• Title, Summary, Keyword: United Organizations

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Financial Supports of Government for Nonprofit Social Service Organizations in the United States (비영리 조직에 대한 정부재정지원에 영향을 미치는 요인 : 미국의 사례를 중심으로)

  • Rho, Yeon-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.49
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    • pp.129-161
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    • 2002
  • This study explores whether there are differences in financial structure and governmental support between social service organizations and other nonprofit organizations. In addition, it analyzes what factors are related to governmental supports for both types of nonprofit organizations. Guided by the argument that specific areas where nonprofits primarily operate can explain a difference of relations between nonprofit organizations and funders, this study compares revenue sources and expenditures of social service organizations and other nonprofit organizations in the United States. Also, based on resource dependence theory and taking some important indexes from financial ratio analysis, this study also identifies factors that affect governmental supports for nonprofit organizations. The study sample consists of 10,690 organizations that reported tax form 990 in 1996. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted for the study. The results show that social service organizations obtained more revenue from government than other nonprofit organizations. Also, logistic regression analysis suggests that revenue diversification and financial characteristics were significantly associated with governmental supports for nonprofit organizations in the United States.

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Examination of Environmental Educator Certification System-Focusing on the United States, United Kingdom, and Japan- (각국의 환경교육 관련 자격제도 탐색-미국, 영국, 일본을 중심으로-)

  • Song, Young-Eun
    • Hwankyungkyoyuk
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.79-93
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    • 2004
  • The aim of this study is to provide a guide for the development of non-formal environmental educator certification system by analyzing certification systems in the United States, United Kingdom, and Japan. The following observations from reviewing environmental educator certification systems in the United States, United Kingdom, and Japan have implications for development of our own system in Korea. First, environmental educator certification systems are generally managed by cooperation of local environmental education organization association and local universities. Second, in many programs, applicants are qualified through processes including taking required curriculum and submitting portfolio or documents for reviewing of qualification. Third, in the United States, the majority of programs adopted curriculum based on ‘Guidelines for the Initial Preparation of Environmental Educator’ by NAAEE, which means the majority of programs have relatively standardized curriculum. Fourth, curriculums consist of basic skills of teaching, communication, leadership as well as contents of environmental education so that the applicants can practice more efficient environmental education when they are certified. Fifth, the certification programs utilize selected organizations' environmental education programs for training of applicants rather than establish their own programs. It contributes to the improvement of programs of organizations that applicants participated.

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Analysis of Human Head Shapes in the United States

  • Lee, Jin-Hee;Hwang Shin, Su-Jeong;Istook, Cynthia L.
    • International Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.77-83
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    • 2006
  • The ability to customize garments for fit in the apparel industry is directly tied to the availability of comprehensive and accurate sets of anthropometrical data for each consumer. The data for apparel sizing systems is available from three major standard/ research organizations: ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials), ISO (International Standard Organization), and NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics). However, these standards ignore various head shapes and are outdated for the development future head products. This creates a data gap an ever changing multi-cultural society such as the United Sates. Although major government and industry safety organizations recognize the importance of safety for head products, few studies were found to support their reasoning. The purpose of this study is to provide accurate head dimension data for developing safety head products by analyzing various head shapes in the United Sates which includes various ethnic backgrounds. This study was carried out on 105 males in the United States. Factor analysis, cluster analysis, Moreover, Duncan analysis were all used for analyzing various head shapes.

Analysis of Penalties Imposed on Organisations for Breaching Safety and Health Regulations in the United Kingdom

  • Arewa, Andrew Oyen;Theophilus, Stephen;Ifelebuegu, Augustine;Farrell, Peter
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.388-397
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    • 2018
  • Background: The study analyzes penalties imposed on organizations for breaching safety and health regulations. The research questions are as follows: what are the commonly breached safety and health regulations? How proportional are penalties imposed on organizations for breaching health and safety regulations in the United Kingdom? Methods: The study employed sequential explanatory mixed research strategies for better understanding of health and safety penalties imposed on organizations. Actual health and safety convictions and penalties data for 10 years (2006 to 2016) were obtained through the United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive (HSE) public register for convictions. Overall, 2,217 health and safety cases were analyzed amounting to total fines of £37,179,916, in addition to other wide-ranging penalties. For thorough understanding, eight interviews were conducted with industry practitioners, lawyers, and HSE officials as part of the study qualitative data. Results: Findings show that the Health and Safety at Work (HSW) Act accounted for 46% of all HSE prosecution cases in the last decade. This is nearly half of the total safety and health at work prosecutions. Moreover, there is widespread desire for organizations to comply with the HSW Act, but route fines are seen as burdensome and inimical to business growth. Conclusion: A key deduction from the study reveal significant disproportionality concerning penalties imposed on organizations for breaching safety and health regulations. On aggregate, small companies tend to pay more for health and safety offenses in a ratio of 1:2 compared to large companies. The study also reveals that the HSW Act accounted for nearly half of the total safety and health at work prosecutions in the last decade.

