• Title, Summary, Keyword: UNCTAD

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United Nations Framework and Recommendations for International Electronic Business Facilitation

  • Dollein, Richard
    • International journal of advanced smart convergence
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.43-47
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    • 2013
  • Within the United Nations framework of the Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) serves as the focal point for trade facilitation recommendations and electronic business standards, covering both commercial and government business processes that can foster growth in international trade and related services. Accordingly United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) was established, as a subsidiary, intergovernmental body of the UNECE Committee on Trade, mandated to develop a program of work of global relevance to achieve improved worldwide coordination and cooperation in these areas. Domestic development and distribution of electronic documents to be conformed to international standards, it is enough to have the role of international activities continue to supply part of the domestic industry and the trends in participation and international standard.

An Analysis of Ship's Waiting Ratio in the Korean Seaports (국내 항만의 선박 대기율 실증 분석 연구)

  • Kim, Eun-Soo;Kim, Geun-Sub
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2016
  • Port congestion has been recognized as one of the critical factors for port service competitiveness and port selection criteria. However, congestion ratio, the congestion index currently used by Korea, plays a very limited role in shipping companies' and shippers' selection of port and port authorities' decision making regarding port management and development. This is mainly due to the fact that this ratio is only calculated as the ratio of the number of vessels by each port. Therefore, this study aims to measure service level related to vessel entry and departure in Korea ports by evaluating waiting ratio(WR) according to terminals and vessel types. The results demonstrate that the waiting ratio of containerships and non-containerships is less than 4% and 15% respectively, which satisfies the reasonable level suggested by the UNCTAD and OECD. Port of Pohang is revealed to have the highest WR of 57% and among the terminals, No. 1 Terminal of the Shinhang area has the highest WR. In terms of ship types, WR of Steel Product Carrier is highest, followed by General Cargo Ship and Bulk Carrier at the Pohang Shinhang area. In addition to WR, berth occupancy ratio as well as the number and time of waiting vessels can be utilized to evaluate service level by ports and terminals from port users' perspective, and furthermore, to improve the port management and development policy for port managers or authorities.

Electronic Commerce Related Issues in the WTO and Its Implication to Korea (전자상거래 관련 논의현황과 과제)

  • 이신규
    • The Journal of Information Technology
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.23-37
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    • 2001
  • There is no doubt that electronic commerce facilitates international trade and lower transaction cost and help firms make the best of the opportunities of market access. The comprehensive programs had been implemented to provide better electronic commerce environments by international organizations such as OECD, UNCITRAL, APEC and etc. Especially, WTO plays the most important role to implement efficient forms and rules on electronic commerce after Seattle 3rd Ministerial Conference. Member countries recognize the need to conduct the electronic commerce in compliance with the principles and rules of WTO. However, there are many issues to be solved such as the clarifications of concepts and definitions, the possibility of adaptation of technological neutrality In GATS, the Imposition of taxation in electronic commerce transactions and the methods of protecting copyright as well as trademark. The Implementation of concrete forms and rules of electronic commerce in the WTO will be influential to international trade as the member countries have to adapt them In their transactions. Considering that further discussion will be continued in GATS, we need to analyze the problems and strategies for electronic commerce.

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A Study on Korean fisheries' Globalization level: focusing on LIT and IIT (우리나라 수산업의 글로벌화 수준 평가 -국제연계도 및 국제통합도 분석을 중심으로-)

