• Title, Summary, Keyword: Triple negative breast cancer

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Mouse models of breast cancer in preclinical research

  • Park, Mi Kyung;Lee, Chang Hoon;Lee, Ho
    • Laboraroty Animal Research
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.160-165
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    • 2018
  • Breast cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death among woman, worldwide, despite advances in identifying novel targeted therapies and the development of treating strategies. Classification of clinical subtypes (ER+, PR+, HER2+, and TNBC (Triple-negative)) increases the complexity of breast cancers, which thus necessitates further investigation. Mouse models used in breast cancer research provide an essential approach to examine the mechanisms and genetic pathway in cancer progression and metastasis and to develop and evaluate clinical therapeutics. In this review, we summarize tumor transplantation models and genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of breast cancer and their applications in the field of human breast cancer research and anti-cancer drug development. These models may help to improve the knowledge of underlying mechanisms and genetic pathways, as well as creating approaches for modeling clinical tumor subtypes, and developing innovative cancer therapy.

Clinicopathological Characteristics of Triple Negative Breast Cancer at a Tertiary Care Hospital in India

  • Dogra, Atika;Doval, Dinesh Chandra;Sardana, Manjula;Chedi, Subhash Kumar;Mehta, Anurag
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10577-10583
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    • 2015
  • Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), characterized by the lack of expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, is typically associated with a poor prognosis. The majority of TNBCs show the expression of basal markers on gene expression profiling and most authors accept TNBC as basal-like (BL) breast cancer. However, a smaller fraction lacks a BL phenotype despite being TNBC. The literature is silent on non-basal-like (NBL) type of TNBC. The present study was aimed at defining behavioral differences between BL and NBL phenotypes. Objectives: i) Identify the TNBCs and categorize them into BL and NBL breast cancer. ii) Examine the behavioral differences between two subtypes. iii) Observe the pattern of treatment failure among TNBCs. Materials and Methods: All TNBC cases during January 2009-December 2010 were retrieved. The subjects fitting the inclusion criteria of study were differentiated into BL and NBL phenotypes using surrogate immunohistochemistry with three basal markers $34{\beta}E12$, c-Kit and EGFR as per the algorithm defined by Nielsen et al. The detailed data of subjects were collated from clinical records. The comparison of clinicopathological features between two subgroups was done using statistical analyses. The pattern of treatment failure along with its association with prognostic factors was assessed. Results: TNBC constituted 18% of breast cancer cases considered in the study. The BL and NBL subtypes accounted for 81% and 19% respectively of the TNBC group. No statistically significant association was seen between prognostic parameters and two phenotypes. Among patients with treatment failure, 19% were with BL and 15% were with NBL phenotype. The mean disease free survival (DFS) in groups BL and NBL was 30.0 and 37.9 months respectively, while mean overall survival (OS) was 31.93 and 38.5 months respectively. Treatment failure was significantly associated with stage (p=.023) among prognostic factors. Conclusions: Disease stage at presentation is an important prognostic factor influencing the treatment failure and survival among TNBCs. Increasing tumor size is related to lymph node positivity. BL tumors have a more aggressive clinical course than that of NBL as shown by shorter DFS and OS, despite having no statistically significant difference between prognostic parameters. New therapeutic alternatives should be explored for patients with this subtype of breast cancer.

Hormone Receptor, HER2/NEU and EGFR Expression in Ovarian Carcinoma - is here a Prognostic Phenotype?