The Role of Major Donors in Health Aid to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

  • Lee, Haewon;Ahn, Deborah Y.;Choi, Soyoung;Kim, Youngchan;Choi, Hyunju;Park, Sang Min
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.118-126
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    • 2013
  • We investigated the major trends in health aid financing in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) by identifying the primary donor organizations and examining several data sources to track overall health aid trends. We collected gross disbursements from bilateral donor countries and international organizations toward the DPRK according to specific health sectors by using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development creditor reporting system database and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs financial tracking service database. We analyzed sources of health aid to the DPRK from the Republic of Korea (ROK) using the official records from the ROK's Ministry of Unification. We identified the ROK, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) as the major donor entities not only according to their level of health aid expenditures but also their growing roles within the health sector of the DPRK. We found that health aid from the ROK is comprised of funding from the Inter-Korean Cooperation Fund, private organizations, local governments, and South Korean branches of international organizations such as WHO and UNICEF. We also distinguished medical equipment aid from developmental aid to show that the majority of health aid from the ROK was developmental aid. This study highlights the valuable role of the ROK in the flow of health aid to the DPRK, especially in light of the DPRK's precarious international status. Although global health aid from many international organizations has decreased, organizations such as GFATM and UNFPA continue to maintain their focus on reproductive health and infectious diseases.

Organizational Capability and Performance : A Comparative Study of Korean and the United States Manufacturing R&D Organizations (조직역량과 조직성과 : 한국과 미국 제조업 R&D 조직의 비교 연구)

  • Hong, Soon-W.;Cho, Keun-Tae
    • Journal of Korea Technology Innovation Society
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.740-767
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    • 2009
  • This paper examined the effect of organizational capability on performance in Korean and the United States manufacturing R&D organizations. We used self-reported data from 122 Korean and 79 U.S. firms to address three research questions. Structural equation modeling techniques validated the adapted instrument used in the study, and revealed that R&D organizational capability accounts for R&D performance. The degree of explanation power for the performance was significantly higher in Korean than the U.S. R&D organizations. Several implications of the findings were discussed.

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Entrepreneurship Education in the United States:Strengths and Opportunities for Growth

  • Pena, Vanessa;Riggieri, Alison
    • STI Policy Review
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.1-20
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    • 2010
  • This paper explores the role of entrepreneurship education in a modern economy and how the government, academic, and nonprofit sectors in the United States have responded to this growing field. There are several sectors that play important roles in the entrepreneurship education landscape in the United States. Over the past decade, there has been increasing participation of Federal and state governments. This recent trend suggests the field may be increasing in maturity and legitimacy, showing promise for expanding the reach of entrepreneurship education programs. Programs sponsored by nonprofit organizations and private foundations complement government initiatives and display an effective means of leveraging knowledge and resources across the relevant sectors. Thus, new initiatives, whether initiated by government or academia, should learn from the successes of this sector as well as be carefully considered within the context of existent programs and services. Nonetheless, the potentially dynamic environment of the entrepreneurship education field in the United States offers a specific opportunity to leverage the experience in mentorship activities at the post-secondary education to address a possible gap in these activities at the secondary education level.

Come fly with ME: The Impact of 3PLs within the aircraft Manufacturing, Repair and Overhaul Industry in the United Arab Emirates

  • Hassan, Fatima;Annabi, Carrie Amani
    • The Journal of Industrial Distribution & Business
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.13-24
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    • 2019
  • Purpose - This research explores the impacts of third-party logistics (3PLs) within the aircraft Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO) industry in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to explore the role of collaborative relationships for improving outsourcing. Globalization and time based competition have changed business environments and challenged the conventional management strategies that are related to core competencies and operational models. Organizations are forced to devise innovative practices in which logistics outsourcing to 3PLs offers significant advantages. Research design, data, and methodology - This case study was conducted within a leading global aircraft MRO organization whose reach spans across Europe, the Middle East, Asia and the Americas. The methods used face to face semi-structured interviews, validated through further focus group discussions. Results - These findings highlight the effectiveness of collaborative relationships on their role to improve outsourcing and also demonstrated that MROs gain several advantages from 3PL arrangements. However, any gaps in outsourcing management elevates potential risks to organizations as well, which could result in reputational, operational and financial losses. Conclusions - Although generalizability is not possible due to the case study approach, generality suggests that in order to reduce reputational, operational and financial risks, enhanced collaboration with 3PLs is recommended to optimize outsourcing arrangements.

A Study on an Integration of the Entitlement, Collection and Payment in the Social Insurance Systems of Developed Countries - Focusing on the Historical Review of Institutional and Organizational Integration - (선진국 사회보험에서 적용.징수.급여업무의 통합사례에 관한 연구 - 제도통합과 조직통합에 대한 역사적 고찰을 중심으로 -)

  • Nam, Chan-Seob;Baek, In-Rib
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.63 no.2
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    • pp.5-29
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    • 2011
  • This paper analyzed the integration cases of the social insurance systems of Germany, Sweden and United Kingdom. On the basis of the two dimensions - institutional and organizational integration, this study reviewed the historical processes of the social insurance integration of the three countries. In Germany, the institutions and the organizations are divided still now and the sickness insurance funds take charge of the entitlement and collection services. In Sweden, the social insurance system is divided by institutions but the organizations were united. the Inland Revenue has charge of the entitlement and collection. In UK, the institutions and the organizations were united and the entitlement and collection services is assigned to the Inland Revenue. Regarding these historical processes of the social insurance integration of developed countries, this paper evaluated the transfer of the collection service to the National Health Insurance Corporation in Korea, which was enforced in 2011.

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