• Title, Summary, Keyword: Triple negative breast cancer

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Is Sunlight a Predisposing Factor for Triple Negative Breast Cancer in Turkey?

  • Mutlu, Hasan;Buyukcelik, Abdullah;Colak, Taner;Ozdogan, Mustafa;Erden, Abdulsamet;Aslan, Tuncay;Akca, Zeki
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.801-803
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    • 2013
  • Intraduction: There is known to be a relationship between vitamin D level and more aggresive breast cancer subtypes, especially triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). It was reported that sunlight exposure has an effect on the prognosis of patients with cancer, possibly related to the conversion of vitamin D to its active form with sunlight. We aimed to evaluate the effect of sunlight exposure on patients with TNBC. Materials-Methods: A total of 1,167 patients with breast cancer from two different regions of Turkey (Antalya and Kayseri, regions having different climate and sunlight exposure intensity over the year) were analysed retrospectively. The ratio of patients with TNBC was identified in those two regions. Results: The ratio of patients with TNBC was 8% and 12% for Kayseri and Antalya regions, respectively, and this difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p=0.021). Discussion: Sunlight exposure may be associated with more prevalent TNBC. This finding should be investigated with a prospective study.

Clinical Differences in Triple-Positive Operable Breast Cancer Subtypes in Korean Patients: An Analysis of Korean Breast Cancer Registry Data

  • You, Sun Hyong;Chae, Byung Joo;Eom, Yong Hwa;Yoo, Tae-Kyung;Kim, Yong-seok;Kim, Jeong Soo;Park, Woo-Chan
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.415-424
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: Triple-positive breast cancer is defined by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity. Several systemic breast cancer therapies target hormonal and HER2 responsiveness. We compared clinical outcomes of triple-positive disease with those of HER2-enriched and luminal HER2-negative disease and investigated the clinical efficacy of anti-HER2 therapy for triple-positive disease. Methods: We retrospectively compared overall and recurrence-free survival among cases included in the Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS) and Seoul St. Mary's Hospital breast cancer registries and the therapeutic efficacy of trastuzumab for triple-positive and HER2-enriched cases. Results: KBCS registry data (2006-2010; median follow-up, 76 months) indicated that patients with triple-positive breast cancer had intermediate survival between those with luminal A and HER2-enriched subtypes (p<0.001). Trastuzumab did not improve overall survival among patients with triple-positive breast cancer (p=0.899) in contrast to the HER2-enriched subtype (p=0.018). Seoul St. Mary's Hospital registry data indicated similar recurrence-free survival outcomes (p<0.001) and a lack of improvement with trastuzumab among patients with triple-positive breast cancer (median follow-up, 33 months; p=0.800). Multivariate analysis revealed that patients with triple-positive breast cancer had better overall survival than those with HER2-enriched disease and similar survival as those with the luminal A subtype (triple-positive: hazard ratio, 1.258, p=0.118; HER2-enriched: hazard ratio, 2.377, p<0.001). Conclusion: Our findings showed that anti-HER2 therapy was less beneficial for treatment of triple-positive breast cancer than for HER2-enriched subtypes of breast cancer, and the triple-positive subtype had a distinct prognosis.

Eight Year Survival Analysis of Patients with Triple Negative Breast Cancer in India

