• Title, Summary, Keyword: Tube infrastructure

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Analysis of the Magnetic Effect on the Tube Infrastructure for a Super Speed Tube Train

  • Lee, Hyung-Woo;Cho, Su-Yeon;Cho, Woo-Yeon;Lee, Ju;Kwon, Hyeok-Bin
    • International Journal of Railway
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.170-174
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    • 2009
  • Super speed tube train is introduced to increase the speed of ground transportation. The super speed tube train levitates magnetically and runs in a partial vacuum tube, which can reduce the air resistance significantly. However, the strong magnetic force enough to propel the massive train can affect to the tube infrastructure. In this paper, authors have analyzed the leakage flux patterns and induced eddy current on the tube by using 3-dimensional Finite Element Method. These effects are investigated, especially by varying the materials and diameters of the tube. From the simulation results, the aluminum tube with the diameter of 3[m] is needed to be concerned because the induced eddy current produces joule heat, raises the inside temperature of the tube, and might be able to lead to electro-chemical corrosion on the tube, consequently reduce the durability.

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Magnetic Interference on the Infrastructure for a Super-speed Tube Train

  • Lee, Hyung-Woo;Jang, Seung-Yup;Kang, Bu-Byoung;Cho, Su-Yeon;Lee, Ju
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.364-368
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    • 2011
  • The super-speed tube train was introduced to increase the speed of ground transportation. It levitates magnetically and runs in a partial vacuum tube, which significantly reduces air resistance. However, strong magnetic force sufficient to propel the massive train can affect the infrastructure. The induced eddy current produces joule heat, and raises the inside temperature of the girder, which might lead to electrochemical corrosion on the girder, thereby weakening its durability. In this paper, the authors analyzed the magnetic flux and induced eddy current in the reinforced concrete girder by using three-dimensional FEM, particularly by varying the number of reinforcing steels of the upper flange of the girder to the condition of almost the same flexural strength and reinforcing steel amount.

Experimental and analytical behaviour of cogged bars within concrete filled circular tubes

  • Pokharel, Tilak;Yao, Huang;Goldsworthy, Helen M.;Gad, Emad F.
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.1067-1085
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    • 2016
  • Recent research on steel moment-resisting connection between steel beams and concrete filled steel tubes has shown that there are considerable advantages to be obtained by anchoring the connection to the concrete infill within the tube using anchors in blind bolts. In the research reported here, extensive experimental tests and numerical analyses have been performed to study the anchorage behaviour of cogged deformed reinforcing bars within concrete filled circular steel tubes. This data in essential knowledge for the design of the steel connections that use anchored blind bolts, both for strength and stiffness. A series of pull-out tests were conducted using steel tubes with different diameter to thickness ratios under monotonic and cyclic loading. Both hoop strains and longitudinal strains in the tubes were measured together with applied load and slip. Various lead-in lengths before the bend and length of tailed extension after the bend were examined. These dimensions were limited by the dimensions of the steel tube and did not meet the requirements for "standard" cogs as specified in concrete standards such as AS 3600 and ACI 318. Nevertheless, all of the tested specimens failed by bar fracture outside the steel tubes. A comprehensive 3D Finite Element model was developed to simulate the pull-out tests. The FE model took into account material nonlinearities, deformations in reinforcing bars and interactions between different surfaces. The FE results were found to be in good agreement with experimental results. This model was then used to conduct parametric studies to investigate the influence of the confinement provided by the steel tube on the infilled concrete.

Elastic local buckling of thin-walled elliptical tubes containing elastic infill material

  • Bradford, M.A.;Roufegarinejad, A.
    • Interaction and multiscale mechanics
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.143-156
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    • 2008
  • Elliptical tubes may buckle in an elastic local buckling failure mode under uniform compression. Previous analyses of the local buckling of these members have assumed that the cross-section is hollow, but it is well-known that the local buckling capacity of thin-walled closed sections may be increased by filling them with a rigid medium such as concrete. In many applications, the medium many not necessarily be rigid, and the infill can be considered to be an elastic material which interacts with the buckling of the elliptical tube that surrounds it. This paper uses an energy-based technique to model the buckling of a thin-walled elliptical tube containing an elastic infill, which elucidates the physics of the buckling phenomenon from an engineering mechanics basis, in deference to a less generic finite element approach to the buckling problem. It makes use of the observation that the local buckling in an elliptical tube is localised with respect to the contour of the ellipse in its cross-section, with the localisation being at the region of lowest curvature. The formulation in the paper is algebraic and it leads to solutions that can be determined by implementing simple numerical solution techniques. A further extension of this formulation to a stiffness approach with multiple degrees of buckling freedom is described, and it is shown that using the simple one degree of freedom representation is sufficiently accurate for determining the elastic local buckling coefficient.

