• Title, Summary, Keyword: Turkey

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The Customs Union between the European Union and Turkey and its Impacts on Turkey's Economy

  • Becker, Kip;Baki, Ibrahim;Lee, Jung Wan
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2016
  • Since World War II nations have formed alliances for reasons of security and trade. Countries have seen international integration as an appropriate approach to resolving domestic and international political issues, improving their welfare by both transforming their infrastructures and increasing their foreign trade. While the majority of these relationships are straightforward d Turkey's relationship with the European Union is more complex due to differences in religion and, at times, political ideology from other Union members. As a candidate country Turkey has made advances towards the full membership of the European Union with the customs union being the most significant. The impact of customs union membership is discussed and the effects of the customs union on Turkey's trade and economy are examined from a perspective of different economic theories.

Prostate Cancer Incidence in Turkey: An Epidemiological Study

  • Zorlu, Ferruh;Divrik, Rauf Taner;Eser, Sultan;Yorukoglu, Kutsal
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9125-9130
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    • 2014
  • Background: This study aimed to determine the incidence of prostate cancer in Turkey in a population-based sample, and to determine clinical and pathological characteristics of the cases. Materials and Methods: All newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients were included in this national, multi-centered, prospective and non-interventional epidemiological registry study conducted in 12 cities representing the 12 regions of Turkey from July 2008 to June 2009. The population-based sample comprised 4,150 patients with a recent prostate cancer diagnosis. Results: Age-adjusted prostate cancer incidence rate was 35 cases per 100,000 in Turkey. At the time of diagnosis, median age was 68, median PSA level was 10.0 ng/mL. Digital rectal examination was abnormal in 36.2% of 3,218 tested cases. Most patients had urologic complaints. The main diagnostic method was transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy (87.8%). Gleason score was ${\leq}6$ in 49.1%, 7 in 27.8% and >7 in 20.6% of the cases. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between serum PSA level and Gleason score (p=0.000). The majority of patients (54.4%) had clinical stage T1c. Conclusions: This is the first population-based national data of incidence with the histopathological characteristics of prostate cancer in Turkey. Prostate cancer remains an important public health concern in Turkey with continual increase in the incidence and significant burden on healthcare resources.

A Study on the Near East Costume (II) -Osman Turkey Costume- (근동지역의 복식연구 II -오스만 터어키(Osman Turkey)복식을 중심으로-)

  • 오춘자;박길순
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.1-27
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    • 1994
  • This result of the study on the costume of Osman Turkey are as following. 1. Empire of Osman Turkey(129∼1922) exerted an almost limites impact and influence on Europe and Asia during their regime 600 years. The distant ancestors of the Osman Turks were nomadic peoples, who wandered I tribal groups through the Central Asia. Therefore their costumes were based on nomadic culture. They had trade with West and East were influenced by Hellenism and Byzantium and grew, to a strong Islamic political power polygamy with which influence their clothing along with other culture. 2. Topkapi Saray was one of he principal residences of the Osman sultans and his court. Late 17 century, Topkapi Saray found many of kaftans of Osman Turks Empires of 14∼17 centuries. Otherwise we studied by the minatures of 16∼17 centuries, Since the Topkapi Saray became a museum in 1924, a program of careful restoration has made it possible to some pars of it to the public, after centuries neglection. 3. Osman Turkey Empire had important role in between West and East(silk-road). Economic, commercial, social and political factor of Turkey led to a development in the art of weaving (kema, kadife, catman, seraser, zerbeft, hatayi, kntnu, atlas)parallel to the rise and development of the Osman Turkey Empire itself, one which raised the art to a level attained nowwhere else in the world. Fabrics woven from gold and silver thread occupied a very important place in the court life of the time. This was due as much to their symbolic as to their material value, reflecting as they did the power, glory and magnificence of the Empire. 4. In order to study Eastern or Western history of costume one must study Turkey history of costume in advance. Also there is a great need of comparison to study of western, central and north eastern area history of costume.

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Infections of Larval Stages of Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Brachylaima sp. in Brown Garden Snail, Helix aspersa, in Turkey

  • Kose, Mustafa;Eser, Mustafa;Kartal, Kursat;Bozkurt, Mehmet Fatih
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.647-651
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to determine the presence and prevalence of larval stages of Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Brachylaima sp. in the first intermediate host, a species of land snail, Helix aspersa, in Turkey. A total of 211 snails were collected in April-May 2014 from pastures in Mersin District. Larval stages of D. dendriticum were identified under a light microscope. Hepatopancreas from naturally infected H. aspersa snails were examined histologically. The prevalence of larval stages of D. dendriticum and Brachylaima sp. in H. aspersa snails was found to be 2.4% and 1.9%, respectively, in Mersin, Turkey. Cercariae were not matured in sporocysts at the beginning of April; however, it was observed that cercariae matured and started to leave sporocysts by early-May. Thus, it was concluded that H. aspersa acts as an intermediate host to D. dendriticumin and Brachylaima sp. in Mersin, Turkey. A digenean trematode Brachylaima sp. was seen for the first time in Turkey.

