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A clinical study of allergic rhinitis (알레르기 비염에 관한 임상적 연구)

  • 채병윤
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.149-165
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    • 2000
  • As recent developments of Immunology and Nuclear medicine, serum IgE and IgG values are helpful in the diagnosis and evaluation of the therapeutic effects of nasal allergies. But in Korea, air pollution and the increased use of food additives have become leading factors in nasal allergies, It seems to be induced by environmental change, especially industrialization and urbanization, so allergic rhinitis in our environment has changed in accordance with the changes made in the living environment. Therefore this study is attempted in order to observe a clinical analysis which places more importance on allergic rhinitis. We studied 200 patients who had visited Kyunghee Oriental Medical Center with allergic rhinitis from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 1999 The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution was 114 males(57%) and 86 females(43%). In age distribution, the average age was 25. In males, ages ranged from 3 to 66 years old and the average was 23.81. In females, ages ranged from 4 to 67 years old and the average was 28.57. The peak age was 30~39 years old(24%); under 9 years old and 10~19 years old were each 18%; 20~29 years old was 22%; 40~49 years old was 11 %; over 50 years old 6.5%. The gulf between males and females showed a statistically significant difference(P<0.025). 2. In the age of onset, male' s maximum was 62.5, minimum was 0.25; female s maximum was 59.5, minimum was 0.2. Under 9 years old was the most with 34%(male 24%, female 10%), 10~19 years old was 18%, 20~29 years old was 22.5%, 30~39 years old was 13.50%, over 40 years old was 12%, The gulf between males and females were showed statistically significant difference.(p<0.014) 3. The average duration of the disease was 5.67 years. In male and female, the maximum was 30, the minimum was 0.05; under 5 years old was the most with 62%(male 34.50%, female 27.50%); 6~10 years old was 23%. So, under 10 years old was 85%. There was no statistically significant difference in the duration of disease. 4. Regarding type of residence, 47.50% of patients with allergic rhinitis lived in apartments, 52.50% lived in houses. In males, 29.50% lived in apartments, 27.50% lived in houses. In females, 18% lived in apartments, 25% lived in houses. There was no statistically significant difference in the residence by T-test and chi-test. 5. In the distribution of season, spring is the most with 29.5% of patients, winter 28%, fall 25.5%, and summer 17%. But there was no statistically significant difference. 6. After observing 200 patients with allergic rhinitis, classifying main symptoms into 5 types, sneezing was the main symptom in 177cases(88.50%), nasal obstruction in 176cases(88%), rhinorrhea in 169cases(84.5%), post nasal discharge in 87cases(43.50%), and itching in I04cases(52%). The Cumulus ration is 98.50% and symptoms overlapped with an average 3.57±0.1 times but in an analysis of variance of these symptoms, the gulf between males and females was not recognized as statistically significant by T-test and ANOVA. 7. Patients whose families have allergic diseases account for 90 cases(45%) : 49cases(24.50%) male and 41cases(20.50%) female. There were 4 cases (71.11 %) whose families have allergic rhinitis, 9cases(10%) of asthma, and 7.78% with allergic dermatitis. There were 61 (67.80%) cases of patients whose parents have allergic diseases; cases wherein the patient s child had allergic diseases numbered 13 (14.45%); and cases with a sibling with allergic diseases totalled 16cases (17.80%). There was no statistically significant difference in allergic disease regarding sex, parents, or siblings by chi-test. 8. Blood type: For males, type A is the most common, with 37cases(18.5%), followed by type B with 32cases(16%), type O 28cases(l4%) and type AB 13cases(6.5%). For females, type B is the most common, with 30cases(15%), followed by type O with 23cases(l1.5%), type A with 18cases(9%) and type AB with 13cases(6.5%). There was no statistically significant difference in blood type by chi-test. 9. In the selection of prefered food, most patients prefer cool food, with 98 such cases(49%), tepid food in 54cases(27%) and warm food in 48cases(24%). These showed a statistically significant difference in the selection of prefered food between males and females by chi-test(p<0.009). 10. The state of Past History was classified into II types. chronic hypertrophic rhinitis is the most common with 11cases (18.64%), tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy is 8cases(l3.56%), sinusitis is 6cases(10.17%), nasal septum deviation is 4cases, nasal polyp is 2cases, others are 10cases(l6.95%). No statistically significant difference in past history between males and females was shown, but a statistically significant difference was shown when males and females were compared with total cases by T-test(p<0.002, P<0.0008). 11. Regarding complications, 37 patients (28.91%) had sinusitis: 22cases(17.19%) in male, 15cases(11.72%) in female. Chronic hypertrophic rhinitis was found in 15cases(11.72%). Others are under 10%. There was no statistically significant difference in the type of complications between males and females, but a statistically significant difference was shown when males and females were compared with total cases by T-test(P<0.00l, P<0.007). 12. In the treatment, medication was used 1691 times, an average of 2.58 times. No.34 was used 370 times for 124 cases, an average of 2.98 times. No. 152 was used 318 times for 106 cases, an average of 3.00 times. No.151 was used 307 times for 97cases, an average of 3.16 times. No. 31 was used 117 times for 33 cases, an average of 3.55 times. No 25 was used 116 times for 33 cases, an average of 3.52 times. 13. In the duration of treatment, the most frequent is 1 week(69cases, 34.50%), the maximum is 20weeks, and the minimum is 1week. A treatment period of 2~3 weeks accounted for 32% of cases, a period of 4~5weeks accounted for 13.5%. The gulf between males and females showed a statistically significant difference in the duration of treatment.(p<0.01). There was a statistical significance when the males were compared with total cases by ANOVA(P<0.03). 14. A comparison between before-treatment and after-treatment showed a statistically significant difference in treatment by T-test (p<0.01) and F-test (p<0.0058).

