• Title, Summary, Keyword: Tropical Grass

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Comparative analysis of silage fermentation and in vitro digestibility of tropical grass prepared with Acremonium and Tricoderma species producing cellulases

  • Khota, Waroon;Pholsen, Suradej;Higgs, David;Cai, Yimin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.12
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    • pp.1913-1922
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    • 2018
  • Objective: To find out ways of improving fermentation quality of silage, the comparative analysis of fermentation characteristics and in vitro digestibility of tropical grasses silage applied with cellulases produced from Acremonium or Tricoderma species were studied in Thailand. Methods: Fresh and wilted Guinea grass and Napier grass silages were prepared with cellulases from Acremonium (AC) or Trichoderma (TC) at 0.0025%, 0.005%, and 0.01% on a fresh matter (FM), and their fermentation quality, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility were analyzed. Results: All silages of fresh Napier grass were good quality with lower pH, butyric acid, and ammonia nitrogen, but higher lactic acid content than wilted Napier grass and Guinea grass silage. Silages treated with AC 0.01% had the best result in terms of fermentation quality. They also had higher in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility at 6 and 48 h after incubation than other silages. Silages treated with lower levels at 0.005% or 0.0025% of AC and all levels of TC did not improve silage fermentation. Conclusion: The AC could improve silage fermentation and in vitro degradation of Guinea grass and Napier grass silages, and the suitable addition ration is 0.01% (73.5 U) of FM for tropical silage preparation.

The Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization to the Sward on Guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Gatton) Silage Fermentation

  • Namihira, Tomoyuki;Shinzato, Naoya;Akamine, Hikaru;Nakamura, Ichiro;Maekawa, Hideaki;Kawamoto, Yasuhiro;Matsui, Toru
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.358-363
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    • 2011
  • To investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the quality of tropical grass silage, guinea grass grown with 3 types of nitrogen fertilizers, namely, urea, ammonium sulfate, and compound fertilizer 804, at 2 fertilization levels, 0.5 and 2.5 kg $Na^{-1}$ (0.5 N and 2.5 N, respectively), was subjected to silage fermentation. Silage fertilized with 0.5 N showed butyrate-dominant fermentation, irrespective of the type of fertilizer used. On the other hand, fermentation of silage fertilized with 2.5 N was significantly affected by the type of fertilizer used; fertilization with ammonium sulfate and compound fertilizer 804 resulted in silage that contained a large amount of butyrate and no lactate; this silage was considered to be of a significantly low quality as compared with silage fertilized with 0.5 N. Among silage fertilized with 2.5 N, the desirable butyrate-free fermentation was found only in urea-fertilized silage, which had the best quality. Grass material fertilized with a high level of urea accumulated a relatively high concentration of nitrate nitrogen (0.22% dry matter). Our results presented here suggest that nitrogen fertilizer management could affect the quality of tropical grass silage and that a relatively high concentration of nitrate in silage may promote butyrate-free fermentation even in tropical grass silage.

Molecular Cloning and Expression of Grass Carp MyoD in Yeast Pichia pastoris

  • Wang, Lixin;Bai, Junjie;Luo, Jianren;Chen, Hong;Ye, Xing;Jian, Qing;Lao, Haihua
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.22-28
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    • 2007
  • MyoD, expressed in skeletal muscle lineages of vertebrate embryo, is one of muscle-specific basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, which plays a key role in the determination and differentiation of all skeletal muscle lineages. In this study, a cDNA of grass carp MyoD was cloned and characterized from total RNA of grass carp embryos by RT-PCR. The full-length cDNA of grass carp MyoD is 1597 bp. The cDNA sequence analysis reveals an open reading frame of 825 bp coding for a protein of 275 amino acids, which includes a bHLH domain composed of basic domain (1-84th amino acids) and HLH domain (98-142th amino acids), without signal peptide. Then the MyoD cDNA of grass carp was cloned to yeast expression vector pPICZ$\alpha$A and transformed into P. pastoris GS115 strain, the recombinant MyoD protein with a molecular weight of about 31KD was obtained after inducing for 2d with 0.5% methanol in pH 8.0 BMGY medium, and the maximum yield was about 250 mg/L in shaking-flask fermentation. The results were expected to benefit for further studies on the crystal structure and physiological function of fish MyoD.

