• Title, Summary, Keyword: Uncoupling Protein-2

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The Third Intracellular Loop of truman ${\beta}_2$-adrenergic Receptor Expressed in E. coli Decreased Binding Affinity of Isoproterenol to ${\beta}_2$-adrenergic Receptor

  • Shin, Jin-Chul;Shin, Chan-Young;Lee, Mi-Ok;Lee, Sang-Bong;Ko, Kwang-Ho
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.103-109
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    • 1996
  • To investigate the effect of the third intracellular loop (i3 loop) peptide of human $\beta$$_2$-adrenergic receptor on receptor agonist binding, we expressed third intracellular loop region of human $\beta$$_2$-adrenergic receptor as glutathione S-transferase fusion protein in E. coli. DNA fragment of the receptor gene which encodes amino acid 221-274 of human $\beta$$_2$-adrenergic receptor was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and subcloned into the bacterial fusion protein expression vector pGEX-CS and expressed as a form of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein in E. coli DH5$\alpha$. The receptor fusion protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot using monoclonal anti-GST antibody. The fusion protein expressed in this study was purified to an apparent homogeneity by glutathione Sepharose CL-4B affinity chromatography. The purified i3 loop fusion proteins at a concentration of 10 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ι caused right shift of the isoproterenol competition curve of [$^3$H]Dihydroalprenolol binding to hamster lung $\beta$$_2$-adrenergic receptor indicating lowered affinity of isoproterenol to $\beta$$_2$-adrenergic receptor possibly due to the uncoupling of receptor and G protein in the presence of the fusion protein. The uncoupling of receptor and G protein suggests that i3 loop region plays a critical role on $\beta$$_2$-adrenergic receptor G protein coupling.

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Production of Leptin in E. coli and Its Effect on Glucose and Acetate Transport and Expression of Uncoupling Protein-2 Gene in Adipose Tissues of Korean Cattle (Hanwoo)

  • Kim, K.S.;Baik, M.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.1062-1068
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    • 2004
  • Leptin has a major role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. In addition, leptin participates in many physiological functions including regulation of lipid metabolism. Bovine recombinant leptin protein was produced in E. coli cells in order to understand function of leptin in the regulation of lipid metabolism. The leptin expression vector was constructed in pGEX-4T-3 vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 cells. Expression of the GST-leptin fusion protein was induced with IPTG. The fusion protein was purified using glutathione sepharose 4B batch method, and the recombinant leptin was eluted after thrombin protease digestion. The effect of leptin on glucose transport was examined in the differentiated adipocytes of 3T3-L1 cells. Leptin had no effect on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 cells (p>0.05). Effect of recombinant leptin on glucose and acetate transport was examined in adipose tissues of Korean cattle (Hanwoo). Insulin stimulated glucose transport in both intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues (p<0.05), but leptin did not affect glucose transport in both adipose tissues (p>0.05). Insulin stimulated acetate transport in bovine adipose tissues (p<0.05), but leptin did not affect acetate transport (p>0.05). Northern and RT-PCR analyses showed that mRNA levels of uncoupling protein-2 were increased by leptin treatment in 3T3-L1 cells without statistical difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, bovine recombinant leptin did not affect glucose and acetate transport in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and bovine adipose tissues, while it stimulates UCP-2 mRNA expression in 3T3-L1 cells.

Structural Conservation and Food Habit-related Liver Expression of Uncoupling Protein 2 Gene in Five Major Chinese Carps