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Ecological Studies on the Forest Vegetation in the Mt. Joghe (조계산(曹溪山) 삼림식생(森林植生)의 생태학적(生態學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Chang, Seok Mo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.80 no.1
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    • pp.54-71
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    • 1991
  • To classify and analyze the forest communities and their structures, the vegetation in Mt. Joghe was investigated from July, 1980 to August, 1989. The results obtained are as follow ; 1. A total of 750 kinds of vascular plant(49 orders, 122 families, 434 genera, 627 species, 1 subspecies, 111 varieties and 11 forma)were observed in Mt. Ioghe. The newly observed plant species were Dioscorea quingueloba, Spiranthes sinensis, Cephalanthera falcata, Angelica gigas, Clematis patents, Paeonia obovata, Hibiscus mulabilis, Ainsliaea acerifolia, Dictamnus dasycarpus, Cynachum ascyrifolia, Vaccinium koreanum, Erythrortium japonicum, Indigofera kirilowii (17species), Broussonetia kazinoki var, humillis, Euonymus, fortunei var. radicans, Juniperus communis var, nippnnica, Callicarpa japonica var. radicans, Joniperus communis var. rzipponica, Callicarpa japonica var. taquetii (4 varieties) and L indera obtusiloba for. billosum (1 forma). 2. The life spectrum of flora in Mt. Joghe was classified into $CH-D_1-R_5-e$ type. Distribution area was identical to Southern type by Nakai, Lee, and Yim. A few subtropical species were also observed. 3. Simpson's species diversity index(Ds) was 0.9 and Shannon-Weiner's diversity index (H') was 1.004. These indice suggest that the vegetation in Mt. Joghe is of complicated forest communities. 4. Pte-Q was 1.81 which was higher than the nationwide mean of 1.68. Urbanization Index (UI) was 28.75 for naturalized plant species, and 17.49 for exotic woody plant species, which were similar to those of Mt. Baekun and Mt. Naejang. 5. The forest vegetation of Mt. Joghe was grouped in 3 vegetation types : 7 natural plant Communities dominated by Quercus serrat, Quercus acutissima, Quercus variabilis, Carpinus laxiflora, Pinus derasiflora and Platycarya strobilacea, 8 substitutional plant communities Styrax japonica, Stewartia koreana, Lindera erytlrrocarpa, Zelkova serrata, Rhtrs chinensis, Controversa, and Frzrxirtus manrlshurica, and 7 plantation Communities composed of Pinus koraiensis, Pinus rigida, Magnolia nbnvata, Chamecyparis obkrsa, Larie ieptolepis, Castanea crenata and Cryptomeria japonica. 6. Actual vegetation maps and profile diagrams were made by phytosocialogical classification. 7. As the important and unique species in Mt. Joghe, Lindera sericea, Penicaria tilitorme, Hex macropoda, Hex macropoda for. pseudo-macropoda, Steroartia koreana, Adenopkora palustris and Corylop.,is coreana, which were also seported by Lee(1977), Kim and Yark(1989), were identified and Vaccinium coreanum, Cremastra appendiculinium, Juniperus comminis van. nipponica, Cephalanthera falcata, Broussortetia kazinoki var. humilis, paeonia obovata, Deutzia prunifolia, Dictamnus dasyarpus, Angelica gigics and Bupleurum falcatum were odditionally observed.

