• Title, Summary, Keyword: Triticum aestivum

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Plant Regeneration from Single Cell Culture of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (밀(Triticum aestivum L.)의 단세포 배양에 의한 식물체의 재분화)

  • 김시철
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.227-233
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    • 1989
  • Single cells obtained from suspension culture of mature embryo-derived callus in wheat(Triticum aestivum L. cv Jang Kwang) were cultured to regenrated into the plantlet. Cell clusters and embryogenic calluses were efficiently developed from when the single cells clutured on the MS medium supplemented with 10${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ 2,4-D. Upon transfer to hormone-free MS medium containing 10 mg/I AgNO3, embryogenic calluses gave rise to shoots, probably through somatic embryogenesis.

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Allelopathic effects of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) on early seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

  • Iqbal, Muhammad Zafar;Ahmed, Lubna;Shafiq, Muhammad;Athar, Mohammad
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2015
  • A pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of red pepper (Capsicum annuum) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) on seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum). The aqueous extracts treatment of red pepper and coriander showed a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in root, shoot and seedling length, number of leaves and seedling dry weight of wheat (T. aestivum) as compared to control. The inhibitory different effect on growth of wheat (T. aestivum) was directly proportional to the increasing concentration (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%) of aqueous extracts of red pepper and coriander as compared to control treatment (0%). The root, shoot, seedling length and number of leaves of T. aestivum significantly p < 0.05 decreased at 5% concentration of red pepper as compared to control. The root, shoot and seedling growth of T. aestivum was also significantly reduced at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% concentration of coriander as compared to control. The root, shoot and leaves dry weight of T. aestivum at 5% coriander extract treatment concentration decreased as compared to control. The tolerance in seedlings of T. aestivum to red pepper and coriander extract treatment was dose dependent as compared to control. The seedlings of T. aestivum showed low percentage of tolerance to pepper extract treatment than coriander extract treatment.

Chromosome Variation in Suspension Cells Derived from Cultured Immature Embryo of Triticum spp. (밀(Triticum spp.)의 미성숙배로부터의 유도한 현탁 배양세포에서의 염색체 변이)

  • 방재욱
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.189-196
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    • 1990
  • Suspension cell lines have been newly established from the calli derived from the immuature embryo culture of hexapolid (Triticum aestivum var. sicco), tetrapolid (T. durum) and diploid (T. tauchii or Aegilops squarrosa) wheat species. The chromosomal variation in suspension cultured cell lines was examined and old cell line, C82d, established from T. aestivum var. copain was also used. New method using 1-bromonaphthalene for metaphase rapping of suspension cells was developed. Variation in chromosome number was observed among all the suspension lines. Cells with doubled chromosome number and deleted chromosome were also observed. Extensive structural changes in chromosome were found in C82d line. Chromosome aberrations showed loss of chromosome arms and chromosome segment. The mean chromosome number in suspension cells of T. aestivum var. sicco was 40, in C82d line 33, in T. durum 28 and in T. tauchii 14. The stability of chromosome in suspension cells of diploid and tetrapolid wheats was higher than that of hexaploid wheat.

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Triticum aestivum (Wheatgrass) formulation: An alternate treatment for the patients with Thalassemia

  • Desai, TR;Solanki, JK;Buch, Pankaj;Goyal, RK
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.466-476
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    • 2008
  • We have developed the tablet formulation of Triticum aestivum (wheatgrass) and investigated clinically, its effects in patients suffering from b-thalassemia (major) at K. T. Children Hospital, Civil Hospital, Rajkot. The tablets (wheatgrass powder 250 mg.) were given 3 times in a day for 9 months. Blood samples were collected at the start, after 6 months and 9 months and analyzed for various biochemical and hematological parameters. Treatment with wheatgrass formulation for 9 months produced significant decrease in hemoglobin, total RBC, eosinophil and reticulocyte counts. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were significantly increased was significantly increased. The serum ferritin was also significantly decreased. There was no influence on serum magnesium, serum iron and Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS). Our data indicate that treatment with wheatgrass on patients with $\beta$-thalassemia (major) may have beneficial effects in the form of a decrease in ineffective erythropoiesis, stimulation of hemoglobin synthesis in RBC, decrease in iron load and decrease in eosinophil count.

