• Title, Summary, Keyword: Triple negative breast cancers

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Different Prognostic Factors Correlate with Bcl-2 Expression among Triple Negative and Non-Triple Negative Breast Cancers

  • El-Mageed, Amal Abd El-Hafez Abd;Shawky Mohamed, Abd El-Aty;Elesawy, Basem Hasan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.1037-1041
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    • 2013
  • Background: Prognostication of breast cancer using clinico-pathologic variables, although useful, remains imperfect. Recent research has focused on finding new markers of prognosis using gene expression profiling. Panels of proteins assessed by immunohistochemistry might also be useful in this regard. This study focused on Bcl-2 protein expression in triple-negative (TNBC) and non- triple-negative breast cancer (non-TNBC) with correlation to clinico-pathologic variables. Materials and methods: We analyzed Bcl-2 expression in 77 women with primary breast carcinoma divided into two groups; triple-negative and non- triple-negative according to expression of estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptors (Her2/neu). Bcl-2 expression was assessed in relation to age, histo-pathological subtype, grade, nodal status and tumor size. Results: Bcl-2 was expressed in 74% of triple-negative breast cancers and 70% of non- triple-negative cancers. In TNBC, expression was significantly correlated with invasive ductal subtype, while in non-TNBC it was significantly correlated with age and negative nodal status. In both groups higher Bcl-2 expression associated with favourable prognostic factors in breast cancer, but no significant statistical correlations were found. Conclusions: Frequency of Bcl-2 expression does not differ between TNBC and non-TNBC, but different prognostic factors correlate with Bcl-2 in the two cases.

Response of Triple Negative Breast Cancer to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Correlation between Ki-67 Expression and Pathological Response

  • Elnemr, Gamal M;El-Rashidy, Ahmed H;Osman, Ahmed H;Issa, Lotfi F;Abbas, Osama A;Al-Zahrani, Abdullah S;El-Seman, Sheriff M;Mohammed, Amrallah A;Hassan, Abdelghani A
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.807-813
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    • 2016
  • Triple-negative breast cancers constitute about 15% of all cases, but despite their higher response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the tumors are very aggressive and associated with a poor prognosis as well as a higher risk of early recurrence. This study was retrospectively performed on 101 patients with stage II and III invasive breast cancer who received 6-8 cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Out of the total, 23 were in the triple negative breast cancer subgroup. Nuclear Ki-67 expression in both the large cohort group (n=101) and triple negative breast cancer subgroup (n=23) and its relation to the pathological response were evaluated. The purpose of the study was to identify the predictive value of nuclear protein Ki-67 expression among patients with invasive breast cancers, involving the triple negative breast cancer subgroup, treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy in correlation to the rate of pathological complete response. The proliferation marker Ki-67 expression was highest in the triple negative breast cancer subgroup. No appreciable difference in the rate of Ki-67 expression in triple negative breast cancer subgroup using either a cutoff of 14% or 35%. Triple negative breast cancer subgroup showed lower rates of pathological complete response. Achievement of pathological complete response was significantly correlated with smaller tumor size and higher Ki-67 expression. The majority of triple negative breast cancer cases achieved pathological partial response. The study concluded that Ki-67 is a useful tool to predict chemosensitivity in the setting of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for invasive breast cancer but not for the triple negative breast cancer subgroup.

Immunohistochemical Expression of B Cell Lymphoma-2 with Clinicopathological Correlation in Triple Negative Breast Cancers in Northern Pakistan