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A Study on the Use of GIS-based Time Series Spatial Data for Streamflow Depletion Assessment (하천 건천화 평가를 위한 GIS 기반의 시계열 공간자료 활용에 관한 연구)

  • YOO, Jae-Hyun;KIM, Kye-Hyun;PARK, Yong-Gil;LEE, Gi-Hun;KIM, Seong-Joon;JUNG, Chung-Gil
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.50-63
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    • 2018
  • The rapid urbanization had led to a distortion of natural hydrological cycle system. The change in hydrological cycle structure is causing streamflow depletion, changing the existing use tendency of water resources. To manage such phenomena, a streamflow depletion impact assessment technology to forecast depletion is required. For performing such technology, it is indispensable to build GIS-based spatial data as fundamental data, but there is a shortage of related research. Therefore, this study was conducted to use the use of GIS-based time series spatial data for streamflow depletion assessment. For this study, GIS data over decades of changes on a national scale were constructed, targeting 6 streamflow depletion impact factors (weather, soil depth, forest density, road network, groundwater usage and landuse) and the data were used as the basic data for the operation of continuous hydrologic model. Focusing on these impact factors, the causes for streamflow depletion were analyzed depending on time series. Then, using distributed continuous hydrologic model based DrySAT, annual runoff of each streamflow depletion impact factor was measured and depletion assessment was conducted. As a result, the default value of annual runoff was measured at 977.9mm under the given weather condition without considering other factors. When considering the decrease in soil depth, the increase in forest density, road development, and groundwater usage, along with the change in land use and development, and annual runoff were measured at 1,003.5mm, 942.1mm, 961.9mm, 915.5mm, and 1003.7mm, respectively. The results showed that the major causes of the streaflow depletion were lowered soil depth to decrease the infiltration volume and surface runoff thereby decreasing streamflow; the increased forest density to decrease surface runoff; the increased road network to decrease the sub-surface flow; the increased groundwater use from undiscriminated development to decrease the baseflow; increased impervious areas to increase surface runoff. Also, each standard watershed depending on the grade of depletion was indicated, based on the definition of streamflow depletion and the range of grade. Considering the weather, the decrease in soil depth, the increase in forest density, road development, and groundwater usage, and the change in land use and development, the grade of depletion were 2.1, 2.2, 2.5, 2.3, 2.8, 2.2, respectively. Among the five streamflow depletion impact factors except rainfall condition, the change in groundwater usage showed the biggest influence on depletion, followed by the change in forest density, road construction, land use, and soil depth. In conclusion, it is anticipated that a national streamflow depletion assessment system to be develop in the future would provide customized depletion management and prevention plans based on the system assessment results regarding future data changes of the six streamflow depletion impact factors and the prospect of depletion progress.

