• Title, Summary, Keyword: Upsetting pressure

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Optimization for Friction Welding of AZ31 Mg Alloy by Design of Experiments (실험계획법에 의한 AZ31마그네슘합금의 마찰접합시 최적공정설계)

  • Kang, Dae-Min;Kwak, Jae-Seob;Choi, Jong-Whan;Park, Kyeong-Do
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.64-69
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    • 2011
  • Magnesium alloy has been known as lightweight material in automobile and electronic industry with aluminum alloy, titanium alloy and plastic material. Friction welding is useful to join different kinds of metals and nonferrous metals they are difficult to be joined by such as gas welding, resistance welding and electronic beam welding. In this study, friction welding was performed to investigate optimization process of Mg alloy with a 20mm diameter solid bar. For that, the orthogonal array $(L_{9}(3^{4}))$ was used that contained four factors and each factor had three levels. Control factors were heating pressure, heating time, upsetting pressure and upsetting time. Also tensile tests were carried out to measure mechanical properties for welded conditions. The levels of heating pressure and upsetting pressure used were 15, 25, 35MPa, and 30, 50, 70MPa, respectively. In addition those of heating time and upsetting time were 0.5, 1, 1.5 sec and 3, 4, 5 sec., respectively, rotating speed of 2000rpm. From the experimental results, optimization condition was estimated as follows; heating pressure=35MPa, upsetting pressure=70MPa, heating time=1.5sec, upsetting time=3sec.

A Experimental Study on Strength Safety of Rail Steel using Gas Pressure Welding (레일 가스압접부의 강도 안전성에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Kim, Kyung-Seob
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.266-271
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out for the purpose of improving driving safety and comfort of the railways quickly becoming popular. To conducted gas pressure welding to ensure the strength safety of continuous welded rail and rotating bending test tensile test was conducted. The element to determine the tensile strength of gas pressure welds at experiments be attributed to more upsetting length than pressure, according to increases of upsetting length, from brittle fracture to ductile fracture was observed. Through the biopsy of the fracture surface, according to the presence of brittle fracture could be evaluated to strength safety. In addition, mechanical strength of gas pressure welding depending on changes in upsetting length was different. Rotary bending test results were obtained to the infinite life according to exhibited higher fatigue limit of 373MPa at upsetting length 25mm.

Mechanical Properties of Friction Joint of AZ31Mg Alloy (AZ31마그네슘합금의 마찰접합특성)

  • Kong, Y.S.;Chun, B.K.;Kang, D.M.
    • Transactions of Materials Processing
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.277-282
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    • 2010
  • Magnesium alloy has been known as lightweight material in automobile and electronic industry with aluminum alloy, titanium alloy and plastic material. Friction welding is useful to join various metals and nonferrous metals that are difficult to join by such as gas welding, resistance welding and electronic beam welding. In this study, friction joining was performed to investigate mechanical properties of Mg alloy with 20mm diameter solid bar. Also the optimal joining conditions for its application were determined on the basis of tensile test, and hardness survey. The joining parameters were chosen as heating pressure, heating time, upsetting pressure, and upsetting time. Heating and upsetting pressure were executed under the range of 10~40MPa and 20~80MPa, respectively. From the experimental results, optimal joining conditions were determined as follows; rotating speed=2000rpm, heating pressure=35MPa, upsetting pressure=70MPa, heating time=1sec, upsetting time=5sec. Also the hardness of jointed boundary showed as HV50 which was similar to that of base metal at the optimal condition, and it was supposed that zone of HAZ was 8mm. Finally two materials were strongly mixed at interface part to show a well-combined microstructure without particle growth or any defect.

The bonding mechanism and bond strength of cold pressure welding (엡셋팅에 의한 냉간 압접의 결합 기구와 결합강도)

  • 한인철;김재도
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 1990
  • The bonding mechanism and bond strength were investigated for the cold pressure welding of Al to Al, Cu to Cu and Al to Cu by upsetting. A phenomenon of bonding betweenthe metallic components has been observed by a scanning electron microscope and metallurgical microscope. A modified equation for bond strength with respect to the reduction of height shows reasonably a good agreement with the experimental data. When the values of the hardening factor and threshold deformation for the given materials could be determined, the theoretical bond strength can be calculated.

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Study on the Deformation of Die and Product in Closed Die Upsetting (밀폐 업셋팅에서 금형과 제품 변형에 관한 연구)

  • 이강희;박용복
    • Transactions of Materials Processing
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.563-568
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    • 1999
  • The study has been performed for the relation between die and product in closed die upsetting by the experiment. The strain of die has been given by the simple experiment using the strain gauge located at the outer surface of die and the deformation history of die and product has been given by the experiment and Lame's formula. The inner pressure of die causes the deformation of die that affects the accuracy of dimension and shape of product. The product with accurate dimension and shape can be obtained by analysing elastic deformation of die during upsetting process. The deformation of die during metal forming process has been usually predicted by the experience of industrial engineers or finite element analysis. But it is difficult to predict the dimension of product at unloading and ejected states. The study has given useful result for the deformation history of die and product through the experiment and Lame's formula at closed die upsetting, and can be applied in the die design for product with accurate dimension.