  • Demir, Lutfiye;Yigit, Seyran;Sadullahoglu, Canan;Akyol, Murat;Cokmert, Suna;Kucukzeybek, Yuksel;Alacacioglu, Ahmet;Cakalagaoglu, Fulya;Tarhan, Mustafa Oktay
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.22
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    • pp.9739-9745
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the effects of hormone receptor, HER2, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) prognosis and investigate whether or not phenotypic subtypes might exist. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 82 patients who were diagnosed with EOC between 2003 and 2012 and treated by platinum-based chemotherapy were retrospectively evaluated. Expression of EGFR, oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and cerbB2 (HER2) receptors were assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded tissues of these patients. Three phenotypic subtypes were defined according to ER, PR, and HER2 expression and associations of these with EGFR expression, clinicopathologic features, platinum sensitivity, and survival were investigated. Results: When we classified EOC patients into three subtypes, 63.4% had hormone receptor positive (HR(+)) (considering breast cancer subtypes, luminal A), 18.3% had triple negative, and 18.3% had HER2(+) disease. EGFR positivity was observed in 37 patients (45.1%) and was significantly more frequent with advanced disease (p=0.013). However, no significant association with other clinicopathologic features and platinum sensitivity was observed. HER2(+) patients had significantly poorer outcomes than HER2(-) counterparts (triple negative and HR positive patients) (p=0.019). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the strongest risk factor for death was residual disease after primary surgery. Conclusions: Triple negative EOC may not be an aggressive phenotype as in breast cancer. The HER2 positive EOC has more aggressive behaviour compared to triple negative and HR(+) phenotypes. EGFR expression is more frequent in advanced tumours, but is not related with poorer outcome. Additional ovarian cancer molecular subtyping using gene expression analysis may provide more reliable data.

Breast Conservation Therapy versus Mastectomy in Patients with T1-2N1 Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Pooled Analysis of KROG 14-18 and 14-23

  • Kim, Kyubo;Park, Hae Jin;Shin, Kyung Hwan;Kim, Jin Ho;Choi, Doo Ho;Park, Won;Ahn, Seung Do;Kim, Su Ssan;Kim, Dae Yong;Kim, Tae Hyun;Kim, Jin Hee;Kim, Jiyoung
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.1316-1323
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    • 2018
  • Purpose The aim of this study is to compare the treatment outcomes of breast conserving surgery (BCS) plus radiotherapy (RT) versus mastectomy for patients with pT1-2N1 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Materials and Methods Using two multicenter retrospective studies on breast cancer, a pooled analysis was performed among 320 patients with pT1-2N1 TNBC. All patients who underwent BCS (n=212) received whole breast RT with or without regional nodal RT, while none who underwent mastectomy (n=108) received it. All patients received taxane-based adjuvant chemotherapy. The median follow-up periods were 65 months in the BCS+RT group, and 74 months in the mastectomy group. Results The median age of all patients was 48 years (range, 24 to 70 years). Mastectomy group had more patients with multiple tumors (p < 0.001), no lymphovascular invasion (p=0.001), higher number of involved lymph node (p=0.028), and higher nodal ratio ${\geq}0.2$ (p=0.037). Other characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. The 5-year locoregional recurrence-free, disease-free, and overall survival rates of BCS+RT group versus mastectomy group were 94.6% versus 87.7%, 89.5% versus 80.4%, and 95.0% versus 87.8%, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant after adjusting for covariates (p=0.010, p=0.006, and p=0.005, respectively). Conclusion In pT1-2N1 TNBC, breast conservation therapy achieved better locoregional recurrence-free, disease-free, and overall survival rates compared with mastectomy.

Associations Between Mammography and Ultrasound Imaging Features and Molecular Characteristics of Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  • Li, Bo;Zhao, Xin;Dai, Shao-Chun;Cheng, Wen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3555-3559
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    • 2014
  • Background: The triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive cancer characterized by the absence of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Preoperative mammography and ultrasound features of TNBC may potentially suggest characteristics of the disease and assist in treatment decisions. Materials and Methods: The study covered 153 patients with TNBC from May 2011 to May 2012 who were confirmed by postoperative pathology results in our hospital. We compared the radiological findings among the patients and sought to determine the significant iconographic features. The biomarkers p53 and Ki-67 are regarded as significant factors in TNBC. They were therefore used to divide the TNBC into four groups for assessment of relationships with TNBC imaging features. Results: On mammography, most TNBCs exhibit obscure (44.3%) masses. On ultrasound, the majority of masses (95.4%) were predominantly indistinct (50.7%), irregular (76.0%) or featuring posterior echo enhancement/shadowing. Color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) emphasized hypervascular (32.9%) masses. Differences in CDFI by ultrasound among the four groups were statistically significant (p=0.009). There were obvious differences in the percentages of spiculated margin (p=0.049) and intensive posterior echo (p=0.006) with spotty flow imaging by ultrasound between the Ki-67 (+) p53 (+) and other groups. Conclusions: A combination of mammography and ultrasound revealed the imaging characteristics of TNBC included an obscure mass with less attenuated posterior echoes and some vascularity. A worse prognosis was associated with spiculated margin and intensive posterior echoes with spotty flow imaging.

