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A Basic Study on the Characteristics of the Modern Garden in Incheon During the Opening Period - Focused on Rikidake's Villa - (개항기 인천 근대정원의 조영특성에 관한 기초연구 - 리키다케 별장을 중심으로 -)

  • Jin, Hye-Young;Shin, Hyun-Sil
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.83-91
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the process of formation of modern gardens. Based on the analysis of the process of formation and transformation of the Jemulpo in Incheon and the details of the modern garden construction. The results are as follows; First, the formation of the Incheon Residence Site began in 1876 with the signing of the Joseon-Japan Treaty. Jemulpo used to be a desolate fishing village in the past, but after its opening in 1881, the Japanese settlement, Chinese settlement, and the general foreign settlement were formed. After that, Japan reclaimed the southern mudflats and expanded the theire settlement area, and advanced to the Joseon area(currently Sinheung-dong). In Japanese colonial era, modern Japanese urban landscapes were transplanted into the settlement area, centering on the Japanese modern gardens were distributed in the area around the center of the settlement area. Second, after examining the process of creating the garden for the Rikidake villa, Japanese Rikidake purchased a site for an orchard in Uri-tang, who was a major landowner in Incheon, to create the garden. At the time of Rikidake's residence, the garden was very large, measuring about 3,000 pyeong, and after liberation, it was acquired by Incheon City and used as Yulmok Children's Library. It was known as a rich village at the time of the opening of the port, and a garden was located at the highest point in Yulmok-dong, making it easy to see the Incheon Port area. Also, a spot located about 300 meters away from Rikidake's rice mill may have affected the location selection. Third, today's Rikidake villa has a Japanese-style house on a trapezoidal site, with a garden of about 990 square meters on the south side. Currently, it is possible to enter from the south and from Yulmok Children's Park in the north, but in the past, the main direction of the house was to view the Incheon Port, settlement area, and the Rikidake Rice Mill, so the house was located in front of the garden. The garden is a multi-faceted style with stone lanterns, tombstones, garden stones, and trees placed on each side, and is surrounded by arboreal plants such as attention, strobe pine, and maple trees, as well as royal azaleas. The view from the inside of the house was secured through shrub-oriented vegetation around the house.

Elevated Serum Creatine Kinase Level in Rotavirus Gastroenteritis (Rotavirus 위장관염에서 혈청 Creatine Kinase의 증가)

  • Bae, Won Tae;Kim, Jae Hui;Park, Eun Sil;Seo, Ji Hyun;Lim, Jae Young;Park, Chan Hoo;Woo, Hyang Ok;Youn, Hee Shang
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.117-121
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: Elevated AST/ALT level in rotavirus gastroenteritis have been reported. We found elevated creatine kinase (CK) in those children. This study was carried out to define the relationship of major clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and level of creatine kinase. Methods: A retrospective analysis was made for thirty patients who were diagnosed rotavirus gastroenteritis from Jan 2001 to Mar 2005 in Department of Pediatrics, Gyeongsang National University Hospital. Serum creatine kinase was checked for the evaluation of high aminotransferase level among the patients. Results: Fourteen patients (8 males, 6 females) with high creatine kinase activity were included in this study. The mean age was $1.46{\pm}1.24year$ of age. The mean level of AST, ALT and CK were $127.5{\pm}136.2IU/L$, $126.1{\pm}154.3IU/L$, and $542.8{\pm}624.6IU/L$, respectively. Electrophoresis of CK isoenzyme was performed in four of them and the results revealed elevated CK-MM fraction (96~100%). Three of them revealed high serum creatine kinase acitivity (>1,000 IU/L) without acute renal failure and other symptom. However, none of them had muscular pain or trauma history. Elevated creatine kinase activity did not correlate with clinical implications (age, sex, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, symptom of URI, degree of dehydration or seizure) or laboratory findings. Conclusion: In this study, we found that serum creatine kinase acitivity also was elevated in infants with rotavirus gastroenteritis. This data support muscular damage due to rotavirus, but could not prove the mechanism of increased serum creatine kinase activity.

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A Study on the form of korean Women's Hair Style-From the Viewpoint of Woman's Hair Style in Cho-Sun Dynasty- (한국 여성의 수발양식 관한 연구 -조선시대 여성 수발법을 중심으로-)

