• Title, Summary, Keyword: Trichinella spiralis

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The survey of Trichinella spiralis infection in finishing pigs using the pepsin-digestion method and ELISA in Korea (조직인공소화법과 ELISA를 이용한 국내 출하돈의 선모충(Trichinella spiralis) 감염실태 조사)

  • Seo, Hunsu;Woo, Gye-Hyeong;Youn, Hee-Jeong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.269-277
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    • 2004
  • Trichinella spiralis is one of the important zoonotic parasites with a wide variety of vertebrates hosts in nature. The purpose of this study were to analyze ESP(Excretory-Secretory Protein) antigen, to evaluate ELISA for the serological diagnosis of Trichinosis, and to survey T. spiralis infection in finishing pigs using the pepsin digestion method and ELISA in Korea. In the analysis of ESP antigen by SDS-PAGE and Western blot, 4 major bands (70, 55, 52.6, and 49 kDa) were revealed from the ESP antigen. Predilection sites of T. spiralis were the diaphragm, the tongue, masseter muscles, intercostal muscle, and hindlimb in orders in the experimentally infected rats. Sera from 581 swine were tested by ELISA with ESP antigen. The 54 (9.3%) sera were suspected as positive reactors, however, these 54 sera were determined as false positives by the use of Western blotting. This study demonstrated that the ELISA was not suitable for the examination of T. spiralis in pork. The diaphragm muscle samples of 251 finishing pigs were tested by the method of pepsin-digestion for the presence of Trichinella larvae, however, T. spiralis was not detected from the samples. We could not find out T. spiralis infection in pig in Korea pork.

Molecular identification of Korean Trichinella isolates

  • Sohn, Woon-Mok;Hun, Sun;Chung, Dong-Il;Pozio, Edoardo
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.125-127
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    • 2003
  • Muscle larvae of Trichinella isolates from two outbreaks in Korea were analyzed by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and multiple-PCR. All of the muscle larvae showed a band similar to that of T. spiralis larvae of the reference strain. The two Korean Trichinella isolates (isolate code ISS623 and ISS1078) might be classifiable to Trichinella spiralis.

Molecular Identification of a Trichinella Isolate from a Naturally Infected Pig in Tibet, China

  • Li, Ling Zhao;Wang, Zhong Quan;Jiang, Peng;Zhang, Xi;Ren, Hui Jun;Cui, Jing
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.381-384
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    • 2011
  • The first human case with trichinellosis was reported in 1964 in Tibet, China. However, up to the present, the etiological agent of trichinellosis has been unclear. The aim of this study was to identify a Tibet Trichinella isolate at a species level by PCR-based methods. Multiplex PCR revealed amplicon of the expected size (173 bp) for Trichinella spiralis in assays containing larval DNA from Tibet Trichinella isolate from a naturally infected pig. The Tibet Trichinella isolate was also identified by PCR amplification of the 5S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer region (5S ISR) and mitochondrial largesubunit ribosomal RNA (mt-lsrDNA) gene sequences. The results showed that 2 DNA fragments (749 bp and 445 bp) of the Tibet Trichinella isolate were identical to that of the reference isolates of T. spiralis. The Tibet Trichinella isolate might be classifiable to T. spiralis. This is the first report on T. spiralis in southwestern China.

Angiogenic Induction by Trichinella spiralis Infection through Thymosin β4 (티모신베타4에의한 선모충(Trichinella spiralis) 감염의 혈관신생 유도 기작)

  • Ock, Mee Sun;Cha, Hee-Jae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.9
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    • pp.1177-1182
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    • 2013
  • Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) has been reported to induce angiogenesis and a supply of nutrients and to act as a reliable waste disposal system by induction of the expression of the angiogenic molecule vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) during nurse cell formation. However, the mechanism underlying the induction of VEGF in nurse cells by T. spiralis has not yet been defined. Some research has pointed to the possibility of hypoxia in nurse cells, but whether hypoxia occurs in infected muscle or nurse cells has not been studied. It is also a matter of debate whether hypoxia induces the expression of VEGF and subsequent angiogenesis in infected muscle. Recent studies showed that thymosin ${\beta}4$, a potent VEGF-inducing protein, was expressed at a very early stage of muscle infection by T. spiralis, suggesting that VEGF is induced at an early stage in nurse cells. Furthermore, hypoxia was not detected in any nurse cell stage but was detected in inflammatory cells. The findings suggest that induction of angiogenesis by VEGF in T. spiralis-infected nurse cells is mediated by thymosin ${\beta}4$ and unrelated to hypoxia.

