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Enhancement of Ozone and Carbon Monoxide Associated with Upper Cut-off Low during Springtime in East Asia

  • Moon, Yun-Seob;Drummond, James R.
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.475-489
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    • 2010
  • In order to verify the enhancement of ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) during springtime in East Asia, we investigated weather conditions and data from remote sensors, air quality models, and air quality monitors. These include the geopotential height archived from the final (FNL) meteorological field, the potential vorticity and the wind velocity simulated by the Meteorological Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5), the back trajectory estimated by the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, the total column amount of ozone and the aerosol index retrieved from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the total column density of CO retrieved from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), and the concentration of ozone and CO simulated by the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART). In particular, the total column density of CO, which mightoriginate from the combustion of fossil fuels and the burning of biomass in China, increased in East Asia during spring 2000. In addition, the enhancement of total column amounts of ozone and CO appeared to be associated with both the upper cut-off low near 500 hPa and the frontogenesis of a surface cyclone during a weak Asian dust event. At the same time, high concentrations of ozone and CO on the Earth's surface were shown at the Seoul air quality monitoring site, located at the surface frontogenesis in Korea. It was clear that the ozone was invaded by the downward stretched vortex anomalies, which included the ozone-rich airflow, during movement and development of the cut-off low, and then there was the catalytic photochemical reaction of ozone precursors on the Earth's surface during the day. In addition, air pollutants such as CO and aerosol were tracked along both the cyclone vortex and the strong westerly as shown at the back trajectory in Seoul and Busan, respectively. Consequently, the maxima of ozone and CO between the two areas showed up differently because of the time lag between those gases, including their catalytic photochemical reactions together with the invasion from the upper troposphere, as well as the path of their transport from China during the weak Asian dust event.

Asian Dust Transport during Blocking Episode Days over Korea

  • Moon, Yun-Seob;Kim, berly-Strong;Kim, Yoo-Keun;Lim, Yun-Kyu;Oh, In-Bo;Song, Sang-Keun;Bae, Joo-Hyon
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.111-120
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    • 2002
  • Asian dust(or yellow sand) occurs mainly in spring and occasionally in winter in east Asia, when the weather conditions are under an upper trough/cut-off low and surface high/low pressure system during blocking episode days associated with the stationary patterns of the upper level jet stream. The transport mechanism for Asian dust during the blocking episode days in spring 2001 was analyzed using the TOMS aerosol index and meteorological mesoscale model 5(MM5). Based on the E vector, an extension of an Eliassen-Palm flux, the blocking episode days were found to be associated with the development of an upper cut-off low and surface cyclones. Concurrently, the occurrence of dust storms was also determined by strong cold advection at the rear of a jet streak, which exhibited a maximum wind speed within the upper jet stream. As such, the transport mechanism for Asian dust from China was due to advection of the isentropic potential vorticity(IPV) and isentropic surfaces associated with tropopause folding. The transport heights for Asian dust during the blocking episode days were found to be associated with the distribution of the isentropes below the IPV At the same time, lee waves propagated by topography affected the downward motion and blocking of Asian dust in China. The Asian dust transported from the dust source regions was deposited by fallout and rain-out with a reinforcing frontogenesis within a surface cyclone, as determined from satellite images using TOMS and GMS5. Accordingly, these results emphasize the importance of forecasting jet streaks, the IPV, and isentropes with geopotential heights in east Asia.

Suggestion of Cutoff Frequency in the Washout Filter for a Wheel type Excavator (주행감각 재현을 위한 휠굴삭기용 Washout 필터 설계 및 한계값 추정)

  • Kim, Kwang-Suk;Yoo, Wan-Suk;Lee, Min-Cheol;Son, Kown;Lee, Jang-Myung;Choi, Dae-Hyoung;Park, Min-Gyu;Park, Hyoung-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.19-28
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    • 1999
  • In this study, a real-time simulation system and a washout algorithm for an excavator have been developed for a driving simulator with six degrees of freedom. The excavator model consisting of a boom. bucket, upper frame, lower frame and four wheels, has total 11 degrees of freedom. The suggested washout algorithm consists of high and low pass filters with second order. The high pass filters cut off low frequency of the motion cues limited by platform motion. The cut off frequency for the tilt coordination are suggested for a realistic regeneration of excavator motion.

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A Study on Magnetized Inductively Coupled Plasma Using Cutoff Probe (Cutoff Probe를 이용한 자화유도결합 플라즈마의 특성 연구)

  • Son, Eui-Jeong;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Lee, Ho-Jun
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.65 no.10
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    • pp.1706-1711
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    • 2016
  • Electromagnetic wave simulation was performed to predict characteristics of manufactured cutoff probe at low temperature magnetized plasma medium. Microwave cutoff probe is designed for research the properties of magnetized inductively coupled plasma. It was shown that the cutoff probe method can safely be used for weakly magnetized high density plasma sources. Cutoff probe system with two port network analyzer has been prepared and applied to measure electron density distributions in large area, 13.56MHz driven weakly magnetized inductively coupled plasma source. The results shown that, the plasma frequency confirmed cut-off characteristics in low temperature plasma. Especially, cut-off characteristics was found at upper hybrid resonance frequency in the environment of the magnetic field. In case of a induced weak magnetic field in inductively coupled plasma, plasma density estimated from the cutoff frequency in the same way at unmagnetized plasma due to nearly same plasma frequency and upper hybrid resonance frequency. The plasma density is increased and uniformity is improved by applying a induced weak magnetic field in inductively coupled plasma.