  • 정상숙;조효순
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.41
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    • pp.95-105
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    • 1998
  • SOO-BAL(Hair Style) is a method Which match hair style to face and clothes with using hair covering and protecting the head. Also SOO-BAL includes personal ornaments using to avoid one's hair be disheveled. In a standpoint of beauty and spirit, etiquette SOO-BAL is a very important thing as one being dressed up. Until now, since just a form of hair style have been studied, hair styling process is nothing to be known and studied. Time after time, our unique traditional SOO-BAL is forgotten with clothes and then this th-esis will be classified hair styling form follow-ing a form of hair style in royal palace of the C-hosun dynasty. According to the record of HAE DONG HISTORY, it shows the same of attire between Ko-rean and chinese style in ae of the chosun. The reason in that there were no any certain boundary border and the interaction of culture between two countries was happened spontaneously at ancient time like the GOCHO-SUN age. Until the period of the three states, the korean attire be changed had gone with chinese one s-imilarly. The chinese form gave to influence on the EONJIN MEURI·POON-GI-MYEONG MEURI·JJO-CJIN MEURI·MOOK-EUN GOONG-BAL MEURI·OL-LIN MEURI·SSANGSANG-TU ME-URI be drawn wall painting in the KOKUR-YU. And a gold chignon accesso-ry unearthed in a MOO-RYOUNG royal mausoleum is proof of the korean attrire be changed with chinese. In the shilla dynasty at three years after Cjin-Deuk(A.D. 649) reign. It was recorded that the dynasty let women wear the form of chinese attire. Also in the koryo dyn-asty, a rod-like hairpin (BIN-YEU) and DANG-GI employing EON-JIN MEURI was used. The SOO-BAL based on the Confucianism had lots of regulations which limited to use ornaments with classes of society in the CHOSUN dynasty. Until YOUNG CHO and CHUNG CHO period. EONJIN MEURI be decorated GACHAE was announced by dynasty as ind-ulging in luxury. Women of yangban used a rod-like hairpin and a chignon accessory made by jewerly. And 1-owly women weared a rod-like hairpin made of born and wood to perfom EONJIN MEURI with PUNCHAE. Most unmarried women decorated with DDA-AH-NEULIN MEURI, GUI-MIT MEURI, specially in palace with SAE-ANG MEURI. At palace, one put on a full dress with KEUN MEURI, and a simple dress with ER-YEO MEURI be decorated DDERL-JAM The CHOP-JI MEURI manifested social rank, class. Kids at CHO-SUN age had BA-DUK-PANMEURI and JONG-JONG MEURI. The ornament things are GACHE, DDERL JAM with EON-JIN M-EURI, and all kinds of rod-like hairpin and chignon accessory used in JJOK MEURI. IN DANGGE, JE-BI-BURI DANGGI used by ummarried women. DO-TOO-RAK DANGGI and AP DANGGI on a dress suit, and BE-SSI DANGGI used by 3∼4 years ungrown kids etc. were used. And at palace, kinds of CHUPJI used with JJOK MEURI showed social rank. In CHOSUN age, women want to keep shiny hair washed at TA-NO festival day, a treatment of bald hair used a forked remedy. In CHOSUN age, woman Soo-Bal hair style has DAE-SOO·DDEU-KOO-JI MEURI·CHO-P-GI MEURI·EON-JIN MEURI·SAE-ANG MEURI· and so on. We could find out Soo-Bal was developed very well by these variety hair styles. I attatched all of the hair style pictures step by step, and also explained detail my research foll owing these pictures.

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Causative Pathogens and Therapeutic Assessment of Cefprozil in Acute Otitis Media (급성 중이염의 원인 병원균과 Cefprozil 치료의 임상적 평가)

  • Kang, Jin-Han;Kim, Jong Hyun;Park, Yong-Soo;Choi, Young-Chul;Noh, Heil;Yang, Hoon Shik;Kim, Kyu Sung;Moon, Yeon Sook;Hong, Young Jin
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.459-466
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : AOM is the most common bacterial URI in children. The bacteriology and antibiotic Tx of AOM in children has been studied in many countries. But, there is few study of causative pathogens and antibiotic Tx of AOM in our country. In this aspect, we performed prospective clinical study to confirm the causative pathogens and assess the clinical responses of cefprozil in AOM patients. Methods : Thirty three AOM patients enrolled in this study. Tympanocentesis for isolation of causative pathogens were performed before Tx of cefprozil. The study patients received cefprozil with dose of 15 mg/kg/bid.po/day for 10-12 days, and initially assessed the clinical response at 4-5 days after receiving cefprozil and finally at the end visit. In vitro susceptibility tests of cefprozil to isolated pathogens were done by disc diffusion method, and in vitro susceptibility tests of cefaclor and cefixime to isolated pathogens were simultaneously performed. Results : Bacterial pathogens[S. pneumoniae(10), H. influenzae(5), S. aureus(2), M. catarrhalis(1) and Group A stretococcus(1)] were isolated from 19 patients. Clinically, all patients had history of abrupt high fever except one. Tympanic perforation was dominant in pathogens isolated cases, and otalgia was significantly developed in non-pathogens isolated cases. The ages of pathogens isolated cases were usually below 2 years. Eighty four point nine percent of the patients including two cases with isolation of intermediate resistant S. pneumoniae were clinically improved. Antimicrobial in vitro activity to S. pneumoniae of cefprozil were superior than that of cefacor and cefixime. Conclusion : We confirm that bacteria has the causative role in about 60% cases, and S. pneumoniae is the most common pathogen. Clinically, there were some differences in symptoms, signs and ages between pathogens isolated and non-pathogens isolated cases. The clinical responses of cefprozil in our patients revealed similar outcomes to other countries. And we reconfirm that cefprozil may be clinically effective in cases of AOM due to intermediate resistant S. pneumoniae.

