• Title, Summary, Keyword: Triptolide

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Synthesis, Characterization and In Vitro Evaluation of Triptolide-lysozyme Conjugate for Renal Targeting Delivery of Triptolide

  • Zheng, Qiang;Gong, Tao;Sun, Xun;Zhang, Zhi-Rong
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.29 no.12
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    • pp.1164-1170
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    • 2006
  • A triptolide-lysozyme (TP-LZM) conjugate was synthesized to achieve renal specific delivery and to reduce the side effects of triptolide. Triptolide was coupled to lysozyme through succinic via an ester bond with an average coupling degree of 1 mol triptolide per 1 mol lysozyme. The lysozyme can specifically accumulate in the proximal tubular cells of the kidney, making it a potential carrier for targeting drugs to the kidney. The structure of triptolide succinate (TPS) was confirmed by IR, $^{1}H-NMR$, MS and UV. The concentrations of triptolide in various samples were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In this study, the physicochemical and stability profiles of TP-LZM under various conditions were investgated the stability and releasing profiles of triptolide-lysozyme (TP-LZM) under various conditions. In vitro release trails showed triptolide-lysozyme was relatively stable in plasma (less than 30% of free triptolide released) and could release triptolide quickly in lysosome (more than 80% of free triptolide released) at $37^{\circ}C$ for 24 h. In addition, the biological activities of the conjugate on normal rat kidney proximal tubular cells (NRK52E) were also tested. The conjugate can effectively reduce NO production in the medium of NRK52E induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but with much lower toxicity. These studies suggest the possibility to promote curative effect and reduce its extra-renal toxicity of triptolide by TP-LZM conjugate.

Triptolide-induced Transrepression of IL-8 NF-${\kappa}B$ in Lung Epithelial Cells (폐상피세포에서 Triptolide에 의한 NF-${\kappa}B$ 의존성 IL-8 유전자 전사활성 억제기전)

  • Jee, Young-Koo;Kim, Yoon-Seup;Yun, Se-Young;Kim, Yong-Ho;Choi, Eun-Kyoung;Park, Jae-Seuk;Kim, Keu-Youl;Chea, Gi-Nam;Kwak, Sahng-June;Lee, Kye-Young
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.52-66
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    • 2001
  • Background : NF-${\kappa}B$ is the most important transcriptional factor in IL-8 gene expression. Triptolide is a new compound that recently has been shown to inhibit NF-${\kappa}B$ activation. The purpose of this study is to investigate how triptolide inhibits NF-${\kappa}B$-dependent IL-8 gene transcription in lung epithelial cells and to pilot the potential for the clinical application of triptolide in inflammatory lung diseases. Methods : A549 cells were used and triptolide was provided from Pharmagenesis Company (Palo Alto, CA). In order to examine NF-${\kappa}B$-dependent IL-8 transcriptional activity, we established stable A549 IL-8-NF-${\kappa}B$-luc. cells and performed luciferase assays. IL-8 gene expression was measured by RT-PCR and ELISA. A Western blot was done for the study of $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation and an electromobility shift assay was done to analyze NF-${\kappa}B$ DNA binding. p65 specific transactivation was analyzed by a cotransfection study using a Gal4-p65 fusion protein expression system. To investigate the involvement of transcriptional coactivators, we perfomed a transfection study with CBP and SRC-1 expression vectors. Results : We observed that triptolide significantly suppresses NF-${\kappa}B$-dependent IL-8 transcriptional activity induced by IL-$1{\beta}$ and PMA. RT-PCR showed that triptolide represses both IL-$1{\beta}$ and PMA-induced IL-8 mRNA expression and ELISA confirmed this triptolide-mediated IL-8 suppression at the protein level. However, triptolide did not affect $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation and NF-$_{\kappa}B$ DNA binding. In a p65-specific transactivation study, triptolide significantly suppressed Gal4-p65T Al and Gal4-p65T A2 activity suggesting that triptolide inhibits NF-${\kappa}B$ activation by inhibiting p65 transactivation. However, this triptolide-mediated inhibition of p65 transactivation was not rescued by the overexpression of CBP or SRC-1, thereby excluding the role of transcriptional coactivators. Conclusions : Triptolide is a new compound that inhibits NF-${\kappa}B$-dependent IL-8 transcriptional activation by inhibiting p65 transactivation, but not by an $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$-dependent mechanism. This suggests that triptolide may have a therapeutic potential for inflammatory lung diseases.

