• Title/Summary/Keyword: Tributary

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An Evaluation on Health Conditions of Pyong-Chang River using the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) and Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index(QHEI) (생물보전지수(Index of Biological Integrity) 및 서식지 평가지수 (Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index)를 이용한 평창강의 수환경 평가)

  • Jung, Seung-Hyun;Choi, Shin-Sok;An, Kwang-Guk
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.153-165
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    • 2001
  • We evaluated the health condition of Pyong-Chang river, the tributary of Han- River, using the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) and Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index (QHEI) during September 1999${\sim}$August 2000. The annual mean of IBI, which was estimated using eleven metrics, was 49 (range: $45{\sim}51$) and the mean of QHEI, which was estimated using seven parameters, was 88 (range: $76{\sim}94$) during the study. The river health, based on the IBI criteria of Karr (1981), ranged from "excellent" to "good" conditions, while based on the habitat criteria of Plafkin et al. (1989), it ranged from "pristine" (comparable to reference) to "supporting" conditions. Values of IBI showed slight differences between upstream and downstream sites and QHEI values varied weakly depending on characteristics of variables. Regression analyses showed that annual values of QHEI had no functional relations with stream order (p = 1.82; n = 8) but showed some decreases near slight point-sources. This result indicates that conditions of physical habitat did not change highly with increases of the stream order. According to analyses of feed guilds, relative abundance of insectivores, omnivores and carnivores was 85.1%, 3.5% 0.3%, respectively. Also, relative abundance of sensitive and tolerant species was 75% and 4.6%, respectively, while exotic and morphological anomalies were not found in the river. These outcomes indicate that health condition of fish, based on the trophic conditions of U.S. EPA (1993), was excellent in the river. Regression analyses of IBI values against the QHEI showed that the variation of habitat conditions accounted 57% for the variation of the Index of Biological Integrity (p<0.05; $R^2\;=\;0.57$; n = 7).Overall data of IBI and QHEI suggest that the river health in the present is in optimal conditions but may be degradated by acceleration of chemical inputs and physical-habitat disturbance.

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Water Quality Variation Dynamics between Artificial Reservoir and the Effected Downstream Watershed: the Case Study (인공댐과 그 영향을 받는 하류하천의 수질변동 역동성 : 사례 연구)

  • Han, Jung-Ho;An, Kwang-Guk
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.382-394
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was to analyze temporal trends of water chemistry and spatial heterogeneity between the dam site (Daecheong Reservoir, S1) and the downstream (S2$\sim$S4) using water quality dataset (obtained from the Ministry of Environment, Korea) during 2000$\sim$2007. Water quality, based on eight physical and chemical parameters, varied largely depending on the years, sampling sites, and the discharge volume. Conductivity and nutrients (TN and TP) showed a decreasing trend in the downstream (S4) rather than the dam site during the monsoon. Spatial variation increased toward downstream (S4) from Daecheong Reservoir (S1). Also, BOD and COD increased toward downstream. Because of input of nutrient and pollutant nearby S1, lentic ecosystem in monsoon, BOD and COD were slightly increased. whereas relatively decreased in S4, lotic ecosystem in monsoon, by dilution effect of nutrient and pollutant by discharge from upper dam, S1. Spatial variation of SS increased toward downstream (S4) by the side of Daecheong Reservoir (S1). Based on the dataset, efficient water quality management in the point source tributary streams is required for better water quality of downstream. Monthly characteristics of DO showed the lowest value in the monsoon that tend to increase water temperature. DO was lowest in October at S1 because turbid water, input to the Daecheong Reservoir in the monsoon affect to the postmonsoon period. In contrast, water temperature increased toward summer monsoon, in spite of some differences showed between S1 and S4 environment. Overall, the characteristics of water quality in downstream region have close correlation with discharge amount of Daecheong Reservoir. Thus, those characteristics can explain that discharge control of upper dam mainly affect to the water quality variation in downstream reach.