  • Zubair, Muhammad;Hashmi, Shoaib Naiyar;Afzal, Saeed;Muhammad, Iqbal;Din, Hafeez Ud;Ahmed, Rabia
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3619-3622
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    • 2016
  • Background: Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are high grade aggressive tumors generally with a poor prognosis, not responding to hormonal and anti Her2 Neu therapy. Expression of the antiapoptotic B cell lymphoma 2 gene (Bcl-2) is associated with low grade, slowly proliferating hormone receptor positive tumors with improved survival. Anti Bcl2 agents can be used as alternative targeted therapy in triple negative cancers. Materials and Methods: The objective of this study was to determine the immunohistochemical expression of Bcl2 in triple negative breast cancers and any correlation with clinicopathological variables in Northern Pakistan. Results: All 52 patients were females, aged between 28 and 80 years(average $48.0{\pm}12.1$). 28 cases (53.8%) were positive for Bcl2, this being associated with low grade invasive ductal carcinomas, lymph node metastasis and lymphovascular invasion. Conclusions: Bcl-2 may be an important prognostic factor and its expression might be used for targeted therapy using Anti Bcl2 drugs.

Imaging Surveillance for Survivors of Breast Cancer: Correlation between Cancer Characteristics and Method of Detection

  • Chu, A Jung;Chang, Jung Min;Cho, Nariya;Moon, Woo Kyung
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.192-197
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The aim of our study was to investigate the characteristics of primary and recurrent breast cancers and the correlation between cancer subtypes and detection modes. Methods: Between 2003 and 2013, 147 cases of recurrent breast cancer in 137 women (mean age, $45.30{\pm}10.78years$) were identified via an annual clinical examination using radiological studies among 6,169 patients with a breast cancer history (mean followup period, $13.26{\pm}1.78years$). Clinical, radiological, and pathological findings including immunohistochemistry findings of primary and recurrent cancers were reviewed. The size of the tumor in primary and recurrent cancers, disease-free survival, methods of surgery, and the recurrence detection modalities were analyzed with respect to the breast cancer subtype. Results: Ipsilateral and contralateral in-breast recurrence occurred in 105, 21 had axillary lymph node recurrence, and 21 had chest wall recurrences. The subtypes of the primary cancers were hormone receptor (HR) positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative (HR+HER2-) in 57, HER2 positive (HER2+) in 39, and triple-negative type in 51, and the recurrent cancers in each subtype showed the same type as the primary cancer in 84.3% of cases. In the in-breast recurrent cancers, the HR+HER2- cancers were most frequently detected using ultra-sonography (15/43) followed by mammography (MG) (11/43). The HER2+ recurrent cancers were most commonly detected using MG (14/31, 45.2%), whereas triple-negative type recurrent cancers most commonly presented as symptomatic masses (15/31) (p=0.028). Conclusion: Most recurrent breast cancers showed the same cancer subtype as the primary tumor, and recurrent breast cancer subtypes correlated with the detection modality. Imaging surveillance of survivors of breast cancer might be more beneficial in cases of HR+HER2- type breast cancer or HER2+ type breast cancer than in cases of triple-negative type breast cancer.

Outcomes of Triple-Negative Versus Non-Triple-Negative Breast Cancers Managed with Breast-Conserving Therapy

  • Bhatti, Abu Bakar Hafeez;Khan, Amina Iqbal;Siddiqui, Neelam;Muzaffar, Nargis;Syed, Aamir Ali;Shah, Mazhar Ali;Jamshed, Arif
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.2577-2581
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    • 2014
  • Background: Triple negative breast cancer is associated with aggressive behavior and high risk of local and regional failure. Aggressive surgical intervention is considered suitable. This makes role of breast conserving therapy (BCT) debatable in these patients. The objective of this study was to compare outcome of BCT for triple negative versus non-triple negative breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients who underwent breast conserving therapy from 1999 to 2009 at Shaukat Khanum Cancer Hospital and had complete receptor status information were extracted. Patients were divided into triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and non-TNBC. Patient characteristics, medical treatment modalities and adverse events were compared. Expected five year locoregional recurrence free, disease free and overall survival was calculated. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify independent predictors of outcome. Results: A total of 194 patients with TNBC and 443 with non-TNBC were compared. Significant difference was present for age at presentation (p<0.0001), family history (p=0.005), grade (p<0.0001) and use of hormonal therapy (p<0.0001). The number of locoregional failures, distant failures and mortalities were not significantly different. No significant difference was present in 5 year locoregional recurrence free (96% vs 92%, p=0.3), disease free (75% vs 74%, p=0.7) and overall survival (78% vs 83%, p=0.2). On multivariate analysis, tumor size, nodal involvement and hormonal treatment were independent predictors of negative events. Conclusions: Breast conserving therapy has comparable outcomes for triple negative and non-triple negative breast cancers.