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Synergism of Cytotoxicity Effects of Triptolide and Artesunate Combination Treatment in Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines

  • Liu, Yao;Cui, Yun-Fu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.5243-5248
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    • 2013
  • Background: Triptolide, extracted from the herb Tripteryglum wilfordii Hook.f that has long been used as a natural medicine in China, has attracted much interest for its anti-cancer effects against some kinds of tumours in recent years. Artesunate, extracted from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua, has proven to be effective and safe as an anti-malarial drug that possesses anticancer potential. The present study attempted to clarify if triptolide enhances artesunate-induced cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Methods: In vitro, to test synergic actions, cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed after treatment of pancreatic cancer cell lines with the two agents singly or in combination. The molecular mechanisms of apoptotic effects were also explored using qRT-PCR and Western blotting. In vivo, a tumor xenograft model was established in nude mice, for assessment of inhibitory effects of triptolide and artesunate. Results: We could show that the combination of triptolide and artesunate could inhibit pancreatic cancer cell line growth, and induce apoptosis, accompanied by expression of HSP 20 and HSP 27, indicating important roles in the synergic effects. Moreover, tumor growth was decreased with triptolide and artesunate synergy. Conclusion: Our result indicated that triptolide and artesunate in combination at low concentrations can exert synergistic anti-tumor effects in pancreatic cancer cells with potential clinical applications.

Analgesic Effects of Triptolide and N-nitro-L-arginine Methyl Ester in Rat's Temporomandibular Joint Pain Model (흰 쥐의 측두하악관절 통증모델에서 Triptolide와 N-nitro-L-arginine Methyl Ester의 통증조절효과)

  • Kim, Yun-Kyung;Lee, Min-Kyung
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.800-806
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether intracisternal administrations of triptolide and N-nitro-L-arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) are involved in the regulation of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain. The TMJ pain was induced by the injection of 5% formalin ($30{\mu}l$) into TMJ capsule of rats. The pain behavioral responses was recorded the number of grooming or scratching on the left TMJ area for 9 successive 5 minutes intervals. Triptolide and L-NAME were administrated intracisternally 10 minutes before formalin injection. The intra-articular injection of formalin produced a biphasic pattern of pain response (first phase: 0~10 minutes and second phase: 11~45 minutes). The intracisternal administration of triptolide ($1{\mu}g/10{\mu}l$) and L-NAME ($0.1{\mu}g/10{\mu}l$) suppressed the TMJ pain behavior in each experiment. Co-administration of two drugs was shown the enhanced effect than the analgesic effect by single-administration of triptolide ($1{\mu}g/10{\mu}l$). The triptolide could be a useful analgesic agent for the treatment of TMJ pain, and it is expected to reduce the substantial amount of it via co-administration of synthetic chemical compound and natural products.

Establishment of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. Hairy Root Culture and Optimization of Its Culture Conditions for the Production of Triptolide and Wilforine