  • Liao, Wan-Qin;Liang, Xu-Fang;Wang, Lin;Fang, Ling;Lin, Xiaotao;Bai, Junjie;Jian, Qing
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.346-354
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    • 2006
  • The full-length cDNA of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was obtained from liver. The grass carp UCP2 cDNA was determined to be 1152 bp in length with an open reading frame that encodes 310 amino acids. Five introns (Intron 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7) in the translated region, and partial sequence of Intron 2 in the untranslated region of grass carp UCP2 gene were also obtained. Gene structure comparison between grass carp and mammalian (human and mouse) UCP2 gene shows that, the UCP2 gene structure of grass carp is much similar to that of human and mouse. Partial UCP2 cDNA sequences of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mud carp (Cirrhinus molitorella), were further determined. Together with the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) UCP2 sequence from GenBank (AJ243486), multiple alignment result shows that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the UCP2 gene, were highly conserved among the five major Chinese carps that belong to four subfamilies. Using beta-actin as control, the ratio UCP2/beta-actin mRNA (%) was determined to be $149.4{\pm}15.6$ (common carp), $127.4{\pm}22.1$ (mud carp), $96.7{\pm}12.7$ (silver carp), $94.1{\pm}26.8$ (bighead carp) and $63.7{\pm}16.2$ (grass carp). The relative liver UCP2 expression of the five major Chinese carps, shows a close relationship with their food habit: benthos and detrituseating fish (common carp and mud carp) > planktivorious fish (silver carp and bighead carp) > herbivorious fish (grass carp). We suggest that liver UCP2 might be important for Chinese carps to detoxify cyanotoxins and bacteria in debris and plankton food.

The Effect of A-3826G Polymorphism of Uncoupling Protein-Ion Visceral Fat Area in Overweight Korean Women

  • Kim, Kil-Soo;Cha, Min-Ho;Kim, Jong-Yeol;Shin, Seung-Uoo;Yoon, Yoo-Sik
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.279-284
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    • 2005
  • Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) plays a major role in thermogenesis, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of A-3826G polymorphism of UCP-1 gene on body fat distribution. Two hundred forty eight Korean female overweight subjects with BMI more than 25 kgfm2 participated in this study. The areas of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat of all subjects were measured from computed tomography cross sectional pictures of the umbilical region. Subcutaneous fat areas of upper and lower thigh were also measured. Body composition was measured by bio-impedance analysis, and serum concentrations of biochemical parameters, such as glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol etc, were also measured. Genotype of UCP-1 was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. The frequencies of UCP-1 genotypes were AA type; $27.8\%,\;AG\;type;\;51.2\%\;and\;GG\;type;\;21.0\%,$ and the frequency of G allele was 0.47. Body weight, BMI, WHR, SBP, DBP and body compositions were not significantly different by UCP-1 genotype. Abdominal visceral fat area was significantly higher in AG and GG type compared with AA type (p=0.009), but subcutaneous fat areas were not significantly different by UCP-1 genotype. Among biochemical parameters, LDL cholesterol level was significantly higher in GG type compared with AA and AG types (p=0.033). Among all subjects, 121 subjects finished 1 month weight loss program containing hypocaloric diet and exercise. The reduction of body weight and BMI were lower in GG type compared with AA/AG type even though statistical significances were not found (p > 0.05). These results suggest that UCP-1 genotype has a significant effect on visceral fat accumulation among Korean female overweight subjects with BMI more than $25\;kg/m^2$.

Gene expression and promoter methylation of porcine uncoupling protein 3 gene

  • Lin, Ruiyi;Lin, Weimin;Chen, Qiaohui;Huo, Jianchao;Hu, Yuping;Ye, Junxiao;Xu, Jingya;Xiao, Tianfang
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.170-175
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    • 2019
  • Objective: Uncoupling protein 3 gene (UCP3) is a candidate gene associated with the meat quality of pigs. The aim of this study was to explore the regulation mechanism of UCP3 expression and provide a theoretical basis for the research of the function of porcine UCP3 gene in meat quality. Methods: Bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) were used to analyze the methylation of UCP3 5′-flanking region and UCP3 mRNA expression in the adipose tissue or skeletal muscle of three pig breeds at different ages (1, 90, 210-day-old Putian Black pig; 90-day-old Duroc; and 90-day-old Dupu). Results: Results showed that two cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) islands are present in the promoter region of porcine UCP3 gene. The second CpG island located in the core promoter region contained 9 CpG sites. The methylation level of CpG island 2 was lower in the adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of 90-day-old Putian Black pigs compared with 1-day-old and 210-day-old Putian Black pigs, and the difference also existed in the skeletal muscle among the three 90-day-old pig breeds. Furthermore, the obvious changing difference of UCP3 mRNA expression was observed in the skeletal muscle of different groups. However, the difference of methylation status and expression level of UCP3 gene was not significant in the adipose tissue. Conclusion: Our data indicate that UCP3 mRNA expression level was associated with the methylation status of UCP3 promoter in the skeletal muscle of pigs.

