• Title, Summary, Keyword: Turkish women

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Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior of Turkish Women about Breast Cancer and Breast Self-Examination According to a Turkish Version of the Champion Health Belief Model Scale

  • Erbil, Nulufer;Bolukbas, Nurgul
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.5823-5828
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    • 2012
  • Background: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Although a great deal of progress has been made in the health sciences, early diagnosis, and increasing community awareness, breast cancer remains a life-threatening illness. In order to reduce this threat, breast cancer screening needs to be implemented in all communities where possible. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine health beliefs, attitudes and behaviors about breast cancer and breast self-examination of Turkish women. Methods: Data were collected from a sample of 656 women, using an adapted Turkish version of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS), between January and May 2011, in Ordu province of Turkey. Results: The results showed that 67.7% of women had knowledge about and 55.8% performed BSE, however 60.6% of those who indicated they practiced BSE reported they did so at irregular intervals. CHBMS subscales scores of women according to women's age, education level, occupation, family income and education level of the women's mothers, family history of breast cancer, friend and an acquaintance with breast cancer, knowledge about breast cancer, BSE and mammography were significantly different. Conclusion: Knowledge of women about the risks and benefits of early detection of breast cancer positively affect their health beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Health care professionals can develop effective breast health programs and can help women to gain good health behavior and to maintain health.

Evaluation of the Pap Smear Test Status of Turkish Women and Related Factors

  • Karabulutlu, Ozlem
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.981-986
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    • 2013
  • Background: The Pap smear has an important value in the early diagnosis of cervical cancer, a serious problem in womens health. This study aimed to determine the status of Turkish women regarding participation in Pap smear testing and affecting factors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on married women between 18-61 years of age selected from those who applied to the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Polyclinic of Atat$\ddot{u}$rk University in Erzurum between June-August 2010 for any reason. Data were collected using a questionnaire determining socio-demographic features and analyzed by descriptive statistics (mean, Sd, range, frequency, percentage) and Chi-square test. A level of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Sixty six of the 301 women (21.9%) indicated that they heard a Pap smear test and 16.6% of women had experienced a test. The number of women participating increased with age, duration of marriage, number of births, knowledge about the Pap smear and perception of risk for cervical cancer. Conclusions: The importance of the Pap smear test needs to be explained to Turkish women by health staff, to increase awareness and participation in regular screening.

Knowledge, Behavior and Beliefs Related to Cervical Cancer and Screening Among Turkish Women

  • Reis, Nesrin;Bebis, Hatice;Kose, Sevinc;Sis, Asli;Engin, Raziye;Yavan, Tulay
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1463-1470
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    • 2012
  • Objective: The aims of this study were to explore Turkish women's knowledge, behavior and beliefs related to cervical cancer and screening. Methods: The study was performed in two cities in the East of Turkey between September 2009 and April 2010, with a sampling group of 387 women. Data were collected by means of an interview form with the Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Test - Turkish Version. Results: Women in the research group were found to have poor knowledge, inadequate health behavior and low/medium level false beliefs regarding cervical cancer screening. There was relation between health beliefs and characteristics of women and particularly education (F = 10.80, p = 0.01). Similarly, it was found that Pap smear barriers were influenced by demographic characteristics and that women with low-level education (p = 0.001), divorced women (p = 0.05), women with low-income(p = 0.05), women who gave their first birth when they were 18 or younger (p = 0.05) and women not applying any contraceptive method at all (p = 0.01) were determined to have negative Pap smear barriers. Conclusions: Primarily the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of women in the target group should be evaluated to increase their participation in cervical cancer screening and to prepare effective education strategies.

Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Using the Gail Model: a Turkish Study

  • Erbil, Nulufer;Dundar, Nursel;Inan, Cigdem;Bolukbas, Nurgul
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.303-306
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to determine risk of developing of breast cancer among Turkish women. Materials and Methods: Using a descriptive and cross-sectional approach, data were collected from 231 women. Breast cancer risk was calculated using the National Cancer Institute's on-line verson of called as the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool or the Gail Risk Assesment Tool. Results: The average age of women was $45.0{\pm}8.06$ years. It was revealed that 6.1% of participants reported having first degree relatives who had had breast cancer, with only four women having more than one first-degree relative affected (1.7%). The mean five-year breast cancer risk for all women was $0.88{\pm}0.91%$, and 7.4% of women had a five-year breast cancer risk >1.66% in this study. Mean lifetime breast cancer risk up to age 90 years was $9.3{\pm}5.2%$. Conclusions: The breast cancer risk assessment tool can help in the clinical management of patient seeking advice concerning screening and prevention. Healthcare providers in Turkey can use this approach to estimate an individual's probability of developing breast cancer.