  • Zhu, Chuanshu;Miao, Guopeng;Guo, Jia;Huo, Yanbo;Zhang, Xing;Xie, Jiahua;Feng, Juntao
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.823-834
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    • 2014
  • In order to solve the shortage of natural Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. plant resource for the production of the important secondary metabolites triptolide and wilforine, hairy roots were induced from its root calli by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Induced hairy roots not only could be maintained and grown well in hormone-free half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium but also could produce sufficient amounts of both triptolide and wilforine. Although hairy roots produced approximately 15% less triptolide than adventitious roots and 10% less wilforine than naturally grown roots, they could grow fast and could be a suitable system for producing both secondary metabolites compared with other tissues. Addition of $50{\mu}M$ methyl jasmonate (MeJA) could slightly affect hairy root growth, but dramatically stimulated the production of both triptolide and wilforine, whereas $50{\mu}M$ salicylic acid had no apparent effect on hairy root growth with slightly stimulatory effects on the production of both secondary metabolites. Addition of precursor nicotinic acid, isoleucine, or aspartic acid at the concentration of $500{\mu}M$ had varying effects on hairy root growth, but none of them had stimulatory effects on triptolide production, and only the former two had slightly beneficial effects on wilforine production. The majority of triptolide produced was secreted into the medium, whereas most of the produced wilforine was retained inside of hairy roots. Our studies provide a promising way to produce triptolide and wilforine in T. wilfordii hairy root cultures combined with MeJA treatment.

Combined Effects of Curcumin and Triptolide on an Ovarian Cancer Cell Line

  • Cai, Ying-Ying;Lin, Wei-Ping;Li, Ai-Ping;Xu, Jian-Yang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.4267-4271
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    • 2013
  • Background: As natural medicines in Asia, curcumin and triptolide extracted from different drug plants have proven to possess anticancer potential and widely used for anti-cancer research. The present study attempted to clarify that curcumin and triptolide synergistically suppress ovarian cancer cell growth in vitro. Methods: To test synergic effects, cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed after curcumin and triptolide combination treatment on ovarian cancer cell lines. Synergistic effects on apoptosis induction were determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss assay and flow cytometry analysis. Critical regulators of cell proliferation and apoptosis related were analyzed by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Results: We showed that the combination of curcumin and triptolide could synergistically inhibit ovarian cancer cell growth, and induce apoptosis, which is accompanied by HSP27 and HSP70, indicating that HSP27 and HSP70 play the important role in the synergic effect. Conclusions: From the result present here, curcumin and triptolide combination with lower concentration have a synergistic anti-tumor effect on ovarian cancer and which will have a good potential in clinical applications.

Triptolide Mimics the Effect of Dietary Restriction on Lifespan and Retards Age-related Diseases in Caenorhabditis elegans (트립톨라이드가 식이제한에 의한 수명연장과 노화관련 질환에 미치는 영향)

  • Beak, Sun-Mi;Park, Sang-Kyu
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.931-937
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    • 2018
  • Triptolide is a compound found in Tripterygium wilfordii and reported to have an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. A previous study shows that the dietary supplementation with triptolide increases resistance to environmental stressors, including oxidative stress, heat shock, and ultraviolet irradiation, and extends lifespan in C. elegans. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanisms involved in the lifespan-extending effect of triptolide. The effect of triptolide on age-related diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease, was also examined using animal disease models. The longevity phenotype conferred by triptolide was not observed in the eat-2 mutant, a well-known genetic model of dietary restriction, while there was an additional lifespan extension with triptolide in age-1 and clk-1 mutants. The long lifespan of age-1 mutant is resulted from a reduced insulin/IGF-1-like signaling and the clk-1 mutant lives longer than wild-type due to dysfunction of mitochondrial electron transport chain reaction. The effect of dietary restriction using bacterial dilution on lifespan also overlapped with that of triptolide. The toxicity of high glucose diet or transgenic human amyloid beta gene was significantly suppressed by the supplementation with triptolide. These findings suggest that triptolide can mimic the effect of dietary restriction on lifespan and onset of age-related diseases. We conclude that triptolide can be a strong candidate for the development of dietary restriction mimetics.

The Inhibition Effect of Triptolide on Human Endometrial Carcinoma Cell Line HEC-1B: a in vitro and in vivo Studies