Clinical Effects of SJ-002 on URI - Upper Respiratory Tract Infection - (상기도감염증에 대한 SJ-002액의 임상적 고찰)

  • Chung, Byung-Chun;Kim, Kwang-Won;Woo, Un-Joh;Lee, Young-Sunk;Kim, Seung-Woan;Choi, Young-Hwan;Kim, Yeon-Jae;Kim, Sung-Rok;Kim, Soo-Dong
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.211-214
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    • 1991
  • SJ-200 is an oral liquid preparation of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, Dl-methyleph edrine HCl, caffeine, chlorpheniramine maleate, guaifenesin and dextromethorphan HBr, which is indicated when there is a need to improve various cold symptoms such as headache, sore throat, fever, or cough etc. Thirty patients was enroled for this study fro June to July, 1991. They were given one bottle (30 ml) of SJ-200 t.i.d dy P.O for an average of one to seven days. 1) Twenty-eight patients (84.8%) were relieved from the symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection. 2) Side effects with this preparation occured in 8 patients924.2%) but in four patients, they were mild, which wee transienty by the discontinuation f the medication.

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Germination and Proteome Profile Characteristics of Wheat Seeds Treated under Different Concentrations of Abscisic Acid (Abscisic acid 농도에 따른 밀 종자의 발아와 단백질체의 발현 특성)

  • Jeong, Jae-Hyeok;Kim, Dae-Wook;Hwang, Woon-Ha;An, Sung-Hyun;Jeong, Han-Yong;Lee, Hyeon-Seok;Choi, In-Bea;Choi, Kyung-Jin;Yun, Jong-Tak;Yun, Song Joong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.63 no.1
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to investigate the germination and proteome profile characteristics of wheat seeds treated under various concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA). After-ripening, the seeds of three wheat cultivars (Baegjoong, Keumkang, and Uri) showing different levels of dormancy were used. Germination index and germination rate of the cultivars was higher than 0.95% and 98%, respectively, and these were not significantly different under 0, 10, 30, and $50{\mu}M$ ABA at 7 d after germination. However, the growth of the shoot and radicle was significantly inhibited at 10, 30, and $50{\mu}M$ ABA compared to that at $0{\mu}M$ ABA. Mean ABA content of the embryos of seeds germinated at 0 and $50{\mu}M$ ABA for 7 d was 0.8 and $269.0ngmg^{-1}DW$, respectively. Proteins extracted from embryos germinated for 4 d were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and proteins showing a difference of 1.5-fold or greater in their spot volume relative to that of $0{\mu}M$ ABA were identified. The expression of four protein spots increased at $50{\mu}M$ ABA and two protein spots were detected only at $50{\mu}M$ ABA; these six proteins were all identified as globulin types. Conversely, the expression of three protein spots decreased at $50{\mu}M$ ABA and were identified as cytosolic glutamine sysnthetase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2. In conclusion, ABA did not inhibit the germination rate regardless of pre-harvest sprouting characteristics of the cultivars. However, the growth of the shoot and radicle was significantly inhibited by ABA, most likely through the down regulation of glutamine, methyl group donor, and polyamines biosynthesis, among others, while accompanied by globulin accumulation in the embryos.