Experiences of Turkish Women with Breast Cancer During the Treatment Process and Facilitating Coping Factors

  • Gunusen, Neslihan Partlak;Inan, Figen Sengun;Ustun, Besti
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.3143-3149
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    • 2013
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in Turkey and around the world. Treatment adversely affects women's physical, psychological, and social conditions. The purpose of this study was to identify the experiences of Turkish women with breast cancer and the facilitating coping factors when they receive chemotherapy. Methods: A phenomenological approach was used to explain the experiences and facilitating factors of breast cancer patients during the treatment period. Data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews. The sample comprised 11 women with breast cancer receiving treatment. Results: At the end of the interviews conducted with women with breast cancer, two main themes were identified: adjustment and facilitating coping factors. The adjustment main theme had two sub-themes: strains and coping. Women with breast cancer suffer physical and psychological strains as well as stress related to social and health systems. While coping with these situations, they receive social support, turn to spirituality and make new senses of their lives. The facilitating coping factors main theme had four sub-themes: social support, disease-related factors, treatment-related factors and relationships with nurses. It has been determined that women receiving good social support, having undergone preventive breast surgery and/or getting attention and affection from nurses can cope with breast cancer more easily. Conclusions: Women with breast cancer have difficulty in all areas of their lives in the course of the disease and during the treatment process. Therefore, nurses should provide holistic care, teaching patients how to cope with the new situation and supporting them spiritually. Since family support is very important in Turkish culture, patients' relatives should be informed and supported at every stage of the treatment.

Influence of Ethnicity on Survival of Breast Cancer Patients in Turkey

  • Kuzhan, Abdurahman;Adli, Mustafa;Buyukhatipoglu, Hakan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9199-9202
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    • 2014
  • Background: Kurdish women with breast cancer have more unfavorable prognostic factors than their Turkish and Arab counterparts. However, the effects of these factors on breast cancer survival among these ethnic groups remain unclear. We therefore investigated the impact of ethnicity on survival in breast cancer patients in Turkey. Materials and Methods: Ethnicity, age, stage at diagnosis, tumor characteristics, treatments given (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy), and survival times were recorded. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate the overall survival times and survival plots. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival curves.Results: Of the 723 breast cancer patients included in the study, 496 (68.7%) were Turkish, 189 (26.2%) were Kurdish, 37 (5.1%) were Arabic and 1 was Armenian. Kurdish women with breast cancer had larger tumor sizes and higher rates of hormone receptor negative tumors than Turkish and Arab patients. Mean follow-up time was 118.4 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 95.4-141.3] months, and it was 129.9 (95% CI: 93.7-166.2), 124.2 (95% CI: 108.4-140.1) and 103.1 (95% CI: 85.9-120.4) months for Turkish, Arabic and Kurdish patients, respectively. Conclusions: Kurdish ethnicity is associated with higher rates of hormone receptor negative and triple-negative tumors and with worse survival. Clinical and epidemiological research is warranted to elucidate reasons underlying overall survival, variations in tumor biology, differences in treatment responsiveness, and effects of social factors among ethnic groups in Turkey.

Breast, Cervical, and Colorectal Cancer Screening Status of a Group of Turkish Women

  • Gulten, Guvenc;Memnun, Seven;Ayse, Kilic;Aygul, Akyuz;Gulcin, Akcan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4273-4279
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    • 2012
  • Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine the breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening rates and the influencing factors in a group of Turkish females. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in a School of Nursing. The study sample consisted of 603 females who were the mothers/neighbors or relatives of the nursing students. Data collection forms were developed by the investigators after the relevant literature was screened and were used to collect the data. Results: Of the women aged 30 and over, 32.8% had undergone a pap smear test at least once in their life. Of those aged 50 and over, 48.2% had undergone mammography at least once and FOBT had been performed in 12% of these women in their life. Having heard of the screening tests before, knowing why they are done, and having information on the national cancer screening program were important factors influencing the rates of women having these tests done. Discussion: The results of this study show that the rates of women participating in national cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening programs are not at the desired levels. Having heard of the screening tests before, knowing why they are done, and having information on the national cancer screening program were important factors influencing the rates of women having these tests done. It is suggested that written and visual campaigns to promote the service should be used to educate a larger population, thus increasing the participation rates for cancer screening programs.