A Design of Low Profile Ku Band Parabolic Antenna using Elliptical Reflector Shape (타원 반사면 구조를 이용한 Low Profile Ku밴드 파라볼라 안테나의 설계)

  • Ryu, Daun;Lee, Kyung-Soon;Park, Dae-Kil;Koo, Kyung Heon
    • The Journal of Advanced Navigation Technology
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.466-471
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    • 2017
  • SOTM is a device for the satellite communication on the move. Many studies are conducted on microstrip, waveguide and array antenna for the low profile of the SOTM's antenna. But those antennas have a problem that is difficult to adjust the polarization, and for that reason we have studied the parabolic antenna structure. The general form of parabolic reflector structure is circular, but we used cut-off shape reflector by cutting the upper and lower reflector for low profile antenna. Accordingly, this results in the decrease of reflector area which causes reduced gain and G/T ratio. In order to solve this problem, we have transformed and designed the sub reflector for improving the efficiency and gain of the cut- off shape parabolic antenna.

Comparison of Development Mechanisms of Two Heavy Snowfall Events Occurred in Yeongnam and Yeongdong Regions of the Korean Peninsula (영동과 영남 지역에서 발생한 두 대설의 발달 메커니즘 비교)

  • Park, Ji-Hun;Kim, Kyung-Eak;Heo, Bok-Haeng
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.9-36
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    • 2009
  • Two heavy snowfall events occurred in Yeongnam and Yeongdong regions of the Korean Peninsula during the period from 4 to 6 March 2005 are analyzed. The events were developed by two different meso-scale snow clouds associated with an extratropical low passing over the Western Pacific. Based on synoptic data, GOES-9 satellite images, and precipitation amount data, the events were named as Sokcho and Busan cases, respectively. We analyzed the development mechanism of the events using meterological variables from the NCEP(National Centers for Environmental Prediction) /NCAR(National Centers for Atmospheric Research) reanalysis data such as potential vorticity(PV), divergence, tropopause undulation, static stability, and meridional wind circulation. The present analyses show that in the case of Sokcho, the cyclonic circulation in the lower atmosphere in the strong baroclinic region induced the cyclonic circulation in the upper atmosphere. The cyclonic circulation in the lower and upper atmosphere caused a heavy snowfall in the Sokcho region. In the case of Busan, the strong cyclonic circulation in the upper atmosphere was initiated by the stratospheric air intrusion with the high positive PV into the troposphere during the tropopause folding. The upper strong cyclonic circulation enhanced the cyclonic circulation in the lower disturbed atmosphere due to the extratropical low. This lower cyclonic circulation in turn, intensified the upper cyclonic circulation, that caused a heavy snowfall in the Busan region.

A Study on the Pressure Ulcers in Neurological Patients in Intensive Care Units (신경계 중환자의 욕창발생에 관한 연구)

  • Im, Mi-Ja;Park, Hyoung-Sook
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.190-199
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: To provide basic data and to identify the risk of pressure ulcers among neurological patients in ICU. Method: The participants in the study were on 78 neurological patients in the ICU of 3 hospitals. Data were collected every other day from 24 hours after admission, for up to 40 days or until discharge. The total period of data collection was 3 months. The risk assessment scales used for pressure ulcer were the Cubbin & Jackson(1991) scale and the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel(1989) skin assessment tool. Results: There was a significant relationship between having a pressure ulcers and weight, skin condition, mental status, respiration, hygiene and hemodynamic status compared to not having a pressure ulcer. The incidence rate of the pressure ulcer was 28.2%(n=22). Of these patients the mean number of hospitalization days until pressure ulcer development was 5.2 days. The most common pressure ulcer site was the coccyx(39.3%). Based on a cut-off point of 24, 9 patients with risk scores <24 on admission also showed risk score for development of pressure ulcers, 10 patients with pressure ulcer scores ${\geq}24$ were older, hospitalized for a longer time, had low serum albumin, low hemoglobin, diabetes mellitus and surgery. Conclusion: In order to make the Cubbin & Jackson risk assessment scales more useful, there is a need to determine the reliability of the upper cut-off point 24. The result also showed a need to assess other risk factors and for early identification of at-risk patients in order to provide preventive care from admission to discharge.