Susceptibility of Laboratory Rodents to Trichinella papuae

  • Sadaow, Lakkhana;Intapan, Pewpan M.;Boonmars, Thidarut;Morakote, Nimit;Maleewong, Wanchai
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.629-632
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    • 2013
  • Members of the genus Trichinella are small nematodes that can infect a wide range of animal hosts. However, their infectivity varies depending on the parasite and host species combination. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of 4 species of laboratory rodents, i.e., mice, rats, hamsters, and gerbils to Trichinella papuae, an emerging non-encapsulated Trichinella species. Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis were also included in this study for comparison. Fifteen animals of each rodent species were infected orally with 100 muscle larvae of each Trichinella species. Intestinal worm burden was determined at day 6 and 10 post-inoculation (PI). The numbers of muscle larvae were examined at day 45 PI. The reproductive capacity index (RCI) of the 3 Trichinella species in different rodent hosts was determined. By day 6 PI, 33.2-69.6% of the inoculated larvae of the 3 Trichinella species became adult worms in the small intestines of the host animals. However, in rats, more than 96% of adult worms of all 3 Trichinella species were expelled from the gut by day 10 PI. In gerbils, only 4.8-18.1% of adult worms were expelled by day 10 PI. In accordance with the intestinal worm burden and the persistence of adults, the RCI was the highest in gerbils with values of $241.5{\pm}41.0$ for T. papuae, $432.6{\pm}48$ for T. pseudospiralis, and $528.6{\pm}20.6$ for T. spiralis. Hamsters ranked second and mice ranked third in susceptibility in terms of the RCI, Rats yielded the lowest parasite RCI for all 3 Trichinella species. Gerbils may be an alternative laboratory animal for isolation and maintenance of Trichinella spp.

An Outbreak of Trichinosis with Molecular Identification of Trichinella sp. in Vietnam

  • Nguyen, Van De;Nguyen, Vu Trung;Nguyen, Hong Ha;Vu, Thi Nga;Nguyen, Minh Ha;Pham, Thanh Thuy;Le, Van Duyet;Chai, Jong-Yil
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.339-343
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    • 2012
  • The 5th outbreak of trichinosis occurred in a mountainous area of North Vietnam in 2012, involving 24 patients among 27 people who consumed raw pork together. Six of these patients visited several hospitals in Hanoi for treatment. Similar clinical symptoms appeared in these patients within 5-8 days after eating infected raw pork, which consisted of fever, muscle pain, difficult moving, edema, difficult swallowing, and difficult breathing. ELISA revealed all (6/6) positive reactions against Trichinella spiralis antigen and all cases showed positive biopsy results for Trichinella sp. larvae in the muscle. The larvae detected in the patients were identified as T. spiralis (Vietnamese strain) by the molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3) gene.

Therapeutic Potential of Myrrh and Ivermectin against Experimental Trichinella spiralis Infection in Mice

  • Basyoni, Maha M.A.;El-Sabaa, Abdel-Aleem A.
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.297-304
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    • 2013
  • Trichinosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. Anthelmintics are used to eliminate intestinal adults as well as tissue-migrating and encysted larvae. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ivermectin and myrrh obtained from the aloe-gum resin of Commiphora molmol on experimental trichinosis. Ninety albino mice were orally infected with 300 T. spiralis larvae. Drugs were tested against adult worms at day 0 and day 5 and against encysted larvae on day 15 and day 35 post-infection (PI). Mature worms and encysted larvae were counted in addition to histopathological examination of muscle specimens. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, and creatinine values were estimated. Significant reductions in mean worm numbers were detected in ivermectin treated mice at day 0 and day 5 PI achieving efficacies of 98.5% and 80.0%, while efficacies of myrrh in treated mice were 80.7% and 51.5%, respectively. At days 15 and 35 post-infection, ivermectin induced significant reduction in encysted larval counts achieving efficacies of 76.5% and 54.0%, respectively, while myrrh efficacies were 76.6% and 35.0%, respectively. AST, ALT, urea, and creatinine levels were reduced, while total proteins were increased in response to both treatments compared to their values in the infected non-treated mice. Ivermectin use for controlling T. spiralis could be continued. Myrrh was effective and could be a promising drug against the Egyptian strains of T. spiralis with results nearly comparable to ivermectin.