Study on Characteristics of Community and Ecology of Fishes in the Newly Constructed Gunwi Dam Reservoir (신규로 건설된 군위댐 호내 어류 군집 및 생태적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jin-Woong;Yoon, Ju-Duk;Kim, Jeong-Hui;Park, Sang-Hyeon;Baek, Seung-Ho;Chang, Kwang-Hyeon;Jang, Min-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.219-228
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    • 2015
  • To secure water resources, dams are normally constructed on the upper - middle part of streams, and it generates physical disturbances such as habitat alteration and stream fragmentation. Such construction can restrict movement of aquatic organisms, especially for freshwater fish which is one of top predator in aquatic ecosystem, and cause genetic fragmentation and community change. In this study, to investigate impact of habitat alteration after dam construction on freshwater fish, we monitored fish community changes, and compared fish fauna between dam reservoir and inflows. Additionally, movement characteristics and habitat boundaries of four species were identified by radio telemetry method. The study was conducted in the Gunwi Dam which was constructed in December 2010. Radio telemetry was applied to Pungtungia herzi, Zacco platypus (living lotic and lentic), Silurus asotus (lentic preferred species) and Zacco koreanus (lotic preferred species). The number of species was remarkably decreased (4 family, 10 species) comparing with before the dam construction (7 family, 15 species). Specifically, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Niwaella multifasciata, Liobagrus mediadiposalis, Coreoperca herzi and Odontobutis platycephala that inhabit in the lotic environment were not collected in the study area. A total of 8 species were caught in both the dam reservoir and tributaries except 2 species (C. auratus and S. asotus). Sorenson's similarity between the reservoir and its tributaries was high (0.842). All of the radio tagged species stayed in the reservoir except S. asotus which moved to the tributary. These species mainly utilized the shallow littoral zone as a habitat. These results could be useful as a baseline data for efficient management of fishes in lakes.

Scour Prediction at Piers in the Bo Cheong Stream (보청천내(報靑川內) 교각설치(橋脚設置)에 따른 국부(局部) 세굴심도(洗掘深度)의 산정(算定))

  • Ahn, Sang Jin;Choi, Gyu Woon;Kim, Jong Sub;Ahn, Chang Jin
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.93-105
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    • 1993
  • In this paper, the maximum scour depths at piers located in the Bo Cheong Stream, which is a tributary in the Geum River System, were calculated and compared using 24 local pier scour equations. The equations were classified as six groups by non-dimensional types of equations. The geometric data in the stream bed and pier data at San Seong, Yi Pyung and San Gye, which are IHP data collection stations, were utilized for applying the scour equations. The geometric data in the stream bed were obtained by analyzing the bed material sampled in three stations which are in the left side, middle and right side for stream direction. The maximum flow velocities at maximum flow depths which were measured from 1982 to 1991, were used as the hydraulic flow data. The pier data for predicting pier scour depths were measured in the fields. The maximum pier scour depths calculated using the equations were compared with the held scour depths measured in the streams or rivers in the world. Arunachalam, Shen-Karaki III, Jain-Fischer equations are selected as the proper local scour equations for predicting the maximum local scour depths at piers in the Bo Cheong Stream. Inglis-Lacey and Shen-Karaki II equations are applicable in case of rapid flows conditions in which Froude number is over 0.3. Froehlich, Laursen I, Laursen II, Neill, Melville equations are applicable in the slow flow conditions in which Froude number is less than 0.3. Blench equation or Inglis-Poona equation varies rapidly by changing Froude numbers. Therefore the equations should not be used without careful considerations in selecting the applicable ranges. The maximum local scour depths calculated using Sarma-Krishnamurthy, Ahmad, Coleman, Varzeliotis, Larras, Bata, Chitale, Venkatadri, Basik-Basamily-Ergun, U.S.G.S., Shen I equations are usually less than the scour depths measured in the fields.