Characteristics of Invasive Breast Ductal Carcinoma, NOS, Diagnosed in a Tertiary Institution in the East Coast of Malaysia with a Focus on Tumor Angiogenesis

  • Ch'ng, Ewe Seng;Sharif, Sharifah Emilia Tuan;Jaafar, Hasnan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4445-4452
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    • 2012
  • Background: Prognosis of breast cancer depends on classic pathological factors and also tumor angiogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological factors of breast cancer in a tertiary centre with a focus on the relationship between tumor angiogenesis and clinicopathological factors. Methods: Clinicopathological data were retrieved from the archived formal pathology reports for surgical specimens diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma, NOS. Microvessels were immunohistochemically stained with anti-CD34 antibody and quantified as microvessel density. Results: At least 50% of 94 cases of invasive breast ductal carcinoma in the study were advanced stage. The majority had poor prognosis factors such as tumor size larger than 50mm (48.9%), positive lymph node metastasis (60.6%), and tumor grade III (52.1%). Higher percentages of estrogen and progesterone receptor negative cases were recorded (46.8% and 46.8% respectively). Her-2 overexpression cases and triple negative breast cancers constituted 24.5% and 22.3% respectively. Significantly higher microvessel density was observed in the younger patient age group (p=0.012). There were no significant associations between microvessel density and other clinicopathological factors (p>0.05). Conclusions: Majority of the breast cancer patients of this institution had advanced stage disease with poorer prognostic factors as compared to other local and western studies. Breast cancer in younger patients might be more proangiogenic.

Ultrasonographic Features of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: a Comparison with Other Breast Cancer Subtypes

  • Yang, Qi;Liu, Hong-Yan;Liu, Dan;Song, Yan-Qiu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.3229-3232
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    • 2015
  • Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is known to be associated with aggressive biologic features and a poor clinical outcome. Therefore, early detection of TNBC without missed diagnosis is a requirement to improve prognosis. Preoperative ultrasound features of TNBC may potentially assist in early diagnosis as characteristics of disease. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the sonographic features of TNBC compared to ER (+) cancers which include HER(-) and HER2 (+), and HER2 (+) cancers which are ER (-). Materials and Methods: From June 2012 through June 2014, sonographic features of 321 surgically confirmed ER (+) cancers (n=214), HER2 (+) cancers (n=66), and TNBC (n=41) were retrospectively reviewed by two ultrasound specialists in consensus. The preoperative ultrasound and clinicopathological features were compared between the three subtypes. In addition, all cases were analyzed using morphologic criteria of the ACR BI-RADS lexicon. Results: Ultrasonographically, TNBC presented as microlobulated nodules without microcalcification (p=0.034). A lower incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (p<0.001), invasive tumor size that is>2 cm (p=0.011) and BI-RADS category 4 (p<0.001) were significantly associated with TNBC. With regard to morphologic features of 41 TNBC cases, ultrasonographically were most likely to be masses with irregular (70.7%) microlobulated shape (48.8%), be circumscribed (17.1%) or have indistinct margins (17.1%) and parallel orientation (68.9%). Especially TNBC microlobulated mass margins were more more frequent than with ER (+) (2.0%) and HER2 (+) (4.8%) cancers. Conclusions: TNBC have specific characteristic in sonograms. Ultrasonography may be useful to avoid missed diagnosis and false-negative cases of TNBC.

T-Cell Immunoglobulin Mucin 3 Expression on Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes as a Positive Prognosticator in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

