• Title, Summary, Keyword: Unit Load

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A Study on the Cooling Load of South and East Facing Apartment Houses (남향과 동향 집합주택의 냉방부하에 관한 연구)

  • 박근우;이경희
    • Journal of the Korean housing association
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.129-137
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    • 2000
  • This study is about the difference of South and East facing Cooling load of Apartment s Houses using Dynamic Heat-flow Calculation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is come in to use Material for the Thermal Environments of Apartment Houses. The results of the analysis are below. (1) For the peak load of degree hour; The highest is "I" unit and the next high load is H, F, E, C, B, G, D and A unit for the south facing Apartment houses. The higher load is "H" unit and the next high load is I, E, F, B, C, G, D, A Unit for the east facing Apartment houses. (2) For the total load of degree day; The highest load is "I" unit and the next high load is H, G, F, E, C, B, D and A Unit for the south facing Apartment houses. The highest load is "H" unit and the next high load is I, G, E, F, B, C, D, A Unit for the east facing Apartment houses. (3) For the total load of degree day; The highest load is "H" Unit for the east facing Apartment houses and the Lowest load is "A" Unit for the south facing Apartment houses.is "A" Unit for the south facing Apartment houses.nt houses.

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A Study on the Digital Unit Development for Turbine Load Set Control (Turbine Load Set 조정을 위한 Digital Unit 개발)

  • Moon Yong-Seon;Jeong Ho-Jin;Kang Sung-Ryul;Choi Hyeong-Yoon
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.498-503
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    • 2005
  • As important device that decide output load in superannuated thermoelectric power plant which do Turbine Load Set Motor device. This generation of electric power system operated Set Up Range Motor according to Set Up value that operator manufactures by hand circumvolve, and generation of electric power output load derision is consisted by internal action including Motor Therefore, in this research passively output load operated Turbine Motor Drive equipment that can have existing Turbine Load Set Motor Performance developing Digital Drive Unit device design. Also control algorithm implementation and existing Turbine Load Set Motor Drive and connection possibility through designed controlling system to connect basis function that decide development output load with Digital Drive Unit that designed also with existing Motor Drive Unit and can be operated.

Proposal of Unit Building Method for Calculating Unit Heating Load of Apartment Houses (공동주택 단위난방부하 계산을 위한 단위동법 제안)

  • Yoo Ho-Seon;Chung Joo-Hyuk;Moon Jung -Hwan;Lee Jae-Heon
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.68-76
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    • 2007
  • As an alternative approach to evaluate the unit heating load for apartment houses, we newly developed and proposed unit building method. The new method, which calculates the heating load of an apartment building as a whole, conceptually corresponds to integral analysis of building heat loss, while the existing unit apartment method to differential analysis. Four typical building models of Korean-style apartment house and two dynamic load calculation programs were selected to validate the present method under realistically imposed conditions. Eight sets of unit heating load calculated respectively by unit building and unit apartment methods showed excellent agreements regardless of building model and simulation program. It is expected that the unit building method can take the place of the unit apartment method due to fewer modeling assumptions as well as less computational efforts. Additional calculations to investigate the effects of various parameters on unit heating load yield good consistencies with known facts, and re-confirm the validity.

Unit Loads of Pollutants in a Paddy Fields Area with Large-Scaled Plots during Irrigation Seasons (관개기 대구획 광역논에서의 오염부하 원단위)

  • 오승영;김진수;김규성;김선종;윤춘경
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.136-147
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    • 2002
  • Characteristics of unit loads of pollutants were investigated at a paddy fields area(Soro-ri) with large-scaled plots on loam soil during irrigation seasons of 1999 ∼2000. The average irrigation requirement of experimental paddy area are estimated at over 3,000 mm. The unit loads of pollutants in paddy fields area are determined by subtracting irrigation water load from outflow load (percolated and surface outflow loads). Surface outflow load in rainy days was calculated using the relationships of discharge and load, which are grouped into fertilizing and non-fertilizing periods. The ratios of the surface outflow load in rainy days to the total surface outflow load are 16.4% for T-N, 26.8% for T-P, and 23.3% far CODc,. The unit loads of pollutants show month-to-month and year-to-year variations, and monthly unit load of pollutants can show negative values, indicating that the paddy area acts as the pollutants sink. The average unit loads of the pollutants during irrigation seasons were estimated at 18.2 kg/ha fur T-N, 0.31 kg/ha for T-P, and 43.3 kg/ha for CODc,, which are smaller than the reported values for Kosei area in Japan.

Assessing unit load in farmland by application of liquid manure and organic farming (액비 및 유기농법 적용에 따른 농경지에서의 오염부하 원단위 평가)

  • So, Hyunchul;Jang, Taeil;Hong, Seung-Gil
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.39-48
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    • 2017
  • National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) has proposed new methodology for estimating unit load in order to overcome the limitations of past unit load based on short-term and local area based data. In the case of agricultural land, however, the results presented by NIER are still limited because of various agricultural activities and farmland characteristics. In this study, liquid manure treated paddy field and organic farming upland were selected for considering agricultural diversity. Four different methods for evaluating unit load were used for comparing previous research results. The results of different methods presented various trends compared with those of existing studies. Paddy field treated liquid manure was 1.3 times higher for T-N load and 3.1 times for T-P load than conventional paddy field. Conventional upland was 4.4 times higher for T-N load and 1.8 times higher for T-P load than organic farming upland. In the case of non-conventional farmland, this study showed different values with the unit loads presented by NIER. This implies that it is necessary to review and apply the unit loads considering various agricultural conditions when establishing environmental policy and rural planning.