Immune Correlates of Resistance to Trichinella spiralis Reinfection in Mice

  • Chu, Ki-Back;Kim, Sang-Soo;Lee, Su-Hwa;Lee, Dong-Hun;Kim, Ah-Ra;Quan, Fu-Shi
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.54 no.5
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    • pp.637-643
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    • 2016
  • The immune correlate of host resistance induced by reinfection of Trichinella spiralis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated immune correlates between the resistance and serum IgG antibody level, $CD23^+$ $IgM^+$ B cells, and eosinophil responses induced by T. spiralis reinfection. Mice were primarily infected with 10 or 100 T. spiralis larvae (10 TS, 100 TS), respectively, and after 4 weeks, they were challenge infected with 100 T. spiralis larvae (10-100 TS, 100-100 TS). Upon challenge infections, 10-100 TS mice induced significantly higher levels of T. spiralis-specific total IgG antibody responses in sera and antibody secreting cell responses in spleens compared to 100-100 TS mice, resulting in significantly reduced worm burdens in 10-100 TS mice (60% and 70% reductions for adult and larvae, respectively). Higher levels of eosinophils were found in mice primarily infected with 10 TS compared to those of 100 TS at week 8 upon challenge. $CD23^+$ $IgM^+$ B cells were found to be increased significantly in mice primarily infected with 10 TS. These results indicate that primary infection of 10 larvae of T. spiralis, rather than 100 larvae, induces significant resistance against reinfection which closely correlated with T. spiralis-specific IgG, eosinophil, and $CD23^+$ $IgM^+$ B cell responses.

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Trichinella spiralis antibodies and the surveillance of selected pig breeding farms in the Republic of Korea

  • Wee, Sung-Hwan;Lee, Chung-Gil;Joo, Hoo-Don;Kang, Yung-Bai
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.261-264
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    • 2001
  • Trichinellosis is a parasitic zoonosis of public health importance. It is caused by Trichinella spiralis which has a wide host range including humans. In the present communication, the ELISA technique was employed on a total of 803 blood samples from 7 selected pig breeding farms in 1996 for diagnosis and surveillance of trichinellosis. Out of the entire 803 samples, nine were found to be suspected while one was positive by ELISA. But western blot analyses employed for further confirmation have shown that all of 10 samples did not react to larval excretory-secretory product antigens. These results indicate that pig breeding farms included in the present study are free from trichinellosis . However, it does not mean Korea is free from trichinellosis since human trichinellosis has recently been reported. The necessity of continued surveillance for trichinellosis in both pigs and wild animals was discussed.

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Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Is Involved in Th2 Responses against Trichinella spiralis Infection

  • Park, Mi-Kyung;Cho, Min-Kyoung;Kang, Shin-Ae;Park, Hye-Kyung;Kim, Yun-Seong;Kim, Ki-Uk;Ahn, Soon-Cheol;Kim, Dong-Hee;Yu, Hak-Sun
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.235-243
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    • 2011
  • In order to get a better understanding of the role of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in type 2 helper T (Th2) cell responses against Trichinella spiralis infection, we analyzed Th2 responses in T. spiralis-infected PAR2 knockout (KO) mice. The levels of the Th2 cell-secreted cytokines, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were markedly reduced in the PAR2 KO mice as compared to the wild type mice following infection with T. spiralis. The serum levels of parasite-specific IgE increased significantly in the wild type mice as the result of T. spiralis infection, but this level was not significantly increased in PAR2 KO mice. The expression level of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, and eotaxin gene (the genes were recently known as Th2 response initiators) of mouse intestinal epithelial cells were increased as the result of treatment with T. spiralis excretory-secretory proteins. However, the expression of these chemokine genes was inhibited by protease inhibitor treatments. In conclusion, PAR2 might involve in Th2 responses against T. spiralis infection.