• Title, Summary, Keyword: US Nuclear waste management

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Current Status of Nuclear Waste Management (and Disposal) in the United States

  • McMahon, K.;Swift, P.;Nutt, M.;Birkholzer, J.;Boyle, W.;Gunter, T.;Larson, N.;MacKinnon, R.;Sorenson, K.
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.29-35
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    • 2013
  • The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) activities under the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) to support storage, transportation, and disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and wastes generated by existing and future nuclear fuel cycles. R&D activities are ongoing at nine national laboratories, and are divided into storage, transportation and disposal. Storage R&D focuses on closing technical gaps related to extended storage of UNF. Transportation R&D focuses on ensuring transportability of UNF following extended storage, and addressing data gaps regarding nuclear fuel integrity, retrievability, and demonstration of subcriticality. Disposal R&D focuses on identifying geologic disposal options and addressing technical challenges for generic disposal concepts in mined repositories in salt, clay/shale, and granitic rocks, and deep borehole disposal. UFDC R&D goals include increasing confidence in the robustness of generic disposal concepts, reducing generic sources of uncertainty that may impact the viability of disposal concepts, and developing science and engineering tools to support the selection, characterization, and licensing of a repository. The US DOE has also initiated activities in the Nuclear Fuel Storage and Transportation (NFST) Planning Project to facilitate the development of an interim storage facility and to support transportation infrastructure in the near term.

Review Study of Radioactive Waste Classification and Waste Acceptance Criteria for Disposal of VLLW from Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (원자력시설 해체 시 극저준위방사성폐기물 처분을 위한 국내외 방사성폐기물 분류체계 및 인수기준에 대한 연구)

  • Song, Ji Young;Song, Gyo Hyeok;Park, Jin Ho;Ji, Seung Woo;Do, Tae Gwan;Kim, Kwang Pyo
    • Journal of Radiation Industry
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.239-247
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    • 2018
  • Waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for disposal of very low level waste (VLLW), which is generated in large quantities during decommissioning of nuclear facilities should be developed. For the WAC development, it is required to investigate current status to develop WAC for disposal of VLLW. The objective of the present study was to investigate radioactive waste classification and WAC for disposal of VLLW from decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Each country developed its own system for the classification of radioactive waste. Therefore, the classification system for radioactive waste in each country was analyzed to review its WAC of the radioactive waste, which is equivalent to the VLLW in the Korea waste classification system. The category of the VLLW in the waste classification systems of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United Kingdom (UK) was similar to the category of the VLLW in the waste classification systems of Korea. For the United States(US), the category of Class A was similar to the VLLW in the Korea system. The IAEA provided the general guidance for the WAC based on the safety assessment of disposal system. The US and the UK developed the WAC based on national radioactive waste disposal policy and characteristics of disposal facilities and radioactive waste in addition to the IAEA general guidance. Therefore, the WAC for disposal of VLLW in Korea should be developed by considering the national radioactive waste disposal policy, characteristics of disposal facilities, and the IAEA guidance. This study results will contribute to establishment of national management system of radioactive waste.

Status of Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning Cost Analysis in USA (미국의 원전해체 비용평가 기초자료 및 동향 분석)

  • Shin, Sanghwa;Kim, Soonyoung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.139-148
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    • 2018
  • Assessment of NPP(Nuclear Power Plant) decommissioning cost is very important for safe decommissioning of nuclear power plants. In the United States, which has the most NPP decommissioning experience, the cost evaluation study has been conducted since the 1970s in order to decommissioning nuclear facilities. The US NRC has conducted studies on decommissioning technology, safety and cost for a variety of reactor type and nuclear installations. In the total decommissioning costs, the end of operation licenses accounted for the largest portion, followed by spent fuel management and site restoration. In case of immediate decommissioning, spent fuel management cost increased compared to delayed decommissioning, and delayed deocmmissioning increased the cost of terminating the operation license. However, in general, delayed decommissioning does not show any significant benefit as compared with immediate decommissioning. It is necessary to consider the evaluation according to the site conditions when evaluating the cost of decommissioning domestic nuclear power plants. Also, in Korea, IAEA recommendations were applied to reorganize the radioactive waste classification system. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a method to appropriately use the decommissioning data of the preceding US Nuclear Power Plant in the new classification system when estimating the amount of radioactive waste generated during decommissioning. In particular, the establishment of the evaluation methodology for the waste to be disposed of will be an important factor in securing the accuracy of the decommissioning cost. In addition, it is necessary to construct information data that can be applied to facility characteristics and work characteristics in order to evaluate the cost of demolition of domestic nuclear power plants.