Assessment of London underground tube tunnels - investigation, monitoring and analysis

  • Wright, Peter
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.239-262
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    • 2010
  • Tube Lines has carried out a "knowledge and investigation programme" on the deep tube tunnels comprising the Jubilee, Northern and Piccadilly lines, as required by the PPP contract with London Underground. Many of the tunnels have been in use for over 100 years, so this assessment was considered essential to the future safe functioning of the system. This programme has involved a number of generic investigations which guide the assessment methodology and the analysis of some 5,000 individual structures. A significant amount of investigation has been carried out, including ultrasonic thickness measurement, detection of brickwork laminations using radar, stress measurement using magnetic techniques, determination of soil parameters using CPT, pressuremeter and laboratory testing, installation of piezometers, material and tunnel segment testing, and trialling of remote photographic techniques for inspection of large tunnels and shafts. Vibrating wire, potentiometer, electro level, optical and fibre-optic monitoring has been used, and laser measurement and laser scanning has been employed to measure tunnel circularity. It is considered that there is scope for considerable improvements in non-destructive testing technology for structural assessment in particular, and some ideas are offered as a "wish-list". Assessment reports have now been produced for all assets forming Tube Lines' deep tube tunnel network. For assets which are non-compliant with London Underground standards, the risk to the operating railway has to be maintained as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) using enhanced inspection and monitoring, or repair where required. Monitoring techniques have developed greatly during recent years and further advances will continue to support the economic whole life asset management of infrastructure networks.

Characteristics of Pultruded GFRP and Buckling Behavior of Angle and Tubular Member (인발성형 GFRP 부재의 특성 변화와 앵글 및 튜브 부재의 좌굴 거동 분석)

  • 이성우;신경재;김현정
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society For Composite Materials Conference
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    • pp.15-19
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    • 2000
  • Recently Western countries are now beginning to use ACM (Advanced Composites Material), in the construction industry Compared with existing construction materials, ACM possesses many advantages such as light-weight, high-strength, corrosion resistant property. Among other fabrication process of ACM, pultrusion is one of the promising one for civil infrastructure application. In this paper, the structural characteristics of pultruded GFRP strip and structural members of angle and tube type were studied. For the strip, parametric studies of pultrusion process has been carried out. Considered parameters were volume fraction, temperature, pulling speed and fiber orientations. For the pultruded angle and tube, compression test and buckling analysis has been carried out. The results were compared with calculated values using coded formulae

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Torsion strength of single-box multi-cell concrete box girder subjected to combined action of shear and torsion

  • Wang, Qian;Qiu, Wenliang;Zhang, Zhe
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.953-964
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    • 2015
  • A model has been proposed that can predict the ultimate torsional strength of single-box multi-cell reinforced concrete box girder under combined loading of bending, shear and torsion. Compared with the single-cell box girder, this model takes the influence of inner webs on the distribution of shear flow into account. According to the softening truss theory and thin walled tube theory, a failure criterion is presented and a ultimate torsional strength calculating procedure is established for single-box multi-cell reinforced concrete box girder under combined actions, which considers the effect of tensile stress among the concrete cracks, Mohr stress compatibility and the softened constitutive law of concrete. In this paper the computer program is also compiled to speed up the calculation. The model has been validated by comparing the predicted and experimental members loaded under torsion combined with different ratios of bending and shear. The theoretical torsional strength was in good agreement with the experimental results.

