• Title, Summary, Keyword: Tungsten

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General Remarks of Geneses of Tungsten Ore Deposits Based on Tungsten Deposits of China (중국의 중석광상을 근거로한 중석광상 성인 총론)

  • Moon, Kun Joo
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.287-303
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    • 1995
  • Tungsten ore deposits in China show clearly their relationship between granitoids and orebodies. All kinds of different tungsten ore deposits, having the largest ore reserves in the world, occur in China. Major tungsten deposits in 1950'years were locally confined in three provinces such as Jiangxi, Hunan and Guangdong. However, the major tungsten ore deposits are replaced by new tungsten deposits such as Sandahozhuang, Xingluokeng, Shizhuan and Daminghsan deposit which may be larger than the previous major deposits. Tungsten ore deposits of China exhibit obviously the granitoid was the ore-bringer to form tungsten ore deposits. The wolframite-bearing quarz veins in China indicate that tungsten mineralization took place by crystallization of wolframite preferentially unless $Ca^{{+}{+}}$ was introduced from outside into the magma-origin-fluid, since it is understood that the scheelite in the Sangdong ore deposit was preferentially precipitated, because of chemical affinity, from the tungsten fluid in which Fe and Ca ions were as sufficient as to form magnetite, wolframite and scheelite. Tungsten deposits in the world are divided into two systems; W-Mo-Sn system and W-Mo system. Most of tungsten deposits in China dated to about 196-116 Ma belong to the W-Mo-Sn system, while late Cretaceous tungsten deposits such as the Sangdong deposit in Korea belongs to the W-Mo system. The genetic order of tin-tungsten-molybdenum mineralization observed in the Moping tungsten mine in China and the Sangdong in Korea may be attributed to volatile pressures in the same magma chamber. It is assumed from ages of tungsten mineralizations that ore elements such as tin, tungsten and molybdenum might be generated periodically by nuclear fission and fusion in a part of the mantle and the element generated was introduced into the magma chamber. The periodical generation of elements had determined association, depletion and enrichment of tin and molybdenum in tungsten mineralization and it results in little association of cassiterite in tungsten deposit of late Cretaceous ages. Different mechanism of emplacement of the ore-bearing magma has brought various genetic types of tungsten deposits as shown in China and the world.

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Some Aspects of Tungsten Mineralogy and Geochemistry (중석의 광물학적, 지화학적 고찰)

  • Kim, Sahng Yup
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.127-146
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    • 1979
  • Though tungsten minerals have been mined for over fifty years in Korea, which has become one of the worlds largest tungsten producers since 1951, knowledge of their mineralogy and geochemistry is somewhat limited to the school of tungsten students. There is a considerable amount of literature throughout the world on the tungsten mineralogy, the geochemical behaviour of tungsten, the nature of tungsten deposits and geological environments for tungsten mineralisation. Commonly known tungsten minerals such as scheelite and wolframite belong to one of two series, the scheelite or the wolframite series, as the primary tungsten minerals. Secondary tungsten minerals are known rather rare, however, some of them plays an important role-of exploration guide in search for tungsten deposits. The geochemistry of tungsten is imperfectly known, and apparently the behaviour of tungsten in geological processes has been the subject of few studies. Recently, some aspects of the fundamental geochemistry of tungsten has been worked out and compiled the data in broad the up to date by many authors. In order to facilitate the better understanding and future exploration of tungsten deposits, an attempt has been made to summarise the existing knowledge of the fundamental geochemistry of tungsten, together with its common geochemical association with various types of tungsten deposits.

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A Study of the Effect of Tungsten Oxide on W, WC Powder and Alloy Properties

  • Jiang, Cijin;Shen, Paul;Wang, Huan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute Conference
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    • pp.654-655
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    • 2006
  • This is about the effects deoxidization, carbonization and alloying preparation on fine grain W, WC, and grade YG8 powder reduced by "yellow tungsten oxide" and "blue tungsten oxide". The result indicates that yellow tungsten has single composition and blue tungsten oxide has complex composition. With this feature, yellow tungsten oxide got better uniformity and concentration distribution on fine particle size W and WC powder than blue tungsten oxide's. The grade alloy YG8 that made of this W or WC powder has uniform alloy construction, concentrated WC grain distribution and better alloy properties.