  • Hong, Hyun-Pyo;Ma, Chang-Mo
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.61-79
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study is to examine Korean fisheries' globalization level. For that, this paper discusses structural changes of world fisheries and level of korean fisheries' globalization. Fisheries' globalization is measured by comparison of IIT(intra-industry trade) and LIT(level of international trade) on eleven countries(Netherland, UK., USA, France, Japan, Spain, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia, Philipinnes). And analysis data are obtained from UN-UNCTAD PC-TAS and FAO Fishstat. As a result of measure of fisheries' globalization, Netherland is the most globalization country of eleven countries. And the next order is Spain, UK, France, Thailand, Taiwan etc. We can classify these countries into four types. Type I is 'International linkage and integration global indutstry' inculding Netherland, UK, Spain, France. Type II is 'Interantional integration global industry' including Taiwan and S. korea. Type III is 'international linkage global industry' including none of eleven countries. Finally, type IV is 'domestic demand and self-sufficient industry'including Thailand, USA, Japan. So we can name the type of korean fisheries' globalization as 'interantional integration global industry'. Usually this type is evaluated that level of international trade is not high but level of intra-industry trade is high. As a result, from now, we should consider policy directions of korean fisheries whether to decide one of four types or not.

Trade Facilitation for Promotion of e-Business (e-비즈니스의 활성화를 위한 무역원활화추진)

  • Kim, Sun-Ok
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.163-181
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this paper is to review the major issues of trade facilitation that have been discussing in relevant international organization such as WTO, WCO, UN/ECE, and UNCTAD In recent years the term, trade facilitation, has become extremely popular and, therefore, applied to an ever-growing number of activities. Trade Facilitation encompasses the simplification, standardization, harmonization and elimination of the procedures, data requirements and administration involved in an international trade transaction. The facilitation of trade procedures is seen by all major international business as vital for economic development. Several factors are fuelling the need for trade facilitation of which two are the globalization of international trade and the rapid IT-development. Another important factor includes increased economic integration by an explosion of regional and bilateral free-trade agreement that often feature complex customs requirements. Technological progress has also introduced faster and cheaper forms of transportation and transportation management techniques, such as the increased use of e-business and JIT. The Internet is also fragmenting containers of goods that could have been custom cleared on a single entry into dozens of individual shipments that each require separate customs documents and clearance procedures. This creates a challenge for express couriers who anticipate exponential growth in small shipments by individual consumers, as compared to shipment by wholesalers or retailers. These consumers expect goods to be cleared immediately. It is no wonder that express couriers are actively promoting, and participating in the trade facilitation agenda.

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FDI, Corruption and Development of Public Service Sectors in ASEAN Countries

  • PHAN, Nghi Huu;NGUYEN, Loan Quynh Thi
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.9
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    • pp.241-249
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    • 2020
  • This study aims to empirically examine the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) and corruption on the development of public-service sectors in 10 ASEAN countries. It then investigates whether this relationship is different between two FDI compositions including greenfield FDI and FDI in the form of cross-border merger and acquisitions (M&As). Using a panel database of 10 ASEAN countries during the period 1996-2015 from various sources including the World Development Indicators of the World Bank and UNCTAD, we first find that FDI strongly and positively contributes to the development of the public-service sectors in the recipient nations, except for the electricity sector. However, we show that this relationship is dependent on the type of FDI modes of entry. Specifically, while greenfield investment exerts a beneficial influence on the development of telecommunication and transportation sectors, cross-border M&A has no effect on these sectors, perhaps because of the distinct differences among three public service sectors. Finally, we found that in a highly corrupt environment, aggregate FDI might have no influence on all three public-service sectors, possibly because the two contradictory influences of the interaction terms between corruption and two FDI sub-types seem to cancel each other out.