Structural response of composite concrete filled plastic tubes in compression

  • Oyawa, Walter O.;Gathimba, Naftary K.;Mang'uriu, Geoffrey N.
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.589-604
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    • 2016
  • Kenya has recently experienced worrying collapse of buildings during construction largely attributable to the poor quality of in-situ concrete and poor workmanship. The situation in the country is further compounded by rapid deterioration of infrastructure, hence necessitating the development of alternative structural systems such as concrete filled unplasticized poly vinyl chloride (UPVC) tubes as columns. The work herein adds on to the very limited and scanty work on use of UPVC tubes in construction. This study presents the findings of experimental and analytical work which investigated the structural response of composite concrete filled UPVC tubes under compressive load regime. UPVC pipes are cheaper than steel tubes and can be used as formwork during construction and thereafter as an integral part of column. Key variables in this study included the strength of infill concrete, the length to diameter ratio (L/D) of the plastic tube, as well as the diameter to thickness ratio (D/2t) of the plastic tube. Plastic tubes having varying diameters and heights were used to confine concrete of different strengths. Results obtained in the study clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of UPVC tubes as a confining medium for infill concrete, attributable to enhanced composite interaction between the UPVC tube and infill concrete medium. It was determined that compressive strength of the composite column specimens increased with increased concrete strength while the same decreased with increased column height, albeit by a small margin since all the columns considered were short columns. Most importantly, the experimental confined concrete strength increased significantly when compared to unconfined concrete strength; the strength increased between 1.18 to 3.65 times the unconfined strength. It was noted that lower strength infill concrete had the highest confined strength possibly due to enhanced composite interaction with the confining UPVC tube. The study further proposes an analytical model for the determination of confined strength of concrete.

Explosive loading of multi storey RC buildings: Dynamic response and progressive collapse

  • Weerheijm, J.;Mediavilla, J.;van Doormaal, J.C.A.M.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.193-212
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    • 2009
  • The resilience of a city confronted with a terrorist bomb attack is the background of the paper. The resilience strongly depends on vital infrastructure and the physical protection of people. The protection buildings provide in case of an external explosion is one of the important elements in safety assessment. Besides the aspect of protection, buildings facilitate and enable many functions, e.g., offices, data storage, -handling and -transfer, energy supply, banks, shopping malls etc. When a building is damaged, the loss of functions is directly related to the location, amount of damage and the damage level. At TNO Defence, Security and Safety methods are developed to quantify the resilience of city infrastructure systems (Weerheijm et al. 2007b). In this framework, the dynamic response, damage levels and residual bearing capacity of multi-storey RC buildings is studied. The current paper addresses the aspects of dynamic response and progressive collapse, as well as the proposed method to relate the structural damage to a volume-damage parameter, which can be linked to the loss of functionality. After a general introduction to the research programme and progressive collapse, the study of the dynamic response and damage due to blast loading for a single RC element is described. Shock tube experiments on plates are used as a reference to study the possibilities of engineering methods and an explicit finite element code to quantify the response and residual bearing capacity. Next the dynamic response and progressive collapse of a multi storey RC building is studied numerically, using a number of models. Conclusions are drawn on the ability to predict initial blast damage and progressive collapse. Finally the link between the structural damage of a building and its loss of functionality is described, which is essential input for the envisaged method to quantify the resilience of city infrastructure.

Measurement and Analysis of Bed Shear Stresses in Compound Open Channels using the Preston Tube (프레스톤튜브를 이용한 복단면 하도의 하상전단응력 측정 및 분석)

  • Lee, Du Han;Kim, Myounghwan;Kim, Won;Seo, Il Won
    • Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.207-215
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    • 2017
  • Hydraulic issues such as flow resistance, side wall correction, sediment, erosion and deposition, and channel design have close relation with distribution of bed shear stresses but the measurement of the distribution of bed shear stresses is not easy. In this study the Preston tube which makes possible relatively simple measurement of bed shear stresses is used to analyze the characteristics of bed shear distribution in compound open channels with different depth ratio. The Preston tubes are made and calibrated to develop the calibration formula and then they are applied to measure bed shear stress distribution in 5 cases depth ratio condition of compound channels. The results are compared with former experiment data, and characteristics of bed shear stress distributions are studied with different channel scales and Reynolds numbers. Although bed shear distributions with depth ratio show overall agreement with former studies, some differences are verified in bed shear variation, formation of inflection point in main channel, and distribution near floodplain junction which are due to high Reynolds number. Through the study applicability of the Preston tubes are also verified and characteristics of bed shear distribution in compound channels are suggested with Reynolds number and depth ratio.