to be higher in Busan than in Mokpo by $0.5^{\circ}C{\sim}1.2^{\circ}C$. Second, as for the change in temperature before and after urbanization, the maximum temperature, average temperature and the minimum temperature during last 50 years compared to the previous 50 years have increased about $1.5^{\circ}C$, $1.6^{\circ}C$ and $2.1^{\circ}C$, however, the predicted temperature after removing urbanization effect was estimated to be increased by $1^{\circ}C$. The proportion that urbanization takes on the overall increase of temperature appeared to be 33% at the maximum temperature, 37.5% at average temperature and 52.3% at the minimum temperature, thus the proportion of urbanization appeared to be maximized at the minimum temperature.