An Study on Long Run Effects of Determinants on Export of Korean Goods to US (한국의 대미국 수출 결정요인의 장기적 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Mun Seong
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.409-433
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, I estimate long-run elasticities of US real GDP and real exchange rate between Korean Won and US Dollar on export of Korean goods to US and analyze changes in their trend by using VECM and rolling regression with a fixed window. For the purposes I use the year data from 1990 to 2013 which are selected from UNCTAD, Korea Trade Association(KTA), and Bank of Korea(BOK). The results are that the long-run elasticities of US real GDP vary from 2.849 to 2.938 for the period from 1990 to 2013 depending on the models in VECM and all of them are significant statistically. The elasticities of real exchange rate between Korean WON and US Dollar vary from 0.962 to 0.967 for the same period depending on the models in VECM and all of them are significant statistically. In case of the results through the OLS and the rolling regression, the long-run elasticities of US. real GDP are 3.015 for Basic Model, 2.949 for the modified Model 1, and 2.125 for the modified Model 2 for the period from 1990 to 2013 depending on the models and all of them are significant statistically. The average of long-run elasticities of real US GDP before the global financial crisis of 2008 is greater than that after the global financial crisis of 2008. On the other hand, the long-run elasticities of real exchange rate between Korean WON and US $ are 0.347 for Basic Model, 0.566 for the modified Model 1, and -0.217 for the modified Model 2 for the same period and all of them are significant statistically except for the modified Model 2. The average of long-run elasticities of real exchange rate before the global financial crisis of 2008 is greater than that after the global financial crisis of 2008.

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The International Arbitration System for the Settlement of Investor-State Disputes in the FTA (FTA(자유무역협정)에서 투자자 대 국가간 분쟁해결을 위한 국제중재제도)

  • Lee, Kang-Bin
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
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    • v.38
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    • pp.181-226
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this paper is to describe the settling procedures of the investor-state disputes in the FTA Investment Chapter, and to research on the international arbitration system for the settlement of the investor-state disputes under the ICSID Convention and UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules. The UNCTAD reports that the cumulative number of arbitration cases for the investor-state dispute settlement is 290 cases by March 2008. 182 cases of them have been brought before the ICSID, and 80 cases of them have been submitted under the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules. The ICSID reports that the cumulative 263 cases of investor-state dispute settlement have been brought before the ICSID by March 2008. 136 cases of them have been concluded, but 127 cases of them have been pending up to now. The Chapter 11 Section B of the Korea-U.S. FTA provides for the Investor_State Dispute Settlement. Under the provisions of Section B, the claimant may submit to arbitration a claim that the respondent has breached and obligation under Section A, an investment authorization or an investment agreement and that the claimant has incurred loss or damage by reason of that breach. Provided that six months have elapsed since the events giving rise to the claim, a claimant may submit a claim referred to under the ICSID Convention and the ICSID Rules of Procedure for Arbitration Proceedings; under the ICSID Additional Facility Rules; or under the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules. The ICSID Convention provides for the jurisdiction of the ICSID(Chapter 2), arbitration(Chapter 3), and replacement and disqualification of arbitrators(Chapter 5) as follows. The jurisdiction of the ICSID shall extend to any legal dispute arising directly out of an investment, between a Contracting State and a national of another Contracting State, which the parties to the dispute consent in writing to submit to the ICSID. Any Contracting State or any national of a Contracting State wishing to institute arbitration proceedings shall address a request to that effect in writing to the Secretary General who shall send a copy of the request to the other party. The tribunal shall consist of a sole arbitrator or any uneven number of arbitrators appointed as the parties shall agree. The tribunal shall be the judge of its own competence. The tribunal shall decide a dispute in accordance with such rules of law as may be agreed by the parties. Any arbitration proceeding shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of the Convention Section 3 and in accordance with the Arbitration Rules in effect on the date on which the parties consented to arbitration. The award of the tribunal shall be in writing and shall be signed by members of the tribunal who voted for it. The award shall deal with every question submitted to the tribunal, and shall state the reason upon which it is based. Either party may request annulment of the award by an application in writing addressed to the Secretary General on one or more of the grounds under Article 52 of the ICSID Convention. The award shall be binding on the parties and shall not be subject to any appeal or to any other remedy except those provided for in this Convention. Each Contracting State shall recognize an award rendered pursuant to this convention as binding and enforce the pecuniary obligations imposed by that award within its territories as if it were a final judgment of a court in that State. In conclusion, there may be some issues on the international arbitration for the settlement of the investor-state disputes: for example, abuse of litigation, lack of an appeals process, and problem of transparency. Therefore, there have been active discussions to address such issues by the ICSID and UNCITRAL up to now.

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