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Characteristics of tungsten coated graphite using vacuum plasma spraying method

  • Lim, Hyeonmi;Kang, Boram;Kim, Hoseok;Hong, Bong Guen
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.200.1-200.1
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    • 2016
  • Tungsten coatings on the graphite (CX-2320) were successfully deposited using the vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) method. An optimum coating procedure was developed and coating thicknesses of $409{\mu}m$ (without an interlayer) and $378{\mu}m$ (with an interlayer) were obtained with no cracks and no signs of delamination. The mechanical characteristics and microstructure of the tungsten coating layers were investigated using a Vickers hardness tester, FE-SEM, EDS, and XRD. The effect of a titanium interlayer on the properties of the tungsten coating was investigated. It was shown that the titanium interlayer prevented the diffusion of carbon to the tungsten layer, thereby suppressing the formation of tungsten carbide. Vickers hardness data yielded values that were 62.5 ~ 80.46% of those for bulk tungsten, indicating that tungsten coatings on graphite can be utilized as a plasma-facing material. High heat flux tests were performed by using thermal plasma with a maximum flux of $10MW/^2$. Vickers hardness after the heat flux test is performed to see a change in the mechanical properties. The formationof a tungsten carbide and the effect of the titanium interlayer for the diffusion barrier are investigated by using energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS).

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Significance of Ages of Tungsten Mineralization (중석(重石) 광화작용(鑛化作用) 시기(時期)의 의의(意義))

  • Moon, Kun Joo
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.613-621
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    • 1995
  • It is understood that many big tungsten deposits such as the Sangdong in Korea, Fugigatami in Japan, Yukon in Canada, Pine Creek in U.S.A and Vostok in Russia were formed at late Cretaceous ages. However, most of tungsten mineralization in China where half the total world tungsten ores is reserved took place in late Jurassic to early Cretaceous ages. While the close association of molybdenum with tungsten mineralization is observed in the deposits related with Cretaceous magma, tungsten deposits in China related with late Jurassic to early Cretaceous show a close association of tin as well as molybdenum mineralization. It is characteristic that tungsten mineralization in China was followed by tin mineralization. The mode of occurrence of tungsten ore deposits in China is various and may represent the origin of tungsten in general, since the larger half of total amount of tungsten ores in the world are reserved in China. In case of Korea, more than 90% of total production of tungsten was occupied by the Sangdong tungsten deposit, which produced molybdenite as a byproduct Even if tin is detected in ppm unit content, no cassiterite is found in the Sangdong tungsten orebody. A similar type of two tungsten deposits is comparatively studied in order to confirm the published data; one is the Moping tungsten deposit in China and the other is the Dehwa tungsten deposit in Korea. Mineral assemblages occurring in quartz veins of both deposits are more or less same except that zinnwaldite and cassiterite occur only in the former deposit Ages of zinnwaldite and muscovite closely with molybdenite in the former deposit are 181.1 Ma and 167.8 Ma respectively, while muscovites associated with molybdenite in the latter deposit show ages of 80.9 Ma and 80.2 Ma. These results may represent deficient supply of tin from the source granitoid from which tungsten was derived in Korean peninsula during Cretaceous period, while tin supplied during tungsten mineralization tended to increase and the active tin mineralization followed the Jurassic tungsten mineralization in China.

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Recovery of Tungsten from WC/Co Hardmetal Sludge by Alkaline Leaching Hydrometallurgy Process (WC/Co 초경합금 가공 슬러지로부터 알칼리침출 정련공정에 의한 W 회수)

  • Lee, Gil-Geun;Kwon, Ji-Eun
    • Journal of Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.372-378
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    • 2016
  • This study focuses on the development of an alkaline leaching hydrometallurgy process for the recovery of tungsten from WC/Co hardmetal sludge, and an examination of the effect of the process parameters on tungsten recovery. The alkaline leaching hydrometallurgy process has four stages, i.e., oxidation of the sludge, leaching of tungsten by NaOH, refinement of the leaching solution, and precipitation of tungsten. The WC/Co hardmetal sludge oxide consists of $WO_3$ and $CoWO_4$. The leaching of tungsten is most affected by the leaching temperature, followed by the NaOH concentration and the leaching time. About 99% of tungsten in the WC/Co hardmetal sludge is leached at temperatures above $90^{\circ}C$ and a NaOH concentration above 15%. For refinement of the leaching solution, pH control of the solution using HCl is more effective than the addition of $Na_2S{\cdot}9H_2O$. The tungsten is precipitated as high-purity $H_2WO_4{\cdot}H_2O$ by pH control using HCl. With decreasing pH of the solution, the tungsten recovery rate increases and then decrease. About 93% of tungsten in the WC/Co hardmetal sludge is recovered by the alkaline leaching hydrometallurgy process.

