• Title, Summary, Keyword: Trust Transference

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Transference of Trust from Retailers to Private Label Products and their Manufacturers (유통업체에 대한 신뢰가 Private Label 제품과 제조업체에 대한 신뢰로 전이되는 현상에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyang-Mi;Kim, Jae-Wook;Lee, Jong-Ho
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.67-95
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the transference of trust process, an important factor to consumer's purchase decision-making. Even though several researchers have discussed the trust transference process, there is no research related to this concept. Specifically we have focused on the transference of trust from the retailer to low involvement private label (PL) products. PL products were chosen as transference of trust occurs under ambiguity due to lack of information about the product and their manufacturer. PL products provide relatively less information than national brand (NB) products. In addition, retailers have been rapidly expanding their PL product categories. To identify the theoretical and empirical limitations of prior studies, we discuss several theories explaining the transference of trust: 'Balance theory' and 'availability heuristic' in transference of cognitive trust; 'affective transference' and 'affect as information' in transference of affective trust. An empirical test was performed. A self completion questionnaire was developed and administered to a convenience sample of PL users. 206 usable questionnaire were received. The results show that the transference of trust plays a mediating role linking the retailer to the manufacturer and to the product. Although our model, which included the transference process of trust as a mediating effect, did not improve the competitive model, the coefficients of the respective paths were found to be better. This study confirms the transference of cognitive trust from the retailer to both the manufacturer and the product, but not for affective trust. We offer the explanation that PL products may tend to have affective trust resulting from brand familiarity but not to their PL manufacturers.

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Empirical Analysis of the Effect of 3D Avatars on Consumer's Online Purchasing Behavior in Virtual World : Emphasis on Trust Transference (가상세계에서 3차원 아바타 판매원이 소비자 온라인 구매 행위에 미치는 영향에 관한 실증연구 : 신뢰전이를 중심으로)

  • Chae, Seong-Wook;Lee, Kun-Chang;Lee, Keun-Young
    • Knowledge Management Research
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.153-173
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    • 2009
  • Virtual world typically characterized by Second Life (www.secondlife.com) has been successfully drawing a great deal of potential users all around the world. Attention towards 3D avartars has been increasing exponentially especially in the electronic commerce world. 3D avatars have firm position in the virtual world. This study is launched to explore this research void in which trust transference from 3D-avatars-sales representative to customers purchase intention will be especially analyzed on. To perform experiments, a research model was built in a form of path analysis. Two types of 3D avatars were designed and implemented-at-tractive type and professional type. Questionnaire survey was adopted, and empirical analysis results were obtained from the research model. Results reveal that the proposed hypotheses are proven with statistical significance.

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A Study on the Influence of Brand Level Evaluation on Overall Company Evaluation (브랜드차원의 평가가 기업차원의 이미지전이에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jiwon;Hao, Yao;Kang, Inwon
    • Knowledge Management Research
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.27-37
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    • 2011
  • It is not uncommon to witness brand image transference which is a development of corporate image from a collection of individual brand images. The brand image transfer process is the influence of consumer attitudes toward certain brands on overall evaluation of the company. To understand the image transfer process, we examine the influence of brand level evaluation on overall company evaluation through food and beverage consumer products in China, where active competitions among global brands exist.

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Empirical Analysis of the Effect of Avatars on Learner's e-Learning Performance : Emphasis on Trust Transference between Avatars and Contents (아바타가 학습자 이러닝 성과에 미치는 영향에 관한 실증연구:아바타와 학습내용간 신뢰전이를 중심으로)