The Characteristics of Rural Population, Korea, 1960~1995: Population Composition and Internal Migration (농촌인구의 특성과 그 변화, 1960~1995: 인구구성 및 인구이동)

  • 김태헌
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.77-105
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    • 1996
  • The rural problems which we are facing start from the extremely small sized population and the skewed population structure by age and sex. Thus we analyzed the change of the rural population. And we analyzed the recent return migration to the rural areas by comparing the recent in-migrants with out-migrants to rural areas. And by analyzing the rural village survey data which was to show the current characteristics of rural population, we found out the effects of the in-migrants to the rural areas and predicted the futures of rural villages by characteristics. The changes of rural population composition by age was very clear. As the out-migrants towards cities carried on, the population composition of young children aged 0~4 years was low and the aged became thick. The proportion of the population aged 0~4 years was 45.1% of the total population in 1970 and dropped down to 20.4% in 1995, which is predicted to become under 20% from now on. In the same period(1970~1995), the population aged 65 years and over rose from 4.2% to 11.9%. In 1960, before industrialization, the proportion of the population aged 0~4 years in rural areas was higher than that of cities. As the rural young population continuously moves to cities it became lower than that in urban areas from 1975 and the gap grew till 1990. But the proportion of rural population aged 0~4 years in 1995 became 6.2% and the gap reduced. We can say this is the change of the characteristics of in-migrants and out-migrants in the rural areas. Also considering the composition of the population by age group moving from urban to rural area in the late 1980s, 51.8% of the total migrants concentrates upon age group of 20~34 years and these people's educational level was higher than that of out-migrants to urban areas. This fact predicted the changes of the rural population, and the results will turn out as a change in the rural society. However, after comparing the population structure between the pure rural village of Boeun-gun and suburban village of Paju-gun which was agriculture centered village but recently changed rapidly, the recent change of the rural population structure which the in-migrants to rural areas becomes younger is just a phenomenon in the suburban rural areas, not the change of the total rural areas in general. From the characteristics of the population structure of rural village from the field survey on these villages, we can see that in the pure rural villages without any effects from cities the regidents are highly aged, while industrialization and urbanization are making a progress in suburban villages. Therefore, the recent partial change of the rural population structure and the change of characteristics of the in-migrants toward rural areas is effecting and being effected by the population change of areas like suburban rural villages. Although there are return migrants to rural areas to change their jobs into agriculture, this is too minor to appear as a statistic effect.

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Problems in the Korean National Family Planning Program (한국가족계획사업(韓國家族計劃事業)의 문제점(問題點))