  • Ni, Jing;Wu, Qiang;Sun, Zhi-Hua;Zhong, Jian;Cai, Yu;Huang, Xin-En
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.4571-4576
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    • 2015
  • Background: To investigate the inhibitory effect and the underlying mechanism of triptolide on cultured human endometrial carcinoma HEC-1B cells and corresponding xenograft. Materials and Methods: For in vitro studies, the inhibition effect of proliferation on HEC-1B cell by triptolide was determined by MTT assay; cell cycle and apoptosis of the triptolide-treated and untreated cells were detected by flow cytometry. For in vivo studies, a xenograft tumor model of human endometrial carcinoma was established using HEC-1B cells, then the tumor-bearing mice were treated with high, medium, and low-dose ($8{\mu}g$, $4{\mu}g$ and $2{\mu}g/day$) triptolide or cisplatin at $40{\mu}g/day$ or normal saline as control. The mice were treated for 10-15 days, during which body weight of the mice and volume of the xenograft were weighted. Then expression of Bcl-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was analyzed by SABC immunohistochemistry. Results: Cell growth was significantly inhibited by triptolide as observed by an inverted phase contrast microscope; the results of MTT assay indicated that triptolide inhibits HEC-1B cell proliferation in a dose and time-dependent manner; flow cytometry showed that low concentration (5 ng/ml) of triptolide induces cell cycle arrest of HEC-1B cells mainly at S phase, while higher concentration (40 or 80 ng/ml) induced cell cycle arrest of HEC-1B cells mainly at G2/M phase, and apoptosis of the cells was also induced. High-dose triptolide showed a similar tumor-inhibitory effect as cisplatin (-50%); high-dose triptolide significantly inhibited Bcl-2 and VEGF expression in the xenograft model compared to normal saline control (P<0.05). Conclusions: triptolide inhibits HEC-1B cell growth both in vitro and in mouse xenograft model. Cell cycle of the tumor cells was arrested at S and G2/M phase, and the mechanism may involve induction of tumor cell apoptosis and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis.

Triptolide Inhibits Histone Methyltransferase EZH2 and Modulates the Expression of Its Target Genes in Prostate Cancer Cells

  • Tamgue, Ousman;Chai, Cheng-Sen;Hao, Lin;Zambe, John-Clotaire Daguia;Huang, Wei-Wei;Zhang, Bin;Lei, Ming;Wei, Yan-Ming
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5663-5669
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    • 2013
  • The histone methyltransferase EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2) plays critical roles in prostate cancer (PCa) development and is a potential target for PCa treatment. Triptolide possesses anti-tumor activity, but it is unknown whether its therapeutic effect relates with EZH2 in PCa. Here we described EZH2 as a target for Triptolide in PCa cells. Our data showed that Triptolide suppressed PCa cell growth and reduced the expression of EZH2. Overexpression of EZH2 attenuated the Triptolide induced cell growth inhibition. Moreover, Triptolide treatment of PC-3 cells resulted in elevated mRNA levels of target genes (ADRB2, CDH1, CDKN2A and DAB2IP) negatively regulated by EZH2 as well as reduced mRNA levelsan of EZH2 positively regulated gene (cyclin D1). Our findings suggest the PCa cell growth inhibition mediated by Triptolide might be associated with downregulation of EZH2 expression and the subsequent modulation of target genes.

Enhanced Anti-tumor Efficacy of Aspirin Combined with Triptolide in Cervical Cancer Cells

  • Chen, Rong-Hui;Tian, Yong-Jie
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.3041-3044
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    • 2013
  • Background: The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase enzymes. Recent studies have shown that aspirin could be used as an anti-tumor drug. Triptolide, the major compound extracted from the Chinese herb Tripteryglum wilfordii Hook.f, has now been shown that it can inhibit tumor growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the anti-tumor efficiency of aspirin and triptolide in cervical cancer cells. Methods: Viability of cervical cancer cell lines was assessed by the MTT method at various concentrations of aspirin and triptolide. Siha and HeLa cell apoptotic analysis was performed by flow cytometry. Real time-PCR and Western Blotting were used to analyze the expression of Bcl-2/Bax, Cyclin D1 and p16. Results: Viability in the combination group was significantly decreased as compared with either drug used alone. Expression change of Bcl-2/Bax, CyclinD1 and p16 appeared to play an important role in the synergistic killing effect on cervical cancer cell apoptosis. Conclusion: Aspirin and triptolide combination treatment may have synergistic anti-tumor effects on cervical cancer cells.