• Title/Summary/Keyword: Tunnel fire

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The Risk Assessment of Tunnel Fire Through Real Scale Fire Test (실물터널 화재실험을 통한 터널화재 위험도 평가)

  • 최준석;최병일;김명배;한용식;장용재;이유환;황낙순;김필영
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.71-76
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    • 2002
  • The real scale tunnel fire tests are carried out for the first time in domestic range to assess the extent of risk in the tunnel fire. The tunnel dimension is 465 m in length, 9.2 m in width and 6.5 m in height. Gasoline pools with 0.25 MW∼2.5 MW size and a 1500CC passenger car are used as fire sources. Six jet fans are used to change the flow velocity inside the tunnel. Temperatures at total 86 points in the tunnel are measured to find the temperature distribution and smoke behavior in the real tunnel fire. In the experiment, it is examined that the important parameters to assess the extent of risk in tunnel fire such as back layering of smoke front, descending of smoke layer and the fire size of a real passenger car.

A Study of Smoke Movement in Tunnel Fire with Natural Ventilation (자연 배기 터널에서의 연기 거동에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Sung-Chan;Lee, Sung-Ryong;Kim, Choong-Ik;Ryou, Hong-Sun
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.976-982
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    • 2002
  • In this study, smoke movement in tunnel fire with natural ventilation shaft has been investigated with various size of fire source. Gasoline pool fire with different size of diameter - 73mm, 100mm, 125mm and 154mm - was used to describe fire source. Experimental data is obtained with 1/20 model tunnel test and its results are compared with numerical results. The computation were carried out using FDS 1.0 which is a field model of fire-driven now. Temperature profiles between measured and predicted data are compared along ceiling and near the ventilation shaft. Both results are in good agreement with each other. In order to evaluating a safe egress time in tunnel fire, horizontal smoke front velocity was measured in model tunnel fire tests and those are compared with numerical results. According to the presence or absence of natural ventilation shaft, ventilation effect are estimated quantitatively. Finally, this paper shows that computational fluid dynamics(CFD) is applicable to predict fire-induced flow in tunnel.

Comparative Study on The Numerical Simulation for The Back-Layer of The Tunnel Fire-Driven Flow with LES and RANS (터널화재유동의 역기류 해석을 위한 LES 및 RANS 결과의 비교 고찰)

  • Jang, Yong-Jun;Kim, Hag-Beom;Kim, Jin-Ho;Han, Seok-Youn
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.156-163
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    • 2009
  • In this study, comparative analysis on the back-layer phenomena in the tunnel-fire driven flow is performed using numerical simulation with LES and RANS. FDS(Fire Dynamics Simulator) code is employed to calculate the fire-driven turbulent flow for LES and Smartfire code is used for RANS. Hwang and Wargo's data of scaling tunnel fire experiment are employed to compare with the present numerical simulation. The modeled tunnel is 5.4m(L) ${\times}$ 0.4m(W) ${\times}$ 0.3m(H). Heat Release Rate (HRR) of fire is 3.3kW and ventilation-velocity is 0.33m/s in the main stream. The various grid-distributions are systematically tested with FDS code to analyze the effects of grid size. The LES method with FDS provides an improved back-layer flow behavior in comparison with the RANS (${\kappa}-{\epsilon}$) method by Smartfire. The FDS solvers, however, overpredict the velocity in the center region of flow which is caused by the defects in the tunnel-entrance turbulence strength and in the near-wall turbulent flow in FDS code.

A real scale test on performance of water spray systems in tunnel fire (터널화재시 물분무소화설비의 성능에 대한 실대시험)

  • Park, Kyung-Hwan;So, Soo-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.341-347
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    • 2010
  • The performance of water spray system installed to reduce risks of tunnel fire is investigated by a real tunnel fire test. In case of A class fire, Pool fire, and car fire, the nozzle of water spray has had a marvelous effect to reduce the temperature of hot smoke. And it is verified to have remarkable cooling effects when there is the air flow in a tunnel. Though this results, water spray system will be able to prevent a fire jump to decrease the air temperature in a tunnel and to protect tunnel facilities by the fire control.

The Temperature Distribution and the Smoke Flow Behaviour During Road Tunnel Fire (도로터널내 화재시 온도분포 및 연기 유동 분석 연구)

  • Choi, Tae-Hee;Yeun, Young-Pyo;Yun, Chul-Uk;Kim, Myung-Bae;Choi, Jun-Seok;Lee, Seung-Ho;Kim, Nag-Young
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 2002
  • Recently, the construction of tunnels longer than one kilometer has increased rapidly. Considering characteristic of limiting structure of longer tunnel, if fires inside tunnel broke out because of vehicle incidents, the catastroph would have high possibility to take place due to toxic smoke and heat of fire. In case of highway tunnel, safety facilities which can cope with tunnel fire are installed in the tunnel but according to rapid increase of heavy good traffic, dangerous goods and enlargement of tunnel magnitude, the research has to carry out about heat fluxes and smoke behaviour during tunnel fire. Therefore, through full-sized fire experiment the paper analyzed temperature distribution, wind velocity, smoke behaviour during tunnel fire.