ER81-shRNA Inhibits Growth of Triple-negative Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MDA-MB-231 In Vivo and in Vitro

  • Chen, Yue;Zou, Hong;Yang, Li-Ying;Li, Yuan;Wang, Li;Hao, Yan;Yang, Ju-Lun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.2385-2392
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    • 2012
  • The lack of effective treatment targets for triple-negative breast cancers make them unfitted for endocrine or HER2 targeted therapy, and their prognosis is poor. Transcription factor ER81, a downstream gene of the HER2, is highly expressed in breast cancer lines, breast atypical hyperplasia and primary breast cancers including triple-negative examples. However, whether and how ER81 affects breast cancer carcinogenesis have remained elusive. We here assessed influence on a triple-negative cell line. ER81-shRNA was employed to silence ER81 expression in the MDA-MB-231 cell line, and MTT, colony-forming assays, and flow cytometry were used to detect cell proliferation, colony-forming capability, cell cycle distribution, and cell apoptosis in vitro. MDA-MB-231 cells stably transfected with ER81-shRNA were inoculated into nude mice, and growth inhibition of the cells was observed in vivo. We found that ER81 mRNA and protein expression in MDA-MB-231 cells was noticeably reduced by ER81-shRNA, and that cell proliferation and clonality were decreased significantly. ER81-shRNA further increased cell apoptosis and the residence time in $G_0/G_1$ phase, while delaying tumor-formation and growth rate in nude mice. It is concluded that ER81 may play an important role in the progression of breast cancer and may be a potentially valuable target for therapy, especially for triple negative breast cancer.

Treatment outcome in patients with triple negative early stage breast cancers compared with other molecular subtypes

  • Kim, Ja Young;Chang, Sei-Kyung;Park, Heily;Lee, Bo-Mi;Shin, Hyun Soo
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.124-131
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: To determine whether triple negative (TN) early stage breast cancers have poorer survival rates compared with other molecular types. Materials and Methods: Between August 2000 and July 2006, patients diagnosed with stage I, II early stage breast cancers, in whom all three markers (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor [HER]-2) were available and treated with modified radical mastectomy or breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy, were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of 446 patients, 94 (21.1%) were classified as TN, 57 (12.8%) as HER-2 type, and 295 (66.1%) as luminal. TN was more frequently associated with young patients younger than 35 years old (p = 0.002), higher histologic grade (p < 0.0001), and nuclear (p < 0.0001). The median follow-up period was 78 months (range, 4 to 130 months). There were 9 local relapses (2.0%), 15 nodal (3.4%), 40 distant metastases (9.0%), and 33 deaths (7.4%) for all patients. The rates of 5-year OS, DFS, LFS, and DMFS for all patients were 95.5%, 89.9%, 95.4%, and 91.7%, respectively. There were no significant differences in OS, DFS, LFS, and DMFS between triple negative and other subtypes (p > 0.05). Conclusion: We found that patients with TN early stage breast cancers had no difference in survival rates compared with other molecular subtypes. Prospective study in homogeneous treatment group will need for a prognosis of TN early stage breast cancer.

Triple Negative Breast Cancer

  • Cetin, Idil;Topcul, Mehmet
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.2427-2431
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    • 2014
  • Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC), characterized by absence of the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and lack of overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), have a poor prognosis. To overcome therapy limitations of TNBC, various new approaches are needed. This mini-review focuses on discovery of new targets and drugs which might offer new hope for TNBC patients.