Inhibitory Effect of Triticum aestivum Ethanol Extract on Lipid Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes (3T3-L1 세포에서 소맥엽 에탄올추출물의 지질생성 억제효과)

  • Lee, Sun-Hee;Xin, Mingjie;Luyen, Bui Thi Thuy;Cha, Ji-Yun;Im, Ji-Young;Kwon, Se-Uk;Lim, Sung-Won;Suh, Joo-Won;Kim, Young-Ho;Kim, Dae-Ki;Lee, Young-Mi
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.55 no.6
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    • pp.478-484
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    • 2011
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is known to be frequently associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. We examined the effects of EtOH extracts from Triticum aestivum on lipid accumulation during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to screening the candidate materials in preventing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The lipid level in adipocytes was determined by Oil Red O staining. The treatment of 50% ethanol, but not water and 100% ethanol extracts, from Triticum aestivum at concentration of 0.5 $mg/ml$ inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, revealing no cell toxicity. Thus, the fractions of $CH_2Cl_2$, EtOAc and BuOH were separated from 50% EtOH extract to characterize anti-adipogenic effect. The $CH_2Cl_2$ fraction at concentration of $50{\mu}g/ml$ effectively inhibited the lipid accumulation in the adipocytes compared to those of EtOAc and BuOH at concentration of $50{\mu}g/ml$. The intracellular triglyceride accumulation also was significantly reduced by treatment of $CH_2Cl_2$ fraction in concentration-dependent manner. Western blot analysis showed that the $CH_2Cl_2$ fraction attenuated the intracelluar level of fatty acid synthase(FAS) accompanied by attenuated expression of Peroxidase proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ ($PPAR{\gamma}$) adipogenic transcription factor. These results suggest that $CH_2Cl_2$ fraction from 50% EtOH extract of Triticum aestivum may has the potent anti-adipogenic effects by inhibiting the transactivation of $PPAR{\gamma}$.

Effects of Triticum aestivum sprout on Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in the Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice (소맥엽의 섭취가 Streptozotocin 유발 당뇨 흰쥐에서 혈중 포도당 및 지질에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sun-Hee;Lim, Sung-Won;Lee, Young-Mi;Kang, Chun-Sik;Cheong, Young-Keun;Park, Chul-Soo;Song, Bong-Joon;Kim, Dae-Ki
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.1012-1018
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    • 2010
  • This study investigated the functional effect by diets of Triticum aestivum sprout (TA) on the levels of blood glucose and lipid profiles in streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Diabetes mellitus were induced by STZ intraperitoneal injection (50 mg/kg) into the male Balb/c mice. All mice fed AIN-93 diet for 3 weeks. Mice were divided to 4 groups: normal, diabetic control and two experimental groups (TA 5.0, diet with Triticum aestivum sprout 5.0% w/w; TA 2.5, diet with Triticum aestivum 2.5% w/w). The blood glucose level was decreased by TA intake in diabetic mice in the dose-dependant manner; 21.34% and 35.77% in TA 2.5 and TA 5.0 groups. The weight gain and feed efficiency ratio also were improved by TA intake compared with DM group. The weight gain was increased 1.28 and 1.09 folds in TA 5.0 and TA 2.5 groups, respectively. The weight of organs, including liver and kidney, was reduced but that of spleen and abdominal fat was increased by TA intake. Moreover, TA treatment increased the level of HDL but decreased the level of total cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood of diabetic mice. The blood of HbA1c also was significantly decreased without changing hematocrit by TA treatment compared with DM group. These results indicate the TA intake has the functional effects attenuating blood glucose and plasma lipid levels in insulin-dependent diabetes.

Hot Water Extract of Triticum aestivum L. (Common Wheat) Ameliorates Renal Injury by Inhibiting Apoptosis in a Rat Model of Ischemia/Reperfusion

  • Baek, Hae Sook;Lim, Sun Ha;Ahn, Ki Sung;Lee, Jong Won
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.7-15
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    • 2013
  • Objectives : Interruption and subsequent restoration of blood flow into the kidney result in renal injury. As an approach to preventing the renal injury, we determined the optimal conditions and the underlying mechanisms by which supernatant of hot water extract of ground Triticum aestivum L. (extract) attenuated ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods : One hour after administration of the extract (400 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection, renal I/R injury was generated by clamping the left renal artery in rats after surgical removal of the right kidney, followed by reperfusion. The maximal difference between the vehicle-treated and the extract-treated group under ketamine/xylazine or enflurane anesthetization was assessed at varying periods of ischemia (30-45 min) and reperfusion (3-48 hr), based on the renal function assessed with serum creatinine levels, tissue injury with hematoxylin/eosin staining, and apoptosis with terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining. Results : Enflurane anesthetization with 40 min of ischemia and 24 hr of reperfusion was identified to be the optimal condition, under which condition serum creatinine levels and tubular damage in the extract-treated group were significantly reduced compared with those in the vehicle-treated group ($1.3{\pm}0.2$ versus $2.7{\pm}0.3$ mg/dL, P < 0.01, and average score $1.8{\pm}0.1$ versus $3.5{\pm}0.3$, P < 0.01, respectively). These beneficial effects were mediated by inhibition of apoptotic cascades through attenuation of renal tissue malondialdehyde levels, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 levels. Conclusions : The extract conferred renal protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats by scavenging reactive oxygen species and consequently blocking apoptotic cascades, plausibly augmented by enflurane protection.