Troglitazone Regulates white Adipose Tissue Metabolism by Activating Genes Involved in Fatty Acid ${\beta}$-Oxidation in High Fat Diet-fed C57BL/6J Mice

  • Jeong, Sun-Hyo;Yoon, Mi-Chung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.319-327
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    • 2006
  • This study aimed to determine whether troglitazone stimulates genes related to fatty acid ${\beta}$-oxidation, leading to modulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) metabolism in high fat diet-fed mice. Female C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups (n=10/group). After they received either a high fat diet or the same high fat diet supplemented with troglitazone for 4 weeks, the effects of troglitazone on gene expression and physiology of WAT were measured using Northern, histological and serological analyses. Administration of troglitazone induced the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid ${\beta}$-oxidation in mesenteric WAT. Troglitazone also significantly increased uncoupling protein 2 mRNA levels. The changes in WAT gene expression were accompanied by reductions in circulating levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides as well as glucose and insulin. Histological studies showed that troglitazone treatment decreased the average size of adipocytes in mesenteric WAT. These results suggest that troglitazone-stimulated WAT expression of genes associated with fatty acid ${\beta}$-oxidation regulates WAT metabolism of high fat diet-fed mice, contributing to improvement of insulin sensitivity.

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Caffeine Indirectly Activates Ca2+-ATPases in the Vesicles of Cardiac Junctional Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

  • Kim, Young-Kee;Cho, Hyoung-Jin;Kim, Hae-Won
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.22-26
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    • 1996
  • Agents that activate or inhibit the $Ca^{2+}$ release channel in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) were tested for their abilities to affect the activity of the SR $Ca^{2+}$-ATPase. Vesicles of junctional SR (heavy SR, HSR) from terminal cisternae were prepared from porcine cardiac muscle by density gradient centrifugation. The steady-state activity of $Ca^{2+}$-ATPases in intact HSR vesicles was/$347{\pm}5\;nmol/min{\cdot}mg$ protein (${\pm}$ SD). When the HSR vesicles were made leaky, the activity was increased to $415{\pm}5\;nmol/min{\cdot}mg$ protein. This increase is probably due to the uncoupling of HSR vesicles. Caffeine (10 mM), an agonist of the SR $Ca^{2+}$ release channel, increased $Ca^{2+}$-ATPase activity in the intact HSR vesicle preparation to $394{\pm}30\;nmol/min{\cdot}mg$ protein. However, caffeine had no significant effect in the leaky vesicle preparation and in the purified $Ca^{2+}$-ATPase preparation. The effect of caffeine on SR $Ca^{2+}$-ATPase was investigated at various concentrations of $Ca^{2+}$. Caffeine increased the pump activity over the whole range of $Ca^{2+}$ concentrations, from $1\;{\mu}M$ to $250\;{\mu}M$, in the intact HSR vesicles. When the SR $Ca^{2+}$-ATPase was inhibited by thapsigargin, no caffeine effect was observed. These results imply that the caffeine effect requires the intact vesicles and that the increase in $Ca^{2+}$-ATPase activity is not due to a direct interaction of caffeine with the enzyme. We propose that the activity of SR $Ca^{2+}$-ATPase is linked indirectly to the activity of the $Ca^{2+}$ release channel (ryanodine receptor) and may depend upon the amount of $Ca^{2+}$ released by the channels.

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Uncoupling Protein 3 in the Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Sequence, Splicing Variants, and Association with the AvaIII SINE element