Importance of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio in Prediction of PSA Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy

  • Gazel, Eymen;Tastemur, Sedat;Acikgoz, Onur;Yigman, Metin;Olcucuoglu, Erkan;Camtosun, Ahmet;Ceylan, Cavit;Ates, Can
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.1813-1816
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    • 2015
  • Background: The aim of this study was to research the importance of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in prediction of PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy, which has not been reported so far. Materials and Methods: The data of 175 patients who were diagnosed with localised prostate cancer and underwent retropubic radical prostatectomy was retrospectively examined. Patient pre-operative hemogram parameters of neutrophil count, lymphocyte count and NLR were assessed. The patients whose PSAs were too low to measure after radical prostatectomy in their follow-ups, and then had PSAs of 0,2 ng/mL were considered as patients with PSA recurrence. Patients with recurrence made up Group A and patients without recurrence made up Group B. Results: In terms of the power of NLR value in distinguishing recurrence, the area under OCC was statistically significant (p<0.001) .The value of 2.494 for NLR was found to be a cut-off value which can be used in order to distinguish recurrence according to Youden index. According to this, patients with a higher NLR value than 2.494 had higher rates of PSA recurrence with 89.7% sensitivity and 92.6% specificity. Conclusions: There are certain parameters used in order to predict recurrence with today's literature data.We think that because NLR is easy to use in clinics and inexpensive, and also has high sensitivity and specificity values, it has the potential to be one of the parameters used in order to predict biochemical recurrence in future.

Autofluorescence-elicitor activity of ethanol-extract fraction from conidia of Erysiphe graminis hordei to the leaf of barley (흰가루병균 분생포자 ethanol 추출분획의 대맥엽 형광화세포 유도활성)

  • Kim Ki Chung;Shishiyama Jiko
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.177-181
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    • 1979
  • The autofluorescent cells in the penetration area of powdery mildewed leaves of barley had been reported. The present experiments were performed in order to obtain the fluorescence-inducing extract fraction from the conidia. The preparations were made by extractions and residue which were extracted from the conidia of Erysiphe graminis hordei race I with water, ethanol, and ethyl ether. Bioassaying was carried out on the culled-leaf surface of incompatible Turkey 290 and compatible Kobingataki varieties by placing the drops of extract solutions. Fluorescence-elicitor activity was shown only in tile ethanol-extract fraction to both varieties. However, fluorescence-eliciting rate was more rapid on the leaves of incompatible variety Turkey 290 than on tile those of compatible variety Kobingataki; Turkey 290 less than 8 hours, Kobingataki less than 16 hours.

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Percoll Process Can Improve Semen Quality and Fertility in Turkey Breeders

  • Choi, K.H.;Emery, D.A.;Straub, D.E.;Lee, C-S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.702-707
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    • 1999
  • A percoll density gradient technique was developed for producing high quality turkey semen and improving the fertility by removing deleterious cellular components, including spermiophages, bacteria, abnormal or dead spermatozoa, and other cellular debris. The combination of three different percoll densities, 1.05, 1.07, and 1.08 showed the best resolution and was selected to prepare a discontinuous percoll density gradient to obtain healthy spermatozoa from semen smples. Bacteria, spermiophages, and abnormal or dead spermatozoa were detected from the density range from 1.05, 1.05 to 1.07, and 1.07 to 1.08, respectively. Healthy spermatozoa were collected from the density greater than 1.08. Spermatozoa obtained from percoll density gradient centrifugation showed better sperm motility than those from unprocessed pooled semen. Bacteria including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Proteus spp., were predominant contaminants in turkey semen, and the numbers of cells were approximately $5{\times}10^5$ to $1{\times}10^9cfu/ml$. The overall fertility rates in hens inseminated with processed percoll density gradient were higher than those in hens with unprocessed semen especially for unhealthy sperm. In conclusion, semen quality can be improved by percoll density gradient centrifugation, which augmented the fertility of turkey breeders.

Evaluation of Dietary and Life-Style Habits of Patients with Gastric Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Turkey

  • Yassibas, Emine;Arslan, Perihan;Yalcin, Suayib
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.2291-2297
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    • 2012
  • Objective: Gastric cancer is an important public health problem in the world and Turkey. In addition to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), smoking, alcohol consumption and family history, certain dietary factors have been associated with its occurrence. The impact of dietary habits and life-style factors on the risk of gastric cancer in Turkey were evaluated in this study. Design: A questionnaire was applied to 106 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and 106 controls without cancer matched for age (range 28-85 years) and gender selected from a hospital based population. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with logistic regression analysis. Results: The incidence of H. pylori was 81.3% in patients. Frequent consumption of salty dishes, very salty foods like pickles, soup mixes, sausages, foods at hot temperature (ORs = 3.686, 7.784, 5.264, 3.148 and 3.273 respectively) and adding salt without tasting (OR = 4.198) were associated with increased gastric risk. Also heavy smoking and high amount of alcohol consumption (p = 0.000) were risk factors. Frequent consumption of green vegetables, onion, garlic and dried fruits (ORs = 0.569, 0.092, 0.795 and 0.041) was nonsignificantly associated with decreased risk. Conclusion: Improved dietary habits, reducing salt consumption and eradication of H. pylori infection may provide protection against gastric cancer in Turkey.

Occurrence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Listeria Species in Turkey Meats

  • Aras, Zeki;Ardic, Mustafa
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.669-673
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    • 2015
  • The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of Listeria species in turkey meats and to check the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated strains. Hundred and fifteen raw turkey meat samples were randomly collected from the supermarkets, butchers and restaurants. Strain isolation and identification were made according to the ISO11290-1 method. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the standard disc diffusion method. A total of 47 Listeria spp. were isolated from 115 (40.9%) raw turkey meat samples. The isolates were distributed between L. monocytogenes (25.53%), L. innocua (34.04%), L. grayi (31.91%) and L. welshimeri (8.51%). A total of 55.3 % of Listeria spp. isolates were multi-resistant to at least 3 of the antimicrobial agent tested. The level of multi-resistance was higher in L. monocytogenes strains (66.7%) than in L. innocua (62.5%) and L. grayi (53.3%). Listeria spp. isolates were highly resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin, penicillin, meticillin, oxacillin, and trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole. The isolates particularly L. monocytogenes are increasingly resistant to one or more antibiotics and may represent a potential risk for public health because these antibiotics are common used in treatment of listeriosis. The correct and controlled use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine is important to the emergence of resistant strains.