• Title, Summary, Keyword: Tritium

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PREDICTION OF THE TRITIUM CONCENTRATION IN THE SOIL WATER AFTER THE OPERATION OF WOLSONG TRITIUM REMOVAL FACILITY

  • CHOI HEUI-JOO;LEE HANSOO;SUH KYUNG SUK;KANG HEE SUK
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.385-390
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    • 2005
  • The effect of the Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility on the change of tritium concentration in the soil water was assessed by introducing a dynamic compartment model. For the mathematical modeling, the tritium in the environment was thought to come from two different sources. Three global tritium cycling models were compared with the natural background concentration. The dynamic compartment model was used to model the behavior of the tritium from the nuclear power plants at the Wolsong site. The source term for the dynamic compartment model was calculated with the dry and wet deposition rates. The area around the Wolsong nuclear power plants was represented by the compartments. The mechanisms considered in deriving the transfer coefficients between the compartments were evaporation, runoff, infiltration, hydrodynamic dispersion, and groundwater flow. We predicted what the change of the tritium concentration around the Wolsong nuclear power plants would be after future operation of the tritium removal facility to show the applicability of the model. The results showed that the operation of the tritium removal facility would reduce the tritium concentration in topsoil water quickly.

Effect of LiOT on the Tritium Inventory of $Li_{2}O$ Fusion Blanket Breeder Material

  • Cho S.;Abdou M.A.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.515-522
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    • 2003
  • Tritium behavior in the solid breeder blanket is one of the key factors in determining tritium self-sufficiency, as well as safety, of fusion reactors. Recently, a model has been developed to describe the tritium behavior in solid breeder material, which can predict the tritium release and inventory in the blanket. However, the model has limitation to account for tritium solubility effects, mainly existing as LiOT, especially inside the $Li_{2}O$ solid breeder. In order to improve the capability of predicting the LiOT precipitation in $Li_{2}O$ solid breeder, a new logic is developed and integrated in the existing tritium release and inventory calculation code. With the logic developed in this work, the code can have capabilities to analyze tritium release and inventories in $Li_{2}O$ under steady and transient conditions. It can be found that tritium inventory as LiOT is an important mechanism under pulsed operation, and the amount of inventory becomes higher as the tritium generation rate increases and the temperature decreases. Also, the temperature limits for the generation of LiOT precipitation are determined. Therefore the developed logic helps understand the tritium transport mechanism in $Li_{2}O$ solid breeder.

Estimation of Tritium Concentration in Groundwater around the Nuclear Power Plants Using a Dynamic Compartment Model

  • Choi, Heui-Joo;Lee, Han-Soo;Kang, Hee-Suk;Choi, Yong-Ho
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.239-245
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    • 2003
  • Every nuclear power plant measured concentrations of tritium in groundwater and surface water around the plants periodically. It was not easy to predict the tritium concentration only with these measurement data in case of various release scenarios. KAERI developed a new approach to find the relationship between the tritium release rate and tritium concentration in the environment. The approach was based upon a dynamic compartment model. In this paper the dynamic compartment model was modified to predict the tritium behavior more accurately. The mechanisms considered for the transfer of tritium between the compartments were evaporation, groundwater flow, infiltration, runoff, and hydrodynamic dispersion. Time dependent source terms of the compartment model were introduced to refine the release scenarios. Also, transfer coefficients between the compartments were obtained using realistic geographical data. In order to illustrate the model various release scenarios were developed, and the change of tritium concentration in groundwater and surface water around the nuclear power plants was estimated.

Tritium and 14C in the Environment and Nuclear Facilities: Sources and Analytical Methods

  • Hou, Xiaolin
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.11-39
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    • 2018
  • Tritium and $^{14}C$ are two most important radionuclides released from nuclear facilities to the environment, and $^{14}C$ contributes dominant radiation dose to the population around nuclear power plants. This paper presents an overview of the production, pathway, species and levels of tritium and $^{14}C$ in nuclear facilities, mainly nuclear power plants. The methods for sampling and collection of different species of tritium and $^{14}C$ in the discharge gas from the stack in the nuclear facilities, atmosphere of the nuclear facilities and environment are presented, and the features of different methods are reviewed. The on-line monitoring methods of gaseous tritium and $^{14}C$ in air and laboratory measurement methods for sensitive determination of tritium and $^{14}C$ in collected samples, water and environmental solid samples are also discussed in detailed. Meanwhile, the challenges in the determination and speciation analysis of tritium and $^{14}C$ are also highlighted.

Estimation of Tritium Concentration in the Environment based upon Global Tritium Cycling Model (글로벌 삼중수소 순환 모델을 이용한 삼중수소 환경 방사능 추정)

  • Choi, Heui-Joo;Lee, Han-Soo;Kang, Hee-Suk;Lee, Chang-Woo
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2003
  • The periodic safety review of operational nuclear power plants requires that the plants should keep a well organized environmental monitoring program. The past records of environment monitoring data were analyzed. and the tritium concentrations of the samples in the surface and ground water around Kori site were measured. It was shown that the tritium concentrations around the Kori site were slightly higher than that of natural background. The change of background tritium concentration was estimated through a numerical modeling. Two different versions of 7 compartments model - the world and the northern hemisphere - defined in NCRP-62 were modeled for the global tritium cycling. The numerical solution of the model was obtained using a computer program, AMBER. The four cases of tritium source-terms into the atmosphere were considered. The results showed that the tritium concentration in the surface soil water was higher than that in sea water or surface stream water. Also, it was shown that the tritium produced by the interaction between cosmic rays and the gases were the major source of tritium, and the tritium produced by nuclear weapon test decreased considerably.