  • Doval, Dinesh Chandra;Suresh, P;Sinha, Rupal;Azam, Saud;Batra, Ullas;Talwar, Vineet;Kumar, Kapil;Mehta, Anurag
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.2995-2999
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    • 2016
  • Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) often presents as an interval cancer with short survival upon metastasis and thus represents an important clinical challenge. The present study investigated the clinicopathologic characteristics and long term survival outcome of early and locally advanced TNBC. Materials and Methods: Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for 148 consecutive confirmed cases of TNBC treated in a single unit at our centre. Demographic profile, tumor type, histopathology details, treatment and follow-up information was recorded and immunohistochemistry was performed. Results: Age group >50 years was associated with tumors of clinical stage 3 (53.8%), pathological stage 3 (46.2%), pathological grade 3 (45.7%), presence of extracapsular extension (ECE, 48.5%) and lymphovascular invasion (LVI, 64.9%). Locally advanced breast cancers (LABCs) were characterized by pathological stage 3 (96.2%), presence of ECE (100%) and absence of LVI (46.7%) as compared to early breast cancers (EBCs) which had higher incidence of lower stage tumors (100%), absence of ECE (82%) and presence of LVI (91.9%; p-value <0.001. Better relapse free survival was observed in patients with no axillary involvement (69%; p-value <0.001) and absence of ECE (64%; p-value <0.001). Improved overall survival was seen in patients with EBC (90%; p-value 0.008), clear axilla (86%; p-value <0.001), absence of ECE (87%; p-value <0.001) and negative lymph nodes (90%; p-value 0.006). Conclusions: TNBCs are aggressive tumors which show poor long term survival. Patients with TNBC benefit from chemotherapy, thus better and less toxic treatment options are needed. Identification of newer targets and development of targeted therapies are the need of the hour.

Clinicopathological Features of Indonesian Breast Cancers with Different Molecular Subtypes

  • Widodo, Irianiwati;Dwianingsih, Ery Kus;Triningsih, Ediati;Utoro, Totok;Soeripto, Soeripto
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.6109-6113
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    • 2014
  • Background: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with molecular subtypes that have biological distinctness and different behavior. They are classified into luminal A, luminal B, Her-2 and triple negative/basal-like molecular subtypes. Most of breast cancers reported in Indonesia are already large size, with high grade or late stage but the clinicopathological features of different molecular subtypes are still unclear. They need to be better clarified to determine proper treatment and prognosis. Aim: To elaborate the clinicopathological features of molecular subtypes of breast cancers in Indonesian women. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of 84 paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer samples from Dr. Sardjito General Hospital in Central Java, Indonesia was performed. Expression of ER, PR, Her-2 and Ki-67 was analyzed to classify molecular subtypes of breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. The relation of clinicopathological features of breast cancers with molecular subtypes of luminal A, luminal B, Her-2 and triple negative/basal-like were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-Square test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Case frequency of luminal A, Luminal B, Her-2+ and triple negative/basal-like subtypes were 38.1%, 16.7%, 20.2% and 25%, respectively. Significant difference was found in breast cancer molecular subtypes in regard to age, histological grade, lymph node status and staging. However it showed insignificant result in regard to tumor size. Luminal A subtype of breast cancer was commonly found in >50 years old women (p:0.028), low grade cancer (p:0.09), negative lymph node metastasis (p:0.034) and stage III (p:0.017). Eventhough the difference was insignificant, luminal A subtype breast cancer was mostly found in small size breast cancer (p:0.129). Her-2+ subtype breast cancer was more commonly diagnosed with large size, positive lymph node metastasis and poor grade. Triple negative/basal-like cancer was mostly diagnosed among <50 years old women. Conclusions: This study suggests that immunohistochemistry-based subtyping is essential to classify breast carcinoma into subtypes that vary in clinicopathological features, implying different therapeutic options and prognosis for each subtype.

Clinicopathologic and Demographic Evaluation of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients among a Turkish Patient Population: a Single Center Experience

  • Somali, Isil;Ustaoglu, Bahar Yakut;Tarhan, Mustafa Oktay;Yigit, Seyran Ceri;Demir, Lutfiye;Ellidokuz, Hulya;Erten, Cigdem;Alacacioglu, Ahmet
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.6013-6017
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    • 2013
  • Background: To evaluate the clinicopathologic and demographic characteristics of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients and to determine differences from non-triple-negative cases. Materials and Methods: A detailed review of the medical records of 882 breast cancer (BC) patients was conducted to obtain information regarding age, menopausal status, height and weight at the time of diagnosis, presence of diabetes or hypertension, and pathologic characteristics of the tumor (tumor size, lymph node status, histologic grade, ER status, PR status, HER2 status, p53 mutation). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and a value of ${\geq}30$ was considered as indicative of obesity. Results: 14.9% (n=132) of the patients had TNBC. There was no difference among the patients in terms of median age, comorbid conditions and menopausal status. The proportion of medullary, tubular and mucinous carcinomas was significantly higher (15.9%) in the triple-negative (TN) group, while invasive lobular histology was more frequent (8.2%) among non-triple negative (NTN) cases (p<0.001). Grade 3 (G3) tumors were more frequent in the triple-negative group (p<0.001). The rate of p53 mutation was 44.3% in TN tumors versus 28.2% in the NTN group (p<0.001). The two groups were similar in terms of LN metastasis. In the NTN group, the rate of patients with BMI ${\geq}30$ was 53% among postmenopausal patients, while it was 36% among premenopausal women, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). No significant difference was observed in terms of BMI between postmenopausal and premenopausal patients in the TN group (p=0.08). Conclusions: TNBC rates and clinicopathologic characteristics of the Turkish patient population were consistent with the data from Europe and America. However, no relationship between obesity and TNBC was observed in our study. The association between TNBC and obesity needs to be evaluated in a larger patient population.

