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Germination and Proteome Profile Characteristics of Wheat Seeds Treated under Different Concentrations of Abscisic Acid (Abscisic acid 농도에 따른 밀 종자의 발아와 단백질체의 발현 특성)

  • Jeong, Jae-Hyeok;Kim, Dae-Wook;Hwang, Woon-Ha;An, Sung-Hyun;Jeong, Han-Yong;Lee, Hyeon-Seok;Choi, In-Bea;Choi, Kyung-Jin;Yun, Jong-Tak;Yun, Song Joong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.63 no.1
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to investigate the germination and proteome profile characteristics of wheat seeds treated under various concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA). After-ripening, the seeds of three wheat cultivars (Baegjoong, Keumkang, and Uri) showing different levels of dormancy were used. Germination index and germination rate of the cultivars was higher than 0.95% and 98%, respectively, and these were not significantly different under 0, 10, 30, and $50{\mu}M$ ABA at 7 d after germination. However, the growth of the shoot and radicle was significantly inhibited at 10, 30, and $50{\mu}M$ ABA compared to that at $0{\mu}M$ ABA. Mean ABA content of the embryos of seeds germinated at 0 and $50{\mu}M$ ABA for 7 d was 0.8 and $269.0ngmg^{-1}DW$, respectively. Proteins extracted from embryos germinated for 4 d were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and proteins showing a difference of 1.5-fold or greater in their spot volume relative to that of $0{\mu}M$ ABA were identified. The expression of four protein spots increased at $50{\mu}M$ ABA and two protein spots were detected only at $50{\mu}M$ ABA; these six proteins were all identified as globulin types. Conversely, the expression of three protein spots decreased at $50{\mu}M$ ABA and were identified as cytosolic glutamine sysnthetase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2. In conclusion, ABA did not inhibit the germination rate regardless of pre-harvest sprouting characteristics of the cultivars. However, the growth of the shoot and radicle was significantly inhibited by ABA, most likely through the down regulation of glutamine, methyl group donor, and polyamines biosynthesis, among others, while accompanied by globulin accumulation in the embryos.

A Comparative Study on the Pattern of Outpatient Department Utilization at a Tertiary Level Hospital before and after Implementation of the Patient Referral System (의료전달체계 실시 전후의 3차 진료기관 외래환자 이용양상 비교)

  • Lee, Kyeong-Soo;Kim, Chang-Yoon;Kang, Pock-Soo
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.88-100
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    • 1992
  • This study was conducted to assess the effects of implementation of the patient referral system started July 1st, 1989. A comparison on the pattern of outpatient services of the Departments of Internal Medicine, General Surgery, and Pediatrics at the Yeungnam University Hospital was conducted for each one year period before and after implementation of the patient referral system. The pre-implementation period was from July 1, 1988 to June 30, 1989 and the post-implementation period was from July 1, 1989 to June 30, 1990. The information used for this study was obtained from official forms, prepared by the Yeungnam University Hospital, and submitted to the Korean Medical Insurance Cooperatives. After implementation of the patient referral system, the number of outpatient cases in the Department of Internal Medicine decreased 36.1% from 9,669 cases to 6,181 cases a year. Cases in the Department of General Surgery decreased 23.7% from 1,864 cases to 1,422 cases a year. The number of cases in the Department of Pediatrics decreased 36.9% from 3,372 cases to 2,128 cases a year. After implementation of the patient referral system, the average age of cases in the Departments of Internal Medicine and General Surgery was 52.5 and 49.7 years old, respectively. This was a significant increase in comparison with the pre-implementation period. After implementation of patient referral system, the proportion of new outpatients in the Department of Internal Medicine decreased from 24.1% to 14.6%, the Department of General Surgery from 36.0% to 23.4%, and the Department of Pediatrics from 15.5% to 8.3%. The number of visits per case decreased significantly in the Department of Internal Medicine(from 1.74 to 1.61), but there was no significant change in the Departments of General Surgery and Pediatrics. The length of treatment per case increased significantly in all three departments(from 16.1 days to 19.3 days in the Department of Internal Medicine, from 12.0 days to 15.2 days in the Department General Surgery, and 8.9 days to 11.2 days in the Department of Pediatrics). The number of clinical tests per case increased significantly in the Department of Internal Medicine (from 2.2 to 2.5), in the Department of Pediatrics(from 0.8 to 1.1) and increased in the Department of General Surgery(from 6.4 to 6.6). The average medical cost per case decreased from 43,900 Won to 42,500 Won in the Department of Internal Medicine, while the cost increased from 75,900 Won to 78,500 Won in the Department of General Surgery and from 12,700 Won to 13,500 Won in the Department of Pediatrics. In case-mix, the chronic degenerative disease(i. e. hypertension, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, malignant neoplasm, and pulmonary tuberculosis) ranked higher and acute infectious diseases and simple cases(i. e. gastritis and duodenitis, haemorrhoids, anal fissure, carbuncle, acute URI, and bronchitis) ranked lower after implementation of the patient referral system compared to before implementation.