Evaluation of Fermentation Quality of a Tropical and Temperate Forage Crops Ensiled with Additives of Fermented Juice of Epiphytic Lactic Acid Bacteria (FJLB)

  • Yahaya, M.S.;Goto, M.;Yimiti, W.;Smerjai, B.;Kawamoto, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.942-946
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    • 2004
  • This study aimed to examine the fermentation quality of a tropical Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpuereum) and temperate Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) forages ensiled additive of fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and to determine what factor affects the fermentation characteristics of the crops. In both species cell walls neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents in silages were consistently decreased (p<0.05) with the addition of FJLB at ensiling more then Control treatment. The FJLB additive increased number of LAB (cfu) and lactate concentration in the silages in both species. The Control treatment without additive underwent a clostridial type of fermentation with traces of propionic, iso-butyric, n-butyric acids contents with higher (p<0.01) levels of volatile basic nitrogen (VBN %TN) and had appreciable decreased of nutrient in silages. FJLB treatment improved silage nutritive value with little contents of VBN %TN, ethanol and very small amount of dry matter (DM) and hemicellulose losses (p<0.05) between 2 to 5% and 7 to 3% respectively, in Elephant grass and Italian ryegrass species. The results in this study indicates that while among the factors affecting silage fermentation butyric type of fermentation was more pronounced in tropical elephant grass compared to the temperate Italian ryegrass, FJLB additive revealed a better silage fermentation products in both species.

Fermentation characteristics, chemical composition and microbial community of tropical forage silage under different temperatures

  • Li, Dongxia;Ni, Kuikui;Zhang, Yingchao;Lin, Yanli;Yang, Fuyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.665-674
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    • 2019
  • Objective: In tropical regions, as in temperate regions where seasonality of forage production occurs, well-preserved forage is necessary for animal production during periods of forage shortage. However, the unique climate conditions (hot and humid) and forage characteristics (high moisture content and low soluble carbohydrate) in the tropics make forage preservation more difficult. The current study used natural ensiling of tropical forage as a model to evaluate silage characteristics under different temperatures ($28^{\circ}C$ and $40^{\circ}C$). Methods: Four tropical forages (king grass, paspalum, white popinac, and stylo) were ensiled under different temperatures ($28^{\circ}C$ and $40^{\circ}C$). After ensiling for 30 and 60 days, samples were collected to examine the fermentation quality, chemical composition and microbial community. Results: High concentrations of acetic acid (ranging from 7.8 to 38.5 g/kg dry matter [DM]) were detected in silages of king grass, paspalum and stylo with relatively low DM (ranging from 23.9% to 30.8% fresh material [FM]) content, acetic acid production was promoted with increased temperature and prolonged ensiling. Small concentrations of organic acid (ranging from 0.3 to 3.1 g/kg DM) were detected in silage of white popinac with high DM content (50.8% FM). The microbial diversity analysis indicated that Cyanobacteria originally dominated the bacterial community for these four tropical forages and was replaced by Lactobacillus and Enterobacter after ensiling. Conclusion: The results suggested that forage silages under tropical climate conditions showed enhanced acetate fermentation, while high DM materials showed limited fermentation. Lactobacillus and Enterobacter were the most probable genera responsible for tropical silage fermentation.

An Experimental Study of Surface Materials for Planting of Building Surface by the Radiant Heat Balance Analysis in the Summer (하절기 실험을 통한 건물녹화용 피복재료의 복사수지 해석)

  • Choi, Dong-Ho;Lee, Bu-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.71-80
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    • 2010
  • This study carried out to understand the thermal characteristics of various surface material which compose the city through the observation in the summer. To examine passive cooling effect of planting of building, it is arranged four different materials that is natural grass, grass block, concrete slab and artificial grass. The results of this study are as follows; (1) Natural grass and grass block show the lower surface temperature because of the structures of leaf can do more thermal dissipation effectively. (2) There is little surface temperature between artificial grass and concrete. But there is little high surface temperature difference between natural grass and concrete because of latent heat effect. (3) The concrete can play a role of the tropical nights phenomenon as high heat capacity of concrete compare with other materials. (4) It is nearly same color in artificial grass and natural grass but there is large difference between natural grass and artificial grass at albedo. There is different albedo in near infrared ray range. (5) A short wave radiation gives more effect at the globe temperature than long wave radiation. (6) The artificial turf protected the slab surface temperature increase in spite of thin and low albedo materials.