Trends and Issues in Metabolism and Dosimetry for Tritium Intake (삼중수소 피폭방사선량 평가의 경향과 이슈에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Hee-Geun;Kong, Tae-Young;Jeong, Woo-Tae
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.99-106
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    • 2011
  • Tritium is the one of the most important radionuclide for workers in nuclear power plants (NPPs) and the public, from the dosimetric point of view. Humans are likely to have internal radiation exposure by tritium inhalation. Radiation exposure by tritium accounts for approximately 7% and 60~90% of the total radiation exposure of NPP workers and the public during normal operation, respectively. Thus, many researches have been conducted to estimate the internal dose by tritium precisely in the world. In terms of tritium dosimetry, this paper provides the current status of research for tritium metabolism and dosimetry.

Modeling of the Environmental Behavior of Tritium Around the Nuclear Power Plants

  • Park, Heui-Joo;Lee, Hansoo;Kang, Hee-Suk;Park, Yong-Ho;Lee, Chang-Woo
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.242-249
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    • 2002
  • The relationship between the tritium release rate from the nuclear power plant and tritium concentration in the environment around the Kori site was modeled. The tritium concentration in the atmosphere was calculated by multiplying the release rates and $\chi$/Q values, and the d3V deposition rate at each sector according to the direction and the distance was obtained using a dry deposition velocity. The area around Kori site was divided into 6 zones according to the deposition rate. The six zones were divided into 14 compartments for the numerical simulation. Transfer coefficients between the compartments were derived using site characterization data. Source terms were calculated from the dry deposition rates. Tritium concentration in surface soil water and groundwater was calculated based upon a compartment model. The semi-analytical solution of the compartment model was obtained with a computer program, AMBER. The results showed that most of tritium deposited onto the land released into the atmosphere and the sea. Also, the estimated concentration in the top soil agreed well to that measured. Using the model, tritium concentration was predicted in the case that the tritium release rates were doubled.

A Status of Tritium Processing Technologies (트리튬 처리기술 현황)

  • 안도희;김광락;백승우;이민수;임성팔;정흥석
    • Proceedings of the Korean Radioactive Waste Society Conference
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    • pp.172-179
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    • 2003
  • Various type of tritium wastes can be produced from nuclear fuel cycle process satisfying non-proliferation, CANDU reactors, and nuclear industry. Activities of tritium processing in the world were surveyed to develope the processing technologies of tritium wastes. The tritium wastes were classified into gas phase, liquid phase, and organic phase. And the treatment techniques for the tritium wastes are analyzed. Development of tritium processing technologies is essential to finding public acceptance of radioactive wastes and forming a solid foundation to foster the growth of nuclear industry in Korea.

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Prediction of Tritium Release from Wolsong Unit during the WTRF Operation (월성원전 TRF 가동에 따른 삼중수소 방출량 예측)

  • 송규민;이성진;이숙경;손순환;엄희문
    • Proceedings of the Korean Radioactive Waste Society Conference
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    • pp.484-490
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    • 2003
  • The amount of the tritium released from Wolsong units during the WTRF operation is predicted. The profiles of tritium concentration in moderators and PHTs as variation of WTRF service allotment for each Wolsong unit are calculated, and the tritium releases are obtained from these tritium concentration profiles. The tritium concentration in moderator will be decreased down under 10 Ci/kg in 2013 and the yearly tritium release will be reduced below 25% of WTRF start year.

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Tritium Distribution in Leachates from Domestic Solid Waste Landfills (생활폐기물 매립장 침출수의 삼중수소 분포)

  • Park, Soon Dal;Kim, Jung Suk;Joe, Kih Soo;Kim, Jong Gu;Kim, Won Ho
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.251-262
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    • 2004
  • It is for the purpose of investigating the tritium distribution in the leachates, the raw and treated leachates and the condensates of the methane gas, which have occurred from domestic solid waste landfills. Also it aims to measure the tritium distribution level on the colloid size of the leachates, the raw and treated leachates. It was found that the major inorganic contaminants of the leachates were Na, K, Ca, Mg, $NH{_4}^+$-N and $Cl^-$. The mean tritium level of the raw leachates of the investigated 13 landfill sites for 6 months was 17 ~ 1196 TU. It corresponded to a several scores or hundreds of magnitude higher value than that of the normal environmental sample level except for two landfill sites. Also such a high concentration of the tritium was found in the treated leachates and methane gas condensates as well. Nevertheless it is important to emphasize that the tritium level which was found in this research is about 100 times lower than the tritium limit for the drinking water quality. And most of the tritium existed in the dissolved colloid of the leachate of which the colloid size is below $0.45{\mu}m$. Also, according to the tritium analysis results of the leachates after filtration with $0.45{\mu}m$ membrane filter for some landfills, it is likely that some tritium of the leachate would be distributed in a colloid size over $0.45{\mu}m$. In general the relationship between the tritium and other contaminants in the raw leachate was low, but it was relatively high between the tritium and TOC. However, the tritium content in the leachate had no meaningful relationship with the scale, hydrological characteristics and age of the landfill.