Clinicopathological Features of Indonesian Breast Cancers with Different Molecular Subtypes

  • Widodo, Irianiwati;Dwianingsih, Ery Kus;Triningsih, Ediati;Utoro, Totok;Soeripto, Soeripto
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.6109-6113
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    • 2014
  • Background: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with molecular subtypes that have biological distinctness and different behavior. They are classified into luminal A, luminal B, Her-2 and triple negative/basal-like molecular subtypes. Most of breast cancers reported in Indonesia are already large size, with high grade or late stage but the clinicopathological features of different molecular subtypes are still unclear. They need to be better clarified to determine proper treatment and prognosis. Aim: To elaborate the clinicopathological features of molecular subtypes of breast cancers in Indonesian women. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of 84 paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer samples from Dr. Sardjito General Hospital in Central Java, Indonesia was performed. Expression of ER, PR, Her-2 and Ki-67 was analyzed to classify molecular subtypes of breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. The relation of clinicopathological features of breast cancers with molecular subtypes of luminal A, luminal B, Her-2 and triple negative/basal-like were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-Square test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Case frequency of luminal A, Luminal B, Her-2+ and triple negative/basal-like subtypes were 38.1%, 16.7%, 20.2% and 25%, respectively. Significant difference was found in breast cancer molecular subtypes in regard to age, histological grade, lymph node status and staging. However it showed insignificant result in regard to tumor size. Luminal A subtype of breast cancer was commonly found in >50 years old women (p:0.028), low grade cancer (p:0.09), negative lymph node metastasis (p:0.034) and stage III (p:0.017). Eventhough the difference was insignificant, luminal A subtype breast cancer was mostly found in small size breast cancer (p:0.129). Her-2+ subtype breast cancer was more commonly diagnosed with large size, positive lymph node metastasis and poor grade. Triple negative/basal-like cancer was mostly diagnosed among <50 years old women. Conclusions: This study suggests that immunohistochemistry-based subtyping is essential to classify breast carcinoma into subtypes that vary in clinicopathological features, implying different therapeutic options and prognosis for each subtype.

MRI Findings of Triple Negative Breast Cancer: A Comparison with Non-Triple Negative Breast Cancer (삼중음성 유방암의 자기공명영상 소견: 비삼중음성 유방암과의 비교)

  • Choi, Jae-Jeong;Kim, Sung-Hun;Cha, Eun-Suk;Kang, Bong-Joo;Lee, Ji-Hye;Lee, So-Yeon;Jeong, Seung-Hee;Yim, Hyeon-Woo;Song, Byung-Joo
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.95-102
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    • 2010
  • Purpose : To evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinicopathological features of triple negative breast cancer, and compare them with those of non-triple negative breast cancer. Materials and Methods : This study included 231 pathologically confirmed breast cancers from January 2007 to May 2008. We retrospectively reviewed the MRI findings according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon: mass or non-mass type, mass shape, mass margin, non-mass distribution, and enhancement pattern. Histologic type, histologic grade, and the results for epidermal growth factor receptor, p53, and Ki 67 were reviewed. Results : Of 231 patients, 43(18.6%) were triple negative breast cancer. Forty triple negative breast cancers (93.0%) were mass-type lesion on MRI. A round or oval or lobular shape (p=0.006) and rim enhancement (p=0.004) were significantly more in triple negative breast cancer than non- triple negative breast cancer. In contrast, irregular shape (p=0.006) and spiculated margins (p=0.032) were significantly more in non-triple negative breast cancer. Old age (p=0.019), high histologic grade (p<0.0001), EGFR positivity (p<0.0001), p53 overexpression (p=0.038), and Ki 67 expression (<0.0001) were significantly associated with the triple negative breast cancer. Conclusion : MRI finding may be helpful for differentiation between triple negative and non-triple negative breast cancer.