  • Hong, Jong-Kwan
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 1975
  • The success of the family planning program in Korea is reflected in the decrease in the growth rate from 3.0% in 1962 to 2.0% in 1971, and in the decrease in the fertility rate from 43/1,000 in 1960 to 29/1,000 in 1970. However, it would be erroneous to attribute these reductions entirely to the family planning program. Other socio-economic factors, such as the increasing age at marriage and the increasing use of induced abortions, definitely had an impact on the lowered growth and fertility rate. Despite the relative success of the program to data in meeting its goals, there is no room for complacency. Meeting the goal of a further reduction in the population growth rate to 1.3% by 1981 is a much more difficult task than any one faced in the past. Not only must fertility be lowered further, but the size of the target population itself will expand tremendously in the late seventies; due to the post-war baby boom of the 1950's reaching reproductive ages. Furthermore, it is doubtful that the age at marriage will continue to rise as in the past or that the incidence of induced abortion will continue to increase. Consequently, future reductions in fertility will be more dependent on the performance of the national family planning program, with less assistance from these non-program factors. This paper will describe various approaches to help to the solution of these current problems. 1. PRACTICE RATE IN FAMILY PLANNING In 1973, the attitude (approval) and knowledge rates were quite high; 94% and 98% respectively. But a large gap exists between that and the actual practice rate, which is only 3695. Two factors must be considered in attempting to close the KAP-gap. The first is to change social norms, which still favor a larger family, increasing the practice rate cannot be done very quickly. The second point to consider is that the family planning program has not yet reached all the eligible women. A 1973 study determineded that a large portion, 3096 in fact, of all eligible women do not want more children, but are not practicing family planning. Thus, future efforts to help close the KAP-gap must focus attention and services on this important large group of potential acceptors. 2. CONTINUATION RATES Dissatisfaction with the loop and pill has resulted in high discontinuation rates. For example, a 1973 survey revealed that within the first six months initial loop acceptance. nearly 50% were dropouts, and that within the first four months of inital pill acceptance. nearly 50% were dropouts. These discontinuation rates have risen over the past few years. The high rate of discontinuance obviously decreases the contraceptive effectiveness. and has resulted in many unwanted births which is directly related to the increase of induced abortions. In the future, the family planning program must emphasize the improved quality of initial and follow-up services. rather than more quantity, in order to insure higher continuation rates and thus more effective contraceptive protection. 3. INDUCED ABORTION As noted earlier. the use of induced abortions has been increase yearly. For example, in 1960, the average number of abortions was 0.6 abortions per women in the 15-44 age range. By 1970. that had increased to 2 abortions per women. In 1966. 13% of all women between 15-44 had experienced at least one abortion. By 1971, that figure jumped to 28%. In 1973 alone, the total number of abortions was 400,000. Besides the ever incre.sing number of induced abortions, another change has that those who use abortions have shifted since 1965 to include- not. only the middle class, but also rural and low-income women. In the future. in response to the demand for abortion services among rural and low-income w~men, the government must provide and support abortion services for these women as a part of the national family planning program. 4. TARGET SYSTIi:M Since 1962, the nationwide target system has been used to set a target for each method, and the target number of acceptors is then apportioned out to various sub-areas according to the number of eligible couples in each area. Because these targets are set without consideration for demographic factors, particular tastes, prejudices, and previous patterns of acceptance in the area, a high discontinuation rate for all methods and a high wastage rate for the oral pill and condom results. In the future. to alleviate these problems of the methodbased target system. an alternative. such as the weighted-credit system, should be adopted on a nation wide basis. In this system. each contraceptive method is. assigned a specific number of points based upon the couple-years of protection (CYP) provided by the method. and no specific targets for each method are given. 5. INCREASE OF STERILIZA.TION TARGET Two special projects. the hospital-based family planning program and the armed forces program, has greatly contributed to the increasing acceptance in female and male sterilization respectively. From January-September 1974, 28,773 sterilizations were performed. During the same time in 1975, 46,894 were performed; a 63% increase. If this trend continues, by the end of 1975. approximately 70,000 sterilizations will have been performed. Sterilization is a much better method than both the loop and pill, in terms of more effective contraceptive protection and the almost zero dropout rate. In the future, the. family planning program should continue to stress the special programs which make more sterilizations possible. In particular, it should seek to add the laparoscope techniques to facilitate female sterilization acceptance rates. 6. INCREASE NUMBER OF PRIVATE ACCEPTORS Among the current family planning users, approximately 1/3 are in the private sector and thus do not- require government subsidy. The number of private acceptors increases with increasing urbanization and economic growth. To speed this process, the government initiated the special hospital based family planning program which is utilized mostly by the private sector. However, in the future, to further hasten the increase of private acceptors, the government should encourage doctors in private practice to provide family planning services, and provide the contraceptive supplies. This way, those do utilize the private medical system will also be able to receive family planning services and pay for it. Another means of increasing the number of private acceptors, IS to greatly expand the commercial outlets for pills and condoms beyond the existing service points of drugstores, hospitals, and health centers. 7. IE&C PROGRAM The current preferred family size is nearly twice as high as needed to achieve a stable poplation. Also, a strong boy preference hinders a small family size as nearly all couples fuel they must have at least one or more sons. The IE&C program must, in the future, strive to emphasize the values of the small family and equality of the sexes. A second problem for the IE&C program to work. with in the: future is the large group of people who approves family planning, want no more children, but do not practice. The IE&C program must work to motivate these people to accept family planning And finally, for those who already practice, an IE&C program in the future must stress continuation of use. The IE&C campaign, to insure highest effectiveness, should be based on a detailed factor analysis of contraceptive discontinuance. In conclusion, Korea faces a serious unfavorable sociodemographic situation- in the future unless the population growth rate can be curtailed. And in the future, the decrease in fertility will depend solely on the family planning program, as the effect of other socio-economic factors has already been maximumally felt. A second serious factor to consider is the increasing number of eligible women due to the 1950's baby boom. Thus, to meet these challenges, the program target must be increased and the program must improve the effectiveness of its current activities and develop new programs.

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