Review for Applying Spent Fuel Pool Island (SFPI) during Decommissioning in Korea (원전해체시 독립된 사용후핵연료저장조 국내 적용 검토)

  • Baik, Jun-ki;Kim, Chang-Lak
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.163-169
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    • 2015
  • In many nuclear power plant sites in Korea, high density storage racks were installed in the spent fuel pool to expand the spent fuel storage capacity. Nevertheless, the capability of the Hanbit nuclear site will be saturated by 2024. Also, 10 NPPs will reach their design life expiration date by 2029. In the case of the US, SFPI (Spent Fuel Pool Island) operated temporarily as a spent fuel storage option before spent nuclear fuels were transported to an interim storage facility or a final disposal facility. As a spent fuel storage option after shutdown during decommissioning, the SFPI concept can be expected to have the following effects: reduced occupational exposure, lower cost of operation, strengthened safety, and so on. This paper presents a case study associated with the regulations, operating experiences, and systems of SFPI in the US. In conclusion, the following steps are recommended for applying SFPI during decommissioning in Korea: confirmation of design change scope of SFPI and expected final cost, the submission of a decommissioning plan which is reflected in SFPI improvement plans, safety assessment using PSR, application of an operating license change for design change, regulatory body review and approval, design change, inspection by the regulatory body, education and commissioning for SFPI, SFPI operation and periodic inspection, and dismantling of SFPI.

PYROPROCESSING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT KAERI

  • Lee, Han-Soo;Park, Geun-Il;Kang, Kweon-Ho;Hur, Jin-Mok;Kim, Jeong-Guk;Ahn, Do-Hee;Cho, Yung-Zun;Kim, Eung-Ho
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.317-328
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    • 2011
  • Pyroprocessing technology was developed in the beginning for metal fuel treatment in the US in the 1960s. The conventional aqueous process, such as PUREX, is not appropriate for treating metal fuel. Pyroprocessing technology has advantages over the aqueous process: less proliferation risk, treatment of spent fuel with relatively high heat and radioactivity, compact equipment, etc. The addition of an oxide reduction process to the pyroprocessing metal fuel treatment enables handling of oxide spent fuel, which draws a potential option for the management of spent fuel from the PWR. In this context, KAERI has been developing pyroprocessing technology to handle the oxide spent fuel since the 1990s. This paper describes the current status of pyroprocessing technology development at KAERI from the head-end process to the waste treatment. A unit process with various scales has been tested to produce the design data associated with the scale up. A performance test of unit processes integration will be conducted at the PRIDE facility, which will be constructed by early 2012. The PRIDE facility incorporates the unit processes all together in a cell with an Ar environment. The purpose of PRIDE is to test the processes for unit process performance, operability by remote equipment, the integrity of the unit processes, process monitoring, Ar environment system operation, and safeguards related activities. The test of PRIDE will be promising for further pyroprocessing technology development.

Review of Research on Chloride-Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Dry Storage Canisters in the United States (미국의 건식저장 캐니스터에서의 CISCC 연구에 대한 검토)

  • Park, Hyoung-Gyu;Park, Kwang-Heon
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.455-472
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    • 2018
  • It is important to study how to manage dry storage casks of spent nuclear fuels (SNF), because wet storage spaces for SNF will shortly be at full capacity in the Republic of Korea. The US has operated a dry storage cask system for several decades, and has carried out significant studies into how to successfully manage dry storage cask for SNF. This type of expertise and experience is currently lacking in the Republic of Korea. The degradation of dry casks is an important issue that must be considered. In particular, chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (CISCC) is known to lead to the release of radioisotopes from canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Electric Power Research Institute have undertaken research into the CISCC mechanism. In addition, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has extensively researched CISCC and how to manage it in dry storage canisters. In this review paper, the probabilistic model proposed by the SNL is analyzed and, based on this model, US-based CISCC research is reviewed in detail. This paper will inform the management of dry cask storage of SNF from light water reactors in austenite stainless steel canisters in the Republic of Korea.