FORAGE BREEDING IN TAIWAN - Review -

  • Cheng, Y.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.203-209
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    • 1991
  • Collection, evaluation and preservation of tropical forage grasses, napier grass breeding, tissue culture of pangola grass and alfalfa selection were conducted in Taiwan. The results showed that some species such as pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) with good performance and wide adaptability were selected and released. Forage yield and quality of napier grass have been improved and have good results in animal performance. Embryogenic callus cultures from young inflorescences and stem segments of pangola grass could provide an alternative method for rapid propagation and improvement. Three better varieties of alfalfa were selected. They maintain satisfactory stands for two or three years on well-drained sand loam and loam soil, and used only as annual crop in flat area and acid soil. However, more studies in forage breeding for acid soil arc required to maximise the forage quality and animal production. Thus, animal fed with forages of high quality and a few grains supplement will be the future achivement in livestock industry.

Effect of Frequency of Meals on Intake and Digestion of Tropical Grass Consumed by Rams

  • Assoumaya, C.;Sauvant, D.;Pommier, F.;Boval, M.;Calif, B.;Archimede, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.72-81
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    • 2009
  • Eight Black Belly rams (45.2 kg) fitted with permanent ruminal cannulae were used in a 2${\times}$2 factorial design to determine the effects of feeding frequency and regrowth age on intake and digestion. Rams were fed with 21- or 35-day old fresh pangola grass offered ad libitum two or four times a day. Irrespective of the regrowth age, there was a tendency for intake to be positively correlated with increase in meal frequency. Differences were not significant (p>0.25). Significant effects of meal frequency were observed in NDF and ADF total tract digestibility of the 35-day grass which decreased as the number of meals increased. Meal frequency had no visible effect on feeding behaviour. Total rumen content increased when animals were fed twice a day as opposed to four times a day. Similarly, an accumulation of small and very small particles was observed in the rumen of rams fed twice a day in comparison with those fed four times a day. These results suggest that studies of digestive dynamics performed at a steady state are not representative of the rumen loading observed in farm rams which have two important peaks of meal.

Effect of Cassava Hay in High-quality Feed Block as Anthelmintics in Steers Grazing on Ruzi Grass

  • Wanapat, Metha;Khampa, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.695-698
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    • 2006
  • Six, one-year old dairy steers were randomly divided into two groups according to a Completely randomized design (CRD) to receive high-quality feed block (HQFB) without cassava hay and drenching (HQFB1+Ivomex) and HQFB with cassava hay (HQFB2) as block licks while grazing on Ruzi grass pasture. During the eight weeks, fecal parasitic egg counts dramatically declined for both treatment groups with 63.2 and 27.6% reduction from initial period for HQFB1+Ivomex and HQFB2, respectively. However, digestion of coefficients of nutrients particularly OM, were significantly higher in HQFB2 than, those in HQFB1+Ivomex, in addition, ADG of animals in HQFB2 tended to be higher than the group on HQFB1. It was, hence concluded that cassava hay could not only provide as a protein source but also serve as an anthelmintic in ruminants.

Influence of Low Growing Vegetation in Reducing Stormwater Runoff on Green Roofs

  • Krishnan, Raymond;Ahmad, Hamidah
    • International Journal of High-Rise Buildings
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.273-278
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    • 2014
  • Green roof's performance in reducing stormwater runoff has been reported by numerous studies. Nonetheless, the roles of low growing vegetation in influencing stormwater runoff reduction on green roofs have been greatly overlooked. This paper describes an experiment investigating the influence of low growing vegetation in the reduction of tropical stormwater runoff on extensive green roofs. Three types of locally occurring native vegetation and one non-native Sedum species were selected (fern, herb, grass and succulent) for the experiment. Stormwater runoff reduction performance from different low growing species was done by measuring excess water runoff from the simulated green roof modules. The results show significant differences in stormwater runoff reduction from different types of vegetation. Fern was the most effective in reducing stormwater runoff, followed by herb, Sedum and grass. Vegetative characters that are found to attribute towards the performance of stormwater runoff are rooting density, structure, density, leaf type, and vegetation biomass.