  • Byun, Kyung Do;Hwang, Hyo Jun;Park, Ki Jae;Kim, Min Chan;Cho, Se Heon;Ju, Mi Ha;Lee, Jin Hwa;Jeong, Jin Sook
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.406-414
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing molecule 3 (TIM-3) is an emerging immune response molecule related to T-cell anergy. There has been tremendous interest in breast cancer targeting immune checkpoint molecules, especially in the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). This study was designed to investigate TIM-3 expression on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), its relationships with clinicopathological parameters and expression of programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1)/programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1), and its prognostic role. Methods: Immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray blocks produced from 109 samples of invasive ductal carcinoma type TNBC was performed with antibodies toward TIM-3, PD-1, PD-L1 and breast cancer-related molecular markers. Associations between their expression and clinicopathological parameters as well as survival analyses were performed. Results: TIM-3 was expressed in TILs from all 109 TNBCs, consisting of 17 cases (<5%), 31 cases (6%-25%), 48 cases (26%-50%), and 13 cases (>51%). High TIM-3 was significantly correlated with younger patients (p=0.0101), high TILs (p=0.0029), high tumor stage (p=0.0018), high PD-1 (p=0.0001) and high PD-L1 (p=0.0019), and tended to be associated with higher histologic grade, absence of extensive in situ components and microcalcification. High TIM-3 expression was significantly associated with a combinational immunophenotype group of high PD-L1 and high PD-1 (p<0.0001). High TIM-3 demonstrated a significantly better disease-free survival (DFS) (p<0.0001) and longer overall survival (OS) (p=0.0001), together with high TILs and high PD-1. In univariate survival analysis, high TIM-3 showed reduced relapse risk (p<0.0001) and longer OS (p=0.0003), together with high PD-1 expression. In multivariate analysis, high TIM-3 was statistically significant in predicting prognosis, showing better DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.0994; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0296-0.3337; p=0.0002) and longer OS (HR, 0.1109; 95% CI, 0.0314-0.3912; p=0.0006). Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrate that TIM-3 expression is an independent positive prognostic factor in TNBC, despite its association with poor clinical and pathologic features.

miR-195/miR-497 Regulate CD274 Expression of Immune Regulatory Ligands in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

  • Yang, Lianzhou;Cai, Yuchen;Zhang, Dongsheng;Sun, Jian;Xu, Chenyu;Zhao, Wenli;Jiang, Wenqi;Pan, Chunhua
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.371-381
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: Immune suppression is common in patients with advanced breast cancer but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not been sufficiently studied. In this study, we aimed to identify B7 family members that were able to predict the immune status of patients, and which may serve as potential targets for the treatment of breast cancer. We also aimed to identify microRNAs that may regulate the expression of B7 family members. Methods: The Cancer Genome Atlas data from 1,092 patients with breast cancer, including gene expression, microRNA expression and survival data, were used for statistical and survival analyses. Polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were used to measure messenger RNA and protein expression, respectively. Luciferase assay was used to investigate direct microRNA target. Results: Bioinformatic analysis predicted that microRNA (miR)-93, miR-195, miR-497, and miR-340 are potential regulators of the immune evasion of breast cancer cells, and that they exert this function by targeting CD274, PDCD1LG2, and NCR3LG1. We chose CD274 for further investigations. We found that miR-195, miR-497, and CD274 expression levels were inversely correlated in MDA-MB-231 cells, and miR-195 and miR-497 expressions mimic inhibited CD274 expression in vitro. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that miR-195 and miR-497 directly target CD274 3' untranslated region. Conclusion: Our data indicated that the level of B7 family members can predict the prognosis of breast cancer patients, and miR-195/miR-497 regulate CD274 expression in triple negative breast cancer. This regulation may further influence tumor progression and the immune tolerance mechanism in breast cancer and may be able to predict the effect of immunotherapy on patients.

Insulin activates EGFR by stimulating its interaction with IGF-1R in low-EGFR-expressing TNBC cells

  • Shin, Miyoung;Yang, Eun Gyeong;Song, Hyun Kyu;Jeon, Hyesung
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.342-347
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    • 2015
  • The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important diagnostic marker for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, which lack three hormonal receptors: estrogen and progesterone receptors as well as epidermal growth factor receptor 2. EGFR transactivation can cause drug resistance in many cancers including TNBC, but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that insulin treatment induces EGFR activation by stimulating the interaction of EGFR with insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) in the MDA-MB-436 TNBC cell line. These cells express low levels of EGFR, while exhibiting high levels of IGF-1R expression and phosphorylation. Low-EGFRexpressing MDA-MB-436 cells show high sensitivity to insulinstimulated cell growth. Therefore, unexpectedly, insulin stimulation induced EGFR transactivation by regulating its interaction with IGF-1R in low-EGFR-expressing TNBC cells. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(6): 342-347]