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Finite Element Simulation of a Pore Closing Process during Upsetting in Open Die Forging (자유단조에서 업세팅 공정 중 기공 압착 과정의 유한요소 시뮬레이션)

  • Lee, M.C.;Cho, J.H.;Choi, I.S.;Jang, S.M.;Joun, M.S.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Technology of Plasticity Conference
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    • pp.79-83
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    • 2008
  • We carry out three-dimensional simulation of pore closing processes during upsetting in open die forging. Several pores on a plane section of a cylindrical material are traced at the same time and the results of hydrostatic pressure and effective strain are discussed to reveal the parameters affecting pore closing phenomena. Five different sizes of pores are also investigated by simulation to reveal the pore size effect in pore closing during upsetting. AFDEX 3D is employed for this study.

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Experimental and Analytical Study on the Die Wear during the Upsetting Processes (업셋팅 금형의 마모 실험 및 해석)

  • 박종남;김태형;강범수;이상용;이정환
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Technology of Plasticity Conference
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    • pp.122-130
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    • 1996
  • During the cold forming, due to high working pressure acting on the die surface, failure mechanics must be considered before die design. One of the main reasons of die failure in industrial application of metal forming technologies is wear. Die wear affects the tolerances of formed parts, metal flow and costs of process etc. The only way to control these failures is to develop methods which allow prediction of die wear and costs of process etc. The only way to control these failures is to develop methods which allow prediction of die wear and which are suited to be used in the design state in order to optimize the process. In this paper, the wear experiments to abtain the wear coefficients and the upsetting processes was accomplished to observe the wear phenomenon during the cold forming process. The analysis of upsetting processes was accomplished to observe the wear phenomenon during the cold forming process. The analysis of upsetting processes was accomplished by the rigid-plastic finite element method. The result from the deformation analysis was used to analyse the die wear during the processes and the predicted die wear profiles were compared with the measured die wear profiles.

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A Study on Friction Welding of Localized SPS5 Spring Steel (국산 SPS5 스프링강의 마찰용접에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, S.U.
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.803-808
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    • 2000
  • This thesis studied whether friction welding of SPSS, localized torsion bar material could be accomplished or not. And then optimum welding conditions were examined and leaded through tensile, impact, torsion and hardness test after postweld heat treatment of the actual field condition. Obtained results were as follows; Linear relationship was existed between heating time and total upset, and a quadratic equation model could be made between tensile strength and heating time. Optimum welding conditions with fine structure were as follows in case total upset(U)=8.5mm; the number of rotations(n)=2,000 rpm, heating pressure($p_1$)=80MPa, upset pressure($p_2$)=200MPa, heating time($t_1$)=4sec, upset time($t_2$)=3 sec.

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Evaluation on Dynamic Behavior of Friction Welded Joints in Alloy718 to SCM440 using Acoustic Emission Technique (Alloy718/SCM440 마찰용접재의 AE에 의한 동적 거동평가)

  • Kim, Dong-Gyu;Kong, Yu-Sik;Lee, Jin-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Industry Convergence
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.491-497
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    • 2019
  • Dissimilar friction welding were produced using 15 mm diameter solid bar in superalloy(Alloy718) to chrome molybdenum steel(SCM440) to investigate their mechanical properties. Consequently, optimal welding conditions were n=2000 rpm, HP=60 MPa, UP=120 MPa, HT=10 sec and UT=10 sec when the metal loss(Mo) is 3.5 mm. Acoustic Emission(AE) technique was applied to analyze the dissimilar friction welding of Alloy718 and SCM440. The relationship between the AE parameters and dissimilar friction welding of both material was discussed. In the case of heating time of 6 sec, 10 sec, 14 sec and 20 sec, 5 AE events per 0.5 seconds and energy about $2.7{\times}10^{10}$ were exhibited in heating time. In upsetting time, resulting in various numbers of events per second and very low energy. The frequency range of the signal generated during the heating time was about 200 kHz. However, the upsetting time resulted in a wide range of signals from very low frequency to high frequency of 500 kHz due to rapid plasticity of the material.

A Study on the Improvement of Forming Process of Power Assisted Steering Part (PAS부품의 공정개선에 관한 연구)

  • 윤대영;황병복;유태곤
    • Transactions of Materials Processing
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.265-273
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    • 2000
  • The conventional and new forging processes of the power steering worm blank are analyzed by the rigid-plastic finite element method. The conventional process contains three stages such as indentation, extrusion and upsetting, which was designed by a forming equipment expert. Process conditions such as reduction in area, semi-die angle and upsetting ratio are considered to prevent internal or geometrical defects. The results of simulation of the conventional forging process are summarized in terms of deformation patterns, load-stroke relationships and die pressures for each forming operation. Based on the simulation results of the current three-stage, the power steering worm blank forging process for improving the conventional process sequence is designed. Die pressures and forming loads of proposed process are within limit value which is proposed by experts and the proposed process is found to be proper for manufacturing the power steering worm blank.

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