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Efficacy of mid-upper arm circumference in identification, follow-up and discharge of malnourished children during nutrition rehabilitation

  • Mogendi, Joseph Birundu;De Steur, Hans;Gellynck, Xavier;Saeed, Hibbah Araba;Makokha, Anselimo
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.268-277
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although it is crucial to identify those children likely to be treated in an appropriate nutrition rehabilitation programme and discharge them at the appropriate time, there is no golden standard for such identification. The current study examined the appropriateness of using Mid-Upper Arm Circumference for the identification, follow-up and discharge of malnourished children. We also assessed its discrepancy with the Weight-for-Height based diagnosis, the rate of recovery, and the discharge criteria of the children during nutrition rehabilitation. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study present findings from 156 children (aged 6-59 months) attending a supplementary feeding programme at Makadara and Jericho Health Centres, Eastern District of Nairobi, Kenya. Records of age, weight, height and mid-upper arm circumference were selected at three stages of nutrition rehabilitation: admission, follow-up and discharge. The values obtained were then used to calculate z-scores as defined by WHO Anthro while estimating different diagnostic indices. RESULTS: Mid-upper arm circumference single cut-off (< 12.5 cm) was found to exhibit high values of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio at both admission and discharge. Besides, children recorded higher rate of recovery at 86 days, an average increment of 0.98 cm at the rate of 0.14mm/day, and a weight gain of 13.49gm/day, albeit higher in female than their male counterparts. Nevertheless, children admitted on basis of low MUAC had a significantly higher MUAC gain than WH at 0.19mm/day and 0.13mm/day respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Mid-upper arm circumference can be an appropriate tool for identifying malnourished children for admission to nutrition rehabilitation programs. Our results confirm the appropriateness of this tool for monitoring recovery trends and discharging the children thereafter. In principle the tool has potential to minimize nutrition rehabilitation costs, particularly in community therapeutic centres in developing countries.

Surface Ozone Episode Due to Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange and Free Troposphere-Boundary Layer Exchange in Busan During Asian Dust Events

  • Moon, Y.S.;Kim, Y.K.;K. Strong;Kim, S.H.;Lim, Y.K.;Oh, I.B.;Song, S.K.
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.419-436
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    • 2002
  • The current paper reports on the enhancement of O$_3$, CO, NO$_2$, and aerosols during the Asian dust event that occurred over Korea on 1 May 1999. To confirm the origin and net flux of the O$_3$, CO, NO$_2$, and aerosols, the meteorological parameters of the weather conditions were investigated using Mesoscale Meteorological Model 5(MM5) and the TOMS total ozone and aerosol index, the back trajectory was identified using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model(HYSPLIT), and the ozone and ozone precursor concentrations were determined using the Urban Ashed Model(UAM). In the presence of sufficiently large concentrations of NO$\sub$x/, the oxidation of CO led to O$_3$ formation with OH, HO$_2$, NO, and NO$_2$ acting as catalysts. The sudden enhancement of O$_3$, CO, NO$_2$ and aerosols was also found to be associated with a deepening cut-off low connected with a surface cyclone and surface anticyclone located to the south of Korea during the Asian dust event. The wave pattern of the upper trough/cut-off low and total ozone level remained stationary when they came into contact with a surface cyclone during the Asian dust event. A typical example of a stratosphere-troposphere exchange(STE) of ozone was demonstrated by tropopause folding due to the jet stream. As such, the secondary maxima of ozone above 80 ppbv that occurred at night in Busan, Korea on 1 May 2001 were considered to result from vertical mixing and advection from a free troposphere-boundary layer exchange in connection with an STE in the upper troposphere. Whereas the sudden enhancement of ozone above 100 ppbv during the day was explained by the catalytic reaction of ozone precursors and transport of ozone from a slow-moving anticyclone area that included a high level of ozone and its precursors coming from China to the south of Korea. The aerosols identified in the free troposphere over Busan, Korea on 1 May 1999 originated from the Taklamakan and Gobi deserts across the Yellow River. In particular, the 1000m profile indicated that the source of the air parcels was from an anticyclone located to the south of Korea. The net flux due to the first invasion of ozone between 0000 LST and 0600 LST on 1 May 1999 agreed with the observed ground-based background concentration of ozone. From 0600 LST to 1200 LST, the net flux of the second invasion of ozone was twice as much as the day before. In this case, a change in the horizontal wind direction may have been responsible for the ozone increase.

An Adaptive Multimedia Synchronization Scheme for Media Stream Delivery in Multimedia Communication (멀티미디어 통신에서 미디어스트림 전송을 위한 적응형 멀티미디어 동기화 기법)

  • Lee, Gi-Sung
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartC
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    • v.9C no.6
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    • pp.953-960
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    • 2002
  • Rel-time application programs have constraints which need to be met between media-data. It is client-leading synchronization that is absorbing variable transmission delay time and that is synchronizing by feedback control and palyout control. It is the important factor for playback rate and QoS if the buffer level is normal or not. This paper, The method of maintenance buffer normal state transmits in multimedia server by appling feedback of filtering function. And synchronization method is processing adaptive playout time for smooth presentation without cut-off while media frame is skip. When audio frame which is master media is in upper threshold buffer level we decrease play out time gradually, low threshold buffer level increase it slowly.