Evaluation of Effective Rainfall Ratio Method for Estimating Unit Load from Paddy Fields (비우량 방법에 의한 논 오염부하 원단위 산정시 적용성 평가)

  • Jung, Jae-Woon;Yoon, Kwang-Sik;Yoon, Suk-Gun;Choi, Woo-Jung;Choi, Woo-Young;Huh, Yu-Jeong;Cho, Kyeong-Min;Hong, Jung-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.849-854
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    • 2009
  • Pollutant unit load (unit-load) reported by Ministry of Environment (MOE) in 1995 has been a useful method for watershed management and environmental policy decision. The unit-load has been estimated using effective rainfall ratio method. However, reliability of unit-load determined by the method has been criticized especially for paddy field and upland conditions. In this paper the unit-load of paddy field estimated by effective rainfall ratio method was compared with continuous monitoring data. Annual loads was simulated by the method choosing 5~6 storm events randomly from whole events collected. Probability distribution of difference between results by the method and measured data was investigated. The results showed that unit-load derived by the method was generally lesser than measured unit-load and showed wide variations. Therefore, unit-load estimation of paddy fields by effective rainfall ratio method need caution.

A Study on the Estimation Methods of Nonpoint Pollutant Unit Load - Focus on Nonpoint Pollutant Unit Load in Paddy Field - (비점오염 발생 원단위 산정방법에 대한 고찰 - 논 비점오염 원단위를 중심으로 -)

  • Choi, DongHo;Choi, Soon-Kun;Kim, Min-Kyeong;Hur, Seung-Oh;Hong, Sung Chang;Yeob, So-Jin;Yoon, KwangSik
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.61 no.3
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2019
  • In order to preserve water environment, Total Maximum Daily Load(TMDL) is used to manage the total amount of pollutant from various sources, and the annual average load of source is calculated by the unit load method. Determination of the unit load requires reliable data accumulation and analysis based on a reasonable estimation method. In this study, we propose a revised unit load estimation method by analyzing the unit load calculation procedure of National Institute of Environment Research(NIER) method. Both methods were tested using observed runoff ratio and water quality data of rice paddy fields. The estimated values with the respective NIER and revised NIER methods were highly correlated each other. However, the Event Mean Concentration(EMC) and the runoff ratio considered in the NIER method appeared to be influenced by rainfall classes, and the difference in unit load increases as the runoff and EMC increase. The error can be further increased when the EMC and runoff ratio are changed according to changes in rainfall patterns by climate change and change of agricultural activities. Therefore, it is recommended to calculate unit load by applying the revised NIER method reflecting the non point pollution runoff characteristics for different rainfall classes.

Design of a Dispatch Unit & Operand Selection Unit for Improving the SIMT Based GP-GPU Instruction Performance (SIMT구조 GP-GPU의 명령어 처리 성능 향상을 위한 Dispatch Unit과 Operand Selection Unit설계)

  • Kwak, Jae Chang
    • Journal of IKEEE
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.455-459
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    • 2015
  • This paper proposes a dispatch unit of GP-GPU with SIMT architecture to support the acceleration of general-purpose operation as well as graphics processing. If all the information of an operand used instructions issued from the warp scheduler is decoded, an unnecessary operand load occurs, resulting in register loads. To resolve this problem, this paper proposes a method that can reduce the operand load and the load on the resister by decoding only the information of the operand using a pre-decoding method. The operand information from the dispatch unit is passed to the operand selection unit with preventing register bank collisions. Thus the overall performance are improved. In the simulation test, the total clock cycles required by processing 10,000 arbitrary instructions issued from the wrap scheduler using ModelSim SE 10.0b are measured. It shows that the application of the dispatch unit equipped with the pre-decoding function proposed in this paper can make an improvement of about 12% in processing performance compared to the conventional method.

The Estimation of Cooling Load for District Cooling in Apartment Buildings (지역냉방 공동주택 적정 냉방부하 산정)

  • Kim, Sang-Hun;Byun, Woon-Seob
    • Proceedings of the SAREK Conference
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    • pp.643-649
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to establish a standard for unit cooling load in central control type apartment applied district cooling. The model of unit household was selected. And the standard of coefficient of overall heat transmission, location of unit household, indoor air temperature, solar radiation & thermal conduction at window and interior load was selected, and region, expansion or non-expansion of balcony, pyeong type, azimuth, rate of window area was applied as parameter. And then cooling load simulation was performed. Based on the result of simulation, the synthetic district cooling load was presented for selecting heat source of apartment applied district cooling, and unit cooling load was analyzed according to design parameter.

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Comparison of Estimation Method of Pollutant Unit Loads from Bridge Area (교량지역의 다양한 비점오염물질 원단위 산정방법 비교)

  • Kim, Taewon;Gil, Kyungik
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.597-604
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    • 2011
  • This research analyzed the runoff patterns and estimated unit loads of selected pollutatnts using monitored data conducted for three years in a bridge area. Three estimating methods; the arithmetic average method, the regression method and the rainfall class method were used to estimate the unit load. Results of three estimating methods were compared with the unit pollutant loads from landuses in Korea and the unit pollutant loads from urban watersheds in Milwaukee, USA. Unit load using the arithmetic mean method were found to be overestimated. In terms of TSS, unit loads of two estimate were half lower than that of USA. Estimated TN and TP unit loads of three estimate were lower than that of Ministry of Environment in Korea.