  • Kim, Soon-Hag;Choi, Cheol-Young;Hwang, Joo-Yeon;Kim, Young-Youl;Park, Chan;Oh, Berm-Seok;Kimm, Ku-Chan;Scott A. Gahr;Sohn, Young-Chang
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2004
  • A rainbow trout uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) cDNA clone, encoding a 310 amino acid protein, was cloned and sequenced from a liver cDNA library. Two different splice variants designated UCP3-vl and UCP3-v2, were identified through liver cDNA library screening using rainbow trout UCP3 cDNA clone as a probe. UCP3-vl has 3 insertions in the UCP3 cDNA: the first insertion (133 bp), the second (141 bp), and the third (370 bp) were located 126 bp, 334 bp and 532 bp downstream from the start codon, respectively. UCP3-v2 contained a single insertion, identical in sequence and location to the second insertion of UCP3-vl. UCP3, a mitochondrial protein, functions to modulate the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation. UCP3 has been detected from heart, testis, spinal cord, eye, retina, colon, muscle, brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue in mammalian animals. Human and rodent UCP3s are highly expressed in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue, while they show weak expression of UCP3 in heart and white adipose tissue. In contrast to mammalian studies, RT-PCR and Southern blot analysis of the rainbow trout demonstrated that UCP3 is strongly expressed in liver and heart. UCP3, UCP3-vl, and UCP3-v2 all contain an Ava III short interspersed element (SINE), located in the 3'untraslated region (UTR). PCR using primers from the Ava III SINE and the UCP3 3'UTR region indicates that the UCP3 cDNA is structurally conserved among salmonids and that these primers may be useful for salmonid species genotyping.

Effects of Garlic on Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) Transcriptional Regulation in Metabolic Tissues of UCP2 Transgenic Mice Fed on a High-Fat Diet (마늘이 고지방 식이를 섭취한 UCP2 형질전환 마우스의 대사성 조직에서 UCP2 전사 조절에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Mak-Soon;Lee, Seohyun;Shin, Yoonjin;Jung, Sunyoon;Park, Seonyoung;Kim, Yangha
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.531-538
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    • 2017
  • This study was performed to investigate the effects of garlic on uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) transcriptional regulation of UCP2-luciferase transgenic mice fed on a high fat diet to induce obesity. To examine the transcriptional regulation of UCP2, we generated transgenic mice with a UCP2 promoter (-1,830/+30 bp) containing luciferase as a reporter gene. UCP2-luciferase transgenic mice were fed a 45% high-fat diet for 8 weeks to induce obesity. Subsequently, mice were maintained on either a high-fat control diet (TG-CON), or high-fat diets supplemented with 2% (TG-GL2) or 5% (TG-GL5) garlic for a further 8 weeks. Dietary garlic reduced body weight and energy efficiency ratio in the TG-GL5 group, compared to the TG-CON group. Furthermore, garlic supplementation significantly decreased white adipose tissue fat mass and plasma levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and leptin in the TG-GL2 and TG-GL5 groups, compared to the TG-CON group. Specifically, UCP2 promoter activity in metabolic tissues such as liver, white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle was increased by garlic supplementation. These results suggest that dietary garlic was partially associated with an increase of UCP2 transcriptional activity in metabolic tissues for decreasing obesity.

Reduction of Body Weight by Capsaicin is Associated with Inhibition of Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity and Stimulation of Uncoupling Protein 2 mRNA Expression in Diet-induced Obese Rats

  • Ann, Ji-Young;Lee, Mak-Soon;Joo, Hyun-Jin;Kim, Chong-Tai;Kim, Yang-Ha
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.210-216
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    • 2011
  • Capsaicin is a pungent component of red pepper, which is widely consumed as food adjuncts. The present study was performed to investigate anti-obesity effects of capsaicin in diet-induced obese rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14) were fed with a high-fat diet (Control) or high-fat diet containing 0.016% capsaicin (w/w) (Capsaicin) for 8 weeks. The final body weight and the mass of white adipose tissue were significantly lower in capsaicin supplemented group compared to control. Dietary capsaicin ameliorated lipid profiles with decrease in the plasma concentrations of triglycerides and total cholesterol, and decrease in the levels of total lipids and triglycerides in the liver. Activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), an indicator of triglyceride biosynthesis in white adipose tissue, decreased by 35% in the group supplemented with capsaicin. However, consumption of capsaicin increased the expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in white adipose tissue, which is related to energy consumption. Our data suggests that capsaicin may reduce body weight and fat accumulation in high fat diet-induced obese rats. These effects may be mediated, at least partially, by the upregulation of UCP2 gene expression and its ability to inhibit GPDH activity.