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Epidemiological Changes and Clinical Features of Hepatitis A in Children, Living in Kyung-gi Province, Since 1988 to 1998 (최근 10년간(1988~1998) 경기지역 소아에서 A형 간염의 역학적 변화 및 임상에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyun;Kim, Jong Hyun;Kim, Dong Un;Hur, Je Kyun;Lee, Won Bae;Seo, Byung Kyeu;Kang, Jin-Han
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.230-238
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : Worldwidely, the incidence of the hepatitis A has been markedly decreased in the past years. Also in Korea, there has been only a few sporadic cases without evidence of epidemics since the mid 1980s. However, the incidence of the hepatitis A in young adults and childen has been in trends of increasing since 1996. So, we retrospectively performed the study on the epidemiolgical changes and the clinical feature of hepatitis A in childen, living in Kyung-gi province, since 1988 to 1998. Methods : The four affiliated hospitals of the Catholic University of Korea, Our lady of Mercy's hospital, Holy family hospital, Eui-Jung-bu St. Mary's hospital, and St. Vincent hospital, were enrolled in this study. We conducted statistical analysis on the incidence of hepatitis A since 1988 to 1998, concerning with the period (monthly, annually), age, sex and related epidemiological property, by reviewing the hospital records of the patients with hepatitis A. We simultaneously performed the study concerning with the clinical characteristics of hepatitis A. Results : 1) During the study period, 46 children was diagnosed as hepatitis A, and among them 28 children (60.1%) developed sporadically in the 1998. And sex ratio was 1.2(male):1(female). 2) Most of the patients developed between March and July, and hepatitits A were mainly developed in the patients above the 10 year old ages(37 patients; 80.4%). 3) The socioeconomic and educational status of the patient's parents was almostly below the middle and low class. Although, we could not find the etiological factors in most cases, but we found the evidence of interfamilial transmission in one family. 4) The patients complained the symptoms of nausea and vomiting, jaundice, poor appetite, mild fever, fatigueness, abdominal pain, URI symptom, dyspepsia, dark urine, headache and diarrhea in order, and findings of jaundice, hepatomegaly, RUQ tenderness, splenomegaly and LLQ tenderness in order were seen. 5) All patients showed abnormal findings of the liver function tests, and the pattern of cholestatic hepatitis were seen in most cases, but these findings were normalized within the 2~4 weeks. The findings of the gall bladder wall thickening, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and ascites were seen on abodominal sonogram. 6) The prognosis of all patients were good without complications, except in one case who had the episode of transient recuurence. And the mean hospitalization dates were 11.1 days. Conclusion : We found that the incidence of hepatitis A showed the increasing trend, and peaked in the 1998 in Kyung-gi province children. And hepatitis A mainly developed in children above the 10 year old ages. The scioeconomic and educational status of patient's family was almostly below the middle class. All of them showed abnormal liver function, and clinically cholestatic hepatitis features were seen in most cases. But, the prognosis was excellent without complication in all cases.

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