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Comparison of Two Different Smoke Extraction Schemes of Transversely Ventilated Tunnel Fire

  • Rie, Dong-Ho;Kim, Hyung-Taek;Yoo, Ji-Oh;Shin, Hyun-Jun;Yoon, Sung-Wook
    • International Journal of Safety
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.30-35
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    • 2005
  • In case of tunnel fire, one of the most effective facilities to save lives is the smoke control system. In this study, two different smoke extraction schemes of transversely ventilated tunnel were compared. One is the smoke extraction using the fixed exhaust ports on the false ceiling to achieve the uniform and distributed smoke extraction (uniform exhaust). The other is that using the remote controlled smoke extraction where only vents close to the fire is opened whereas the others are closed to enhance the limitation of the smoke spread (localized exhaust). A number of numerical simulations were performed to find out the optimal smoke extraction rate at each smoke extraction scheme to allow the tunnel users to escape to the safe area without endangering their lives by smoke.

An Experimental Study of Smoke Movement and Evacuation in Road Tunnel (도로터널내 연기거동 및 피난에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Kang Hyun-Wook;Lee Ho-Seok;Shin Young-Wan;Lee In-Ki
    • 한국터널공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • 2005.04a
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    • pp.335-340
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    • 2005
  • Recently, According to increased tunnel accident, a matter of concern in tunnel fire safety is on an interesting trend. In case of tunnel fire, Evacuation is a primary factor for refugee safety. Therefore safety measures should be taken to increase capability of evacuation. Evacuation walking speed and characteristics of movement in tunnel is differ from building or outdoor site so, these characteristics must be considered in tunnel safety planning. In this study has performed to evaluate the smoke movement and characteristics of evacuation by full-scale test method. and aimed for basic data establishment in characteristics of evacuation for tunnel safety system design.

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The Quantitative Risk Assessment for Railroad-tunnel Fire Incidents by using CFD code (CFD code를 이용한 철도터널 화재 위험도 평가)

  • Kim, H.B.;Lee, D.H.;Jang, Y.J.;Jung, W.S.
    • 한국전산유체공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • 2011.05a
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    • pp.169-172
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    • 2011
  • Recently, railroad long tunnels are increasing and growing longer due to topological feathers like a lot of mountain in Korea. But fire disaster of a long tunnel cause many people to injury and death. For that reason, at the early design stage of a long tunnel, risk assessment and mitigation measure of risk for satisfying tunnel safety are required. According to the railroad facility safety standard (Korean MLTM Announcement No. 2006-395), risk assessment for railroad-tunnel fire should be performed when design stage. Therefore, various methods of risk assessment for tunnel fire have been studied and applied. In the paper, QRA(Quantitative Risk Analysis) for fire risk assessment by using CFD code is presented and the usefulness of CFD is discussed.

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Development of Probabilistic Risk Analysis Model on Railroad System - Its Application to Tunnel Fire Risk Analysis (철도시스템의 확률론적 위험평가 모델 개발 연구 - 터널화재 위험도 평가에의 적용)

  • Kwak Sang Log;Wang Jong Bae;Hong Seon Ho;Kim Sang Am
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • 2003.10b
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    • pp.265-270
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    • 2003
  • Though the probability of tunnel fire accident is very low, but critical fatalities are expected when it occurred. In this study the effect of critical safety parameters on tunnel fire accident are examined using probabilistic technique. Fire detection time, smoke spread velocity, passenger escape velocity, flash-over time, and emergency service arrival time are considered. In order to estimate the uncertainties of input parameters Monte Carlo simulation are used, and fatalities for each assumed accident scenarios are obtained as results. For the efficiency of iterative calculation PRA(Probabilistic Risk Analysis) code is developed in this study. As a result fire detection have large effect.

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A Numerical Study on Effective Smoke-Control System of a Rescue Station in a Tunnel Fire (터널내 열차 화재시 효과적인 구난역 제연 설비를 위한 수치 해석 연구)

  • Yang, Sung-Jin;Won, Chan-Shik;Hur, Nahm-Keon;Cha, Chul-Hyun
    • 유체기계공업학회:학술대회논문집
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    • 2006.08a
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    • pp.575-578
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    • 2006
  • In designing smoke-control system of rescue station in train tunnel, a purpose is to prevent a disaster by proposing the jet fan operation together with smoke-control curtain in tunnel fire. This study has investigated the relationship of the Heat Release Rate(HRR) and a adequate ventilation velocity to control the fire propagation in tunnel fire, and has improved the effect of the smoke-control curtain on preventing the flow of pollutants. In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) simulations with ST AR-CD(ver 3.24) were carried out on predicting the fire spreading and the flow of pollutants, considering jet fan operations and effect of smoke-control curtain. Our simulation domain is the full scale model of the 'DAEGWALLYEONG' 1st tunnel. The results represent that ventilation operation can control the fire spreading and pollutants effectively to prevent a disaster.

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