The Effects of Educational Level on Breast Cancer Awareness: A Cross-Sectional Study in Turkey

  • Gurdal, Sibel Ozkan;Saracoglu, Gamze Varol;Oran, Ebru Sen;Yankol, Yucel;Soybir, Gursel Remzi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.295-300
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    • 2012
  • Breast self-examination (BSE) is important for early diagnosis of breast cancer (BC). However, the majority of Turkish women do not perform regular BSE. We aimed to evaluate the effects of education level on the attitudes and behaviors of women towards BSE. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 413 women (20-59 years), divided into university graduates (Group I, n = 224) and high school or lower graduates (Group II, n = 189). They completed a 22-item scale assessing the knowledge level, attitudes and behaviors regarding BSE, and the Turkish version of the Champion's Revised Health Belief Model. A significantly higher number of women in Group II did not believe in early diagnosis of BC. A significantly higher number of Group I had conducted BSE at least once, and their BSE frequency was also significantly high. Moreover, a significantly lower number of Group I women considered themselves to not be at risk for BC and the scores for "perceived susceptibility" and "perceived barriers" were significantly higher. Logistic regression analysis identified the university graduate group to have a higher likelihood of performing BSE, by 1.8 times. Higher educational levels were positively associated with BSE performance. Overall, the results suggest that Turkish women, regardless of their education level, need better education on BSE. Consideration of the education level in women will help clinicians develop more effective educational programs, resulting in more regular practice and better use of BSE.

Healthy Life-Style Promoting Behaviour in Turkish Women Aged 18-64

  • Sonmezer, Hacer;Cetinkaya, Fevziye;Nacar, Melis
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1241-1245
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    • 2012
  • Aim: In this study we aimed to investigate the healthy life-style behaviour of Turkish women and establish influencing features. Methods: This descriptive study performed by a questionnaire method was conducted in a primary health care centre, in an urban region in Kayseri, Turkey. Every midwife region belonging to the health care centre was accepted as a cluster, and a sample of 450 women between ages 18-64, was gathered from 9 midwife regions. The Health Promotion Life-style Profile (HPLP) was applied to evaluated the healthy lifestyle behaviour of 421 women that could be reached. T test, Tukey HSD with ANOVA, and chi square tests were used for analysis. Results: The mean total HPLP was $126.8{\pm}19.2$ (interpersonal support subscale, $74.3{\pm}14.1$; nutrition subscale, $73.6{\pm}12.6$; self-actualisation subscale, $70.6{\pm}11.9$; stress management subscale, $63.4{\pm}13.0$; health responsibility subscale, $61.2{\pm}13.2$; and exercise subscale, $47.1{\pm}15.0$). There was no statistically significant variation when evaluated for age, marital state, family type, economic status, and perception of self-health, smoking, and BMI. HPLP was high in people with an education of primary school and lower in university graduates, in people who lived mostly in the city centre and in individuals with chronic diseases. In conclusion, it was established that the health promoting behaviour in Turkish women is, in general, at a medium level, and women should be enlightened in order to develop and increase the habit of health preservation and promotion.

Successful First Round Results of a Turkish Breast Cancer Screening Program with Mammography in Bahcesehir, Istanbul

  • Kayhan, Arda;Gurdal, Sibel Ozkan;Ozaydin, Nilufer;Cabioglu, Neslihan;Ozturk, Enis;Ozcinar, Beyza;Aribal, Erkin;Ozmen, Vahit
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.1693-1697
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    • 2014
  • Background: The Bahcesehir Breast Cancer Screening Project is the first organized population based breast cancer mammographic screening project in Turkey. The objective of this prospective observational study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a screening program in a developing country and to determine the appropriate age (40 or 50 years old) to start with screening in Turkish women. Materials and Methods: Between January 2009 to December 2010, a total of 3,758 women aged 40-69 years were recruited in this prospective study. Screening was conducted biannually, and five rounds were planned. After clinical breast examination (CBE), two-view mammograms were obtained. True positivity, false positivity, positive predictive values (PPV) according to ACR, cancer detection rate, minimal cancer detection rate, axillary node positivity and recall rate were calculated. Breast ultrasound and biopsy were performed in suspicious cases. Results: Breast biopsy was performed in 55 patients, and 18 cancers were detected in the first round. The overall cancer detection rate was 4.8 per 1,000 women. Most of the screened women (54%) and detected cancers (56%) were in women aged 40-49. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and stage I cancer and axillary node positivity rates were 22%, 61%, and 16.6%, respectively. The positive predictivity for biopsy was 32.7%, whereas the overall recall rate was 18.4 %. Conclusions: Preliminary results of the study suggest that population based organized screening are feasible and age of onset of mammographic screening should be 40 years in Turkey.