  • Chae, Seong-Wook;Lee, Kun-Chang;Lee, Keun-Young
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.149-176
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    • 2009
  • In the recent e-learning environment, avatars are often used to help learners get familiar with the contents, which is ultimately to motivate them to study more. Therefore, it is important to investigate whether avatars have actually the desirable effect on users of e-learning materials. Surprisingly, however, no extensive study has been conducted on this crucial issue Accordingly, main objectives this study are summarized as follows. First, we need to gain better understanding of how much learners' trust towards avatars (termed as "avatar trust") is transferred to learners' trust towards e-learning contents (termed as "contents trust"). Second, we need to investigate how much learners' personal relationships with avatars as well as learning behaviors change depending on avatar types (attractive vs. professional) and contents complexity (easy vs. difficult). As described in the study objectives, in order for us to analyze empirical data more systematically, we classified avatar types into two: "attractive" and "professional;" the contents are categorized as either "easy" or "difficult." Therefore, it is essential for this study to build a prototype e-learning website on which our research purpose can be realized and tested effectively with proper avatar types and e-learning contents. For this purpose, we built a prototype e-learning website, in which avatars are invited from currently working avatar instructors used in real-world e-learning websites, and e-learning contents are adapted from real-world contents about Java programming topic, which have been proved to have shown high quality and reliability. Our research method includes questionnaire survey by inviting a number of valid respondents comprised of office workers who are believed to have high demands for the e-learning contents as well as those who have previous experience with avatar instructors. Respondents were given one of the four e-learning experiment conditions (2 avatar types x 2 contents types) on a random basis. Each experimental e-learning condition is framed to have the same quality but different avatar type and content complexity. Then the respondents are asked to fill out the survey form which has questions about avatar trust, contents trust, personal relationships with avatar, and learning behavior, among others. Regarding the constructs used in research model, we based them rigorously on previous studies. For example, we used six constructs such as behavior to give information (BGI), behavior to obtain information (BOI), need for inclusion wanted, need for control wanted, contents trust, and avatar trust. To measure them, 7-Likert scales were used in the questionnaire. E-learning performance was measured indirectly through two constructs such as BGI and BOI. Six constructs used in the research model were adopted and revised from the FIRO-B model suggested by Schutz. Empirical results are as follows: First, professional avatars are more effective for difficult contents, while attractive avatars were not as effective for easy contents. Second, our study results ascertained that avatar trust transfers to contents trust regardless of avatar types and contents complexity.

The Relationship between Offline Trust and Online Transaction in Internet Banking (인터넷 뱅킹에서 오프라인 신뢰와 온라인 거래의 관계)

  • Lee, Woong-Kyu
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.29-47
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    • 2007
  • Owing to the rapid growth of using the Internet, not only click-and-mortar companies but also brick-and-mortar ones have been expanding their distribution channels into online, Moreover, since online channels are more attractive than offline ones in control and maintenance, switching customers into online ones is emerged as one of very important managerial issues in a view of reduction of cost as well as expansion of services. However, the switched customers should be faced by uncertainties which could not have been experienced in offline. Specifically, in online channels, buyers and sellers are separated temporally and spacially and there are always so many kinds of threat for security as well as not enough systems and conventions for them yet. Therefore, trust has been considered as one of the most critical mechanisms for resolution of such uncertainties in online transactions. However, it is not easy to build and maintain the relationships in online since most of them are virtual and indirect generally. Therefore, in order to switch offline customers into online ones, it is very important to make strategies based on identification of the relationship between online transaction and offline trust which has been built in offline business. Generally offline trust, which has been built independent of online, could not include trust for online-dependent activities such as payment security during or after transactions, while most of online trust include it. Therefore, a customer with high offline trust does not always perceive high security and assure safe transactions. Accordingly, while online trust, where technical capabilities for online security is one of main bases, includes control trust implicitly or explicitly, offline trust does not. However. in spite of such clear discrimination and independence between offline trust and perceived security, there can be the significant dependency between these two beliefs. The customers with high offline trust believe that the company would do some activities for online security for customers' safe transactions since it has been believed of doing well for customers' trust. Theoretically, users' perception of security is interpreted as a kind of control trus, which is trust for company's technical control capacities in order to resolve technical uncertainties in online. Therefore, the relationship between two beliefs can be considered as transference from offline trust to another type trust. that is, control trust. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of offline trust on online transaction uses mediated by perceived security. For this purpose, we suggest a research model based on technology acceptance model (TAM). Reuse intention is adopted as a dependent variable and TAM is modified by adding perceived risk (PR) as well as two beliefs of using Internet banking, perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU). Moreover, perceive security (PS) is adopted as an external variable for PR and PU, while offline trust (OT) is an antecedent of PS. For an empirical test, sampling from 108 visitors to the banks in Daegu, Korea, we analyze our model by partial least square (PLS) approach. In result, our model is shown to explain 51.4% of the variance in reuse intention and all hypothesis are supported statistically. A theoretical implication of this study is to identify a role of PS between offline trust and reuse intention of using online transaction services. According to our result, PS can be considered as a mediation variable for bridging between two different concepts: trust that explains social aspects of customers and companies, and TAM that explains customers' reuse intention.