Epidemiological Changes and Clinical Features of Hepatitis A in Children, Living in Kyung-gi Province, Since 1988 to 1998 (최근 10년간(1988~1998) 경기지역 소아에서 A형 간염의 역학적 변화 및 임상에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyun;Kim, Jong Hyun;Kim, Dong Un;Hur, Je Kyun;Lee, Won Bae;Seo, Byung Kyeu;Kang, Jin-Han
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.230-238
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : Worldwidely, the incidence of the hepatitis A has been markedly decreased in the past years. Also in Korea, there has been only a few sporadic cases without evidence of epidemics since the mid 1980s. However, the incidence of the hepatitis A in young adults and childen has been in trends of increasing since 1996. So, we retrospectively performed the study on the epidemiolgical changes and the clinical feature of hepatitis A in childen, living in Kyung-gi province, since 1988 to 1998. Methods : The four affiliated hospitals of the Catholic University of Korea, Our lady of Mercy's hospital, Holy family hospital, Eui-Jung-bu St. Mary's hospital, and St. Vincent hospital, were enrolled in this study. We conducted statistical analysis on the incidence of hepatitis A since 1988 to 1998, concerning with the period (monthly, annually), age, sex and related epidemiological property, by reviewing the hospital records of the patients with hepatitis A. We simultaneously performed the study concerning with the clinical characteristics of hepatitis A. Results : 1) During the study period, 46 children was diagnosed as hepatitis A, and among them 28 children (60.1%) developed sporadically in the 1998. And sex ratio was 1.2(male):1(female). 2) Most of the patients developed between March and July, and hepatitits A were mainly developed in the patients above the 10 year old ages(37 patients; 80.4%). 3) The socioeconomic and educational status of the patient's parents was almostly below the middle and low class. Although, we could not find the etiological factors in most cases, but we found the evidence of interfamilial transmission in one family. 4) The patients complained the symptoms of nausea and vomiting, jaundice, poor appetite, mild fever, fatigueness, abdominal pain, URI symptom, dyspepsia, dark urine, headache and diarrhea in order, and findings of jaundice, hepatomegaly, RUQ tenderness, splenomegaly and LLQ tenderness in order were seen. 5) All patients showed abnormal findings of the liver function tests, and the pattern of cholestatic hepatitis were seen in most cases, but these findings were normalized within the 2~4 weeks. The findings of the gall bladder wall thickening, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and ascites were seen on abodominal sonogram. 6) The prognosis of all patients were good without complications, except in one case who had the episode of transient recuurence. And the mean hospitalization dates were 11.1 days. Conclusion : We found that the incidence of hepatitis A showed the increasing trend, and peaked in the 1998 in Kyung-gi province children. And hepatitis A mainly developed in children above the 10 year old ages. The scioeconomic and educational status of patient's family was almostly below the middle class. All of them showed abnormal liver function, and clinically cholestatic hepatitis features were seen in most cases. But, the prognosis was excellent without complication in all cases.

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A Comparative Study on the Pattern of Outpatient Department Utilization at a Tertiary Level Hospital before and after Implementation of the Patient Referral System (의료전달체계 실시 전후의 3차 진료기관 외래환자 이용양상 비교)

  • Lee, Kyeong-Soo;Kim, Chang-Yoon;Kang, Pock-Soo
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.88-100
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    • 1992
  • This study was conducted to assess the effects of implementation of the patient referral system started July 1st, 1989. A comparison on the pattern of outpatient services of the Departments of Internal Medicine, General Surgery, and Pediatrics at the Yeungnam University Hospital was conducted for each one year period before and after implementation of the patient referral system. The pre-implementation period was from July 1, 1988 to June 30, 1989 and the post-implementation period was from July 1, 1989 to June 30, 1990. The information used for this study was obtained from official forms, prepared by the Yeungnam University Hospital, and submitted to the Korean Medical Insurance Cooperatives. After implementation of the patient referral system, the number of outpatient cases in the Department of Internal Medicine decreased 36.1% from 9,669 cases to 6,181 cases a year. Cases in the Department of General Surgery decreased 23.7% from 1,864 cases to 1,422 cases a year. The number of cases in the Department of Pediatrics decreased 36.9% from 3,372 cases to 2,128 cases a year. After implementation of the patient referral system, the average age of cases in the Departments of Internal Medicine and General Surgery was 52.5 and 49.7 years old, respectively. This was a significant increase in comparison with the pre-implementation period. After implementation of patient referral system, the proportion of new outpatients in the Department of Internal Medicine decreased from 24.1% to 14.6%, the Department of General Surgery from 36.0% to 23.4%, and the Department of Pediatrics from 15.5% to 8.3%. The number of visits per case decreased significantly in the Department of Internal Medicine(from 1.74 to 1.61), but there was no significant change in the Departments of General Surgery and Pediatrics. The length of treatment per case increased significantly in all three departments(from 16.1 days to 19.3 days in the Department of Internal Medicine, from 12.0 days to 15.2 days in the Department General Surgery, and 8.9 days to 11.2 days in the Department of Pediatrics). The number of clinical tests per case increased significantly in the Department of Internal Medicine (from 2.2 to 2.5), in the Department of Pediatrics(from 0.8 to 1.1) and increased in the Department of General Surgery(from 6.4 to 6.6). The average medical cost per case decreased from 43,900 Won to 42,500 Won in the Department of Internal Medicine, while the cost increased from 75,900 Won to 78,500 Won in the Department of General Surgery and from 12,700 Won to 13,500 Won in the Department of Pediatrics. In case-mix, the chronic degenerative disease(i. e. hypertension, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, malignant neoplasm, and pulmonary tuberculosis) ranked higher and acute infectious diseases and simple cases(i. e. gastritis and duodenitis, haemorrhoids, anal fissure, carbuncle, acute URI, and bronchitis) ranked lower after implementation of the patient referral system compared to before implementation.

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