Clinical Features and Survival Analysis of Very Young (Age<35) Breast Cancer Patients

  • Wei, Xue-Qing;Li, Xing;Xin, Xiao-Jie;Tong, Zhong-Sheng;Zhang, Sheng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5949-5952
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: To compare the clinicalpathological features and prognosis between premenopausal breast cancer patients aged of <35 and ${\geq}35$ years old. Methods: The clinical data and survival status of 1498 cases premenopausal operable breast cancer treated in our hospital from 2002.1 to 2004. 12 were collected, 118 cases were aged <35. They were divided into 4 groups: Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2-positive, Triple-negative. The disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were identified. Results: The 5-year DFS and OS rates were significantly lower in age<35 than in $age{\geq}35$ patients. In the Luminal B, HER2-positive, Triple-negative group, the 5-year recurrence risk was higher in age<35 than in $age{\geq}35$ patients, and age<35 patients' 5-year death risk was higher only in Luminal B, Triple-negative group. Regardless of whether lymph node involved, age<35 patients had a bad prognosis in both DFS and OS. Conclusions: Compared with premenopausal age ${\geq}35$ breast cancer, age<35 patients had a worse outcome.

Immunohistochemical Expression of B Cell Lymphoma-2 with Clinicopathological Correlation in Triple Negative Breast Cancers in Northern Pakistan

  • Zubair, Muhammad;Hashmi, Shoaib Naiyar;Afzal, Saeed;Muhammad, Iqbal;Din, Hafeez Ud;Ahmed, Rabia
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3619-3622
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    • 2016
  • Background: Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are high grade aggressive tumors generally with a poor prognosis, not responding to hormonal and anti Her2 Neu therapy. Expression of the antiapoptotic B cell lymphoma 2 gene (Bcl-2) is associated with low grade, slowly proliferating hormone receptor positive tumors with improved survival. Anti Bcl2 agents can be used as alternative targeted therapy in triple negative cancers. Materials and Methods: The objective of this study was to determine the immunohistochemical expression of Bcl2 in triple negative breast cancers and any correlation with clinicopathological variables in Northern Pakistan. Results: All 52 patients were females, aged between 28 and 80 years(average $48.0{\pm}12.1$). 28 cases (53.8%) were positive for Bcl2, this being associated with low grade invasive ductal carcinomas, lymph node metastasis and lymphovascular invasion. Conclusions: Bcl-2 may be an important prognostic factor and its expression might be used for targeted therapy using Anti Bcl2 drugs.