Inhibitory Effects of Triticum aestivum L. Extracts on Liver Lipid Accumulation in High Fat-Fed Mice (고지방식이 섭취 마우스의 간 조직의 지질 축적에 대한 밀순 추출물의 억제 효과)

  • Lee, Sun-Hee;Lim, Sung-Won;Lee, Young-Mi;Seo, Joo-Won;Kim, Dae-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.309-316
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    • 2011
  • Fatty liver disease refers to a range of disorders associated with fatty liver, which occur in excessive eating, evident infection or significant consumption of alcohol. This study was to investigate the effects of water and ethanol extracts of Triticum aestivum young leaf on lipid metabolism and accumulation in liver of mice fed with high-fat diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into normal diet group, high fat diet (HFD) group, high fat diet group administrated with 200 mg/kg/day of T. aestivum water extract (HFD-TAWE) and high-fat group administrated with 200 mg/kg/day of T. aestivum ethanol extract (HFD-TAEE). TAWE and TAEE were administrated orally for 5 weeks once at the same time point. Both TAWE and TAEE significantly reduced body weight, food intake and liver tissue weight, which were augmented in high fat-fed mice. The serum levels of triglyceride, total and LDL-cholesterol also were significantly attenuated in both HFD-TAWE and HFD-TAEE groups compared to the HFD group. Moreover, administration of HFD-TAWE or HFD-TAEE reduced the lipid accumulation in liver tissue of mice fed with high fat diet. Levels of total lipids and triglyceride in liver tissues also was significantly reduced in HFDTAWE and HFD-TAEE groups compared to HFD group. The activities of serum ALT and AST revealed in HFD group were remarkedly decreased in HFD-TAEE groups. These results indicate that both water and ethanol extract of T. aestivum may improve the lipid accumulation in liver as well as lipid metabolism in serum, and that in particular, the ethanol extract of T. aestivum may has the potent anti-hyperlipidemic effect, suggesting that it may be a useful candidate for the therapy preventing fatty liver diseases.

Carbonized grains excavated at Nook-Do (늑도에서 출토된 탄화곡)

  • Heu M.H.;Suh H.S.;Lee J.H.;Ahn S.H.
    • KOMUNHWA
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    • no.57
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    • pp.25-39
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    • 2001
  • Carbonized wheat(Triticum aestivum), barley(Horudeum vulgare) and rice (Oryza sativa) grams were excavated at the AD 3C. old site in Nook-Do Kyungsang-South province. By the sieve floating method 180 grains of wheat, 4 grains of barley and 6 grains of ric

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Metabolismus von 14C-Chlorsulfuron in Verschieden Empfindlichen Kulturpflanzen und Unkrautern (감수성(感受性)이 다른 작물(作物)과 잡초(雜草)에 있어서 Chlorsulfuron 의 대사작용(代謝作用))

  • Kang, Byeung-Hoa
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.115-124
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    • 1984
  • Chlorsulfuron (chemical name : 2-Chloro-N-(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-aminocarbonyl-benzenesulfonamide) is a herbicidally active ingredient which shows effect against susceptible weeds already at such low rates like 5-20g active ingredient per hectare. In the here reported trials metabolism in several sensitive cultivated plants and weeds have been analysed using ^{14}C-labelled active ingredient. The uptake of chlorsulfuron by leaves or the root system is good in all plants species, and translocation takes place either symplasmatically or apoplasmatically. Metabolism takes place in all investigated plant species by development of hydrophile suhstances in roots and shoots. Decomposition of chlorsulfuron in roots and shoots of tolerant species (Triticum aestivum and Hordeum vulgare) to polare substances takes place quantitatively faster and quicker than in susceptible species (Beta vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla).

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