Changes of Camber on Lamination Conditions in alumina/Tungsten Cofiring Multilayer Package (알루미나/텅스텐 동시소성에 의한 다층 팩키지 제조시 적층조건에 따른 camber의 변화)

  • 성재석;구기덕;윤종광;이상진;박정현
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.601-610
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    • 1997
  • In cofiring of multilayered alumina with tungsten, the change of camber with lamination condition was experimented and the effect of sintering shrinkage of alumina and tungsten was investigated. From the exact measurement of sintering shrinkage of tungsten thick film, as lamination pressure increased, the sintering shrinkage of alumina decreased but that of tungsten thick film was not changed. So it was though that the main factor which induced the sintering shrinkage difference between ceramics and metal with lamination condition was the change of sintering shrinkage of ceramics. In case of high lamination pressure, high green sheet density, the cofired specimen showed low camber due to low shrinkage difference between alumina and tungsten and there was a linear relation between camber and shrinkage difference. It was found that this shrinkage difference could change the thickness of tungsten film and the microstructure within via hole during cofiring.

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Effective Control of Stiffness of Tungsten Probe for AFM by Electrochemical Etching (전기화학적 에칭에 의한 AFM용 텅스텐 탐침의 강성 제어)

  • Han, Guebum;Lee, Seungje;Ahn, Hyo-Sok
    • Tribology and Lubricants
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.218-223
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    • 2014
  • This paper presents a method of controlling the stiffness of a tungsten probe for an atomic force microscope (AFM) in order to provide high-quality phase contrast images in accordance with sample characteristics. While inducing sufficient deformation on sample surfaces with commercial Si or $Si_3N_4$ probes is difficult because of their low stiffness, a tungsten probe fabricated by electrochemical etching with appropriately high stiffness can generate relatively large elastic deformation without damaging sample surfaces. The fabrication of the tungsten probe involves two separate procedures. The first procedure involves immersing a tungsten wire with both ends bent parallel to the surface of an electrolyte and controlling the stiffness of the tungsten cantilever by decreasing its diameter using electrochemical etching in the direction of the central axis. The second procedure involves immersing the end of the etched tungsten cantilever in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the electrolyte and fabricating a tungsten tip with a tip radius of 20-50 nm via the necking phenomenon. The latter etching process applies pulse waves every 0.25 seconds to the manufactured tip to improve its yield. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the stiffness of the tungsten probe as a function of its diameter showed that the stiffness of the tungsten probes greatly varies from 56 N/m to 3501 N/m according to the cantilever diameters from $30{\mu}m$ to $100{\mu}m$, respectively. Thus, the proposed etching method is effective for producing a tungsten probe having specific stiffness for optimal use with an AFM and certain samples.

Synthesis of High Purity Tungsten Oxide with Tungsten Chloride from the Chlorination of Scheelite (회중석의 염소화 생성물로부터 고순도 WO3의 합성)

  • Um, Myeong-Heon;Park, Young-Seong;Lee, Chul-Tae
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.798-806
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    • 1993
  • In this study we developed the synthesis of high purity tungsten oxide from tungsten chlorides obtained by the chlorination of scheelite in a fluidized bed reactor. Within a minute of dissolution time, tungsten chlorides were almost dissolved in $H_2O_2$ solution. The proper dissolution conditions for the tungsten chlorides were as follows : $H_2O_2$ concentration 0.5%, dissolution temperature $15^{\circ}C$ and $H_2O_2$ amount to 0.5g tungsten chlorides 30ml. Under above conditions, the tungsten oxide prepared from dissolved product was identified as $WO_3$ and the purity of $WO_3$ was 99.53%.

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Facile synthesis of tungsten carbide-carbon composites for oxygen reduction reaction

  • Sohn, Yeonsun;Jung, Jae Young;Kim, Pil
    • Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
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    • v.34 no.8
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    • pp.2162-2168
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    • 2017
  • Tungsten carbide-carbon composite (XWC-C, where X=10 or 30 represents the tungsten content) supports were prepared by pyrolyzing tungsten-adsorbed poly(4-vinylpyridine)-functionalized carbon. The supports were used to prepare Pt catalysts (Pt/XWC-C) for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) in alkaline solution. Prepared XWC-C revealed highly dispersed tungsten carbide species composed of WC and $W_2C$ phases. The tungsten carbide species proved to have a positive effect on the dispersion of Pt particles. Compared to the Pt catalyst supported on carbon (Pt/C), Pt/XWC-C showed higher ORR performance. In addition, the catalytic performance of Pt/XWC-C was enhanced with increasing tungsten carbide content. The highest ORR activity was achieved for the Pt/30WC-C catalyst, which had a 2.9-fold enhanced performance (at 0.8 V vs. RHE) compared to that of Pt/C. It is believed that the unique interaction between Pt and the tungsten carbide species was responsible for the enhanced ORR performance of the Pt/XWC-C catalysts.