Assessment of Ki-67 for Predicting Effective Prognosis in Breast Cancer Subtypes

  • Park, Sangjung;Park, Sunyoung;Kim, Jungho;Ahn, Sungwoo;Park, Kwang Hwa;Lee, Hyeyoung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 2018
  • Ki-67 has been widely performed and become an important biomarker in worldwide clinics, but the standard cut off value of Ki-67 index in breast cancer is still controversy. The objective study was to understand the Ki-67 in breast cancer subtypes and to investigate relative risk of breast cancer subtypes according to Ki-67 cut off value in Korean breast cancer. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki-67 index was examined from 123 breast cancer patients. Ki-67 index was significantly overexpressed in PR, ER, and HER2 hormone negative groups. Ki-67 index in Triple negative and HER2 subtypes was shown significantly higher than that in Luminal A and Luminal B subtype. Then, we compared the relative risk of each subtype according to 14% and 20% Ki-67 cut off value, which were applied in most clinics. Especially, 20% Ki-67 cut off value in HER2 and Triple negative subtypes was shown 8.41 fold and 2.83 fold higher relative risk than this in Luminal A subtype. Moreover, Ki-67 index in HER2 2+ or 3+ status showed significantly overexpressed than this in HER2 1+ status. At the 20% Ki-67 cut off value, HER2 1+ or 2+ status and 3+ status showed significant difference. Therefore, the 20% Ki-67 cut off value will be useful as a precise prognostic management and helpful for interpreting diverse outcomes of other subtypes in breast cancer patients.

Clinicopathology Figures and Long-term Effects of Tamoxifen Plus Radiation on Survival of Women with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma and Triple Negative Breast Cancer

  • Payandeh, Mehrdad;Sadeghi, Masoud;Sadeghi, Edris;Aeinfar, Mehrnoush
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.4863-4867
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    • 2015
  • Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), characterized as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 Her2 negative and accounting for 10-17% of all breast carcinomas, is only partially responsive to chemotherapy and suffers from a lack of clinically established targeted therapies. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the patterns of treatment and clinicopathology figures in Kurdish patients with triple-negative breast cancer, and to compare these to other reports. Materials and Methods: Between 2001 and 2014, 950 breast cancer patients were referred to our clinic. There were 74 female patients with TNBC, including 70 patients was invasive ductal carcinoma entered into our study. ER and PR positivity was defined as positive immunohistochemical staining in more than 10% of tumor cells. Immunohistochemistry assay with anti-HER2 antibodies was used to identify HER negative (0 and 1+) or positive (2+ and 3+). HER2 gene amplification was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Overall survival (OS) was plotted with GraphPad Prism 5 Software using Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests for comparison of results. Results: The mean age in the first diagnosis for 70 patients with triple TNBC and invasive ductal carcinoma was 49.6 years that range of age was 27-82 years. All of the patients were female. Of 70 patients, 23 patients had metastasis. Thirty-two patients (45.7%) were treated with tamoxifen and 39 (55.7%) with radiotherapy. Three-year, 5-year and 10-year OS rates for all patients were 82%, 72% and 64%, respectively. Conclusions: The OS in our West Iran TNBC patients is less than reported elsewhere. However, treatment with combination of tamoxifen plus radiation increases the OS and reduces the mortality rate.

Quercetin induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in triple-negative breast cancer cells through modulation of Foxo3a activity

  • Nguyen, Lich Thi;Lee, Yeon-Hee;Sharma, Ashish Ranjan;Park, Jong-Bong;Jagga, Supriya;Sharma, Garima;Lee, Sang-Soo;Nam, Ju-Suk
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.205-213
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    • 2017
  • Quercetin, a plant-derived flavonoid found in fruits, vegetables and tea, has been known to possess bioactive properties such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer. In this study, anti-cancer effect of quercetin and its underlying mechanisms in triple-negative breast cancer cells was investigated. MTT assay showed that quercetin reduced breast cancer cell viability in a time and dose dependent manner. For this, quercetin not only increased cell apoptosis but also inhibited cell cycle progression. Moreover, quercetin increased FasL mRNA expression and p51, p21 and GADD45 signaling activities. We also observed that quercetin induced protein level, transcriptional activity and nuclear translocation of Foxo3a. Knockdown of Foxo3a caused significant reduction in the effect of quercetin on cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In addition, treatment of JNK inhibitor (SP 600125) abolished quercetin-stimulated Foxo3a activity, suggesting JNK as a possible upstream signaling in regulation of Foxo3a activity. Knockdown of Foxo3a and inhibition of JNK activity reduced the signaling activities of p53, p21 and GADD45, triggered by quercetin. Taken together, our study suggests that quercetin induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via modification of Foxo3a signaling in triple-negative breast cancer cells.