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Vegetation classification based on remote sensing data for river management (하천 관리를 위한 원격탐사 자료 기반 식생 분류 기법)

  • Lee, Chanjoo;Rogers, Christine;Geerling, Gertjan;Pennin, Ellis
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.6-7
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    • 2021
  • Vegetation development in rivers is one of the important issues not only in academic fields such as geomorphology, ecology, hydraulics, etc., but also in river management practices. The problem of river vegetation is directly connected to the harmony of conflicting values of flood management and ecosystem conservation. In Korea, since the 2000s, the issue of river vegetation and land formation has been continuously raised under various conditions, such as the regulating rivers downstream of the dams, the small eutrophicated tributary rivers, and the floodplain sites for the four major river projects. In this background, this study proposes a method for classifying the distribution of vegetation in rivers based on remote sensing data, and presents the results of applying this to the Naeseong Stream. The Naeseong Stream is a representative example of the river landscape that has changed due to vegetation development from 2014 to the latest. The remote sensing data used in the study are images of Sentinel 1 and 2 satellites, which is operated by the European Aerospace Administration (ESA), and provided by Google Earth Engine. For the ground truth, manually classified dataset on the surface of the Naeseong Stream in 2016 were used, where the area is divided into eight types including water, sand and herbaceous and woody vegetation. The classification method used a random forest classification technique, one of the machine learning algorithms. 1,000 samples were extracted from 10 pre-selected polygon regions, each half of them were used as training and verification data. The accuracy based on the verification data was found to be 82~85%. The model established through training was also applied to images from 2016 to 2020, and the process of changes in vegetation zones according to the year was presented. The technical limitations and improvement measures of this paper were considered. By providing quantitative information of the vegetation distribution, this technique is expected to be useful in practical management of vegetation such as thinning and rejuvenation of river vegetation as well as technical fields such as flood level calculation and flow-vegetation coupled modeling in rivers.

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Derivation of the Synthetic Unit Hydrograph Based on the Watershed Characteristics (유역특성에 의한 합성단위도의 유도에 관한 연구)

  • 서승덕
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.3642-3654
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    • 1975
  • The purpose of this thesis is to derive a unit hydrograph which may be applied to the ungaged watershed area from the relations between directly measurable unitgraph properties such as peak discharge(qp), time to peak discharge (Tp), and lag time (Lg) and watershed characteristics such as river length(L) from the given station to the upstream limits of the watershed area in km, river length from station to centroid of gravity of the watershed area in km (Lca), and main stream slope in meter per km (S). Other procedure based on routing a time-area diagram through catchment storage named Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph(IUH). Dimensionless unitgraph also analysed in brief. The basic data (1969 to 1973) used in these studies are 9 recording level gages and rating curves, 41 rain gages and pluviographs, and 40 observed unitgraphs through the 9 sub watersheds in Nak Oong River basin. The results summarized in these studies are as follows; 1. Time in hour from start of rise to peak rate (Tp) generally occured at the position of 0.3Tb (time base of hydrograph) with some indication of higher values for larger watershed. The base flow is comparelatively higher than the other small watershed area. 2. Te losses from rainfall were divided into initial loss and continuing loss. Initial loss may be defined as that portion of storm rainfall which is intercepted by vegetation, held in deppression storage or infiltrated at a high rate early in the storm and continuing loss is defined as the loss which continues at a constant rate throughout the duration of the storm after the initial loss has been satisfied. Tis continuing loss approximates the nearly constant rate of infiltration (${\Phi}$-index method). The loss rate from this analysis was estimated 50 Per cent to the rainfall excess approximately during the surface runoff occured. 3. Stream slope seems approximate, as is usual, to consider the mainstreamonly, not giving any specific consideration to tributary. It is desirable to develop a single measure of slope that is representative of the who1e stream. The mean slope of channel increment in 1 meter per 200 meters and 1 meter per 1400 meters were defined at Gazang and Jindong respectively. It is considered that the slopes are low slightly in the light of other river studies. Flood concentration rate might slightly be low in the Nak Dong river basin. 4. It found that the watershed lag (Lg, hrs) could be expressed by Lg=0.253 (L.Lca)0.4171 The product L.Lca is a measure of the size and shape of the watershed. For the logarithms, the correlation coefficient for Lg was 0.97 which defined that Lg is closely related with the watershed characteristics, L and Lca. 5. Expression for basin might be expected to take form containing theslope as {{{{ { L}_{g }=0.545 {( { L. { L}_{ca } } over { SQRT {s} } ) }^{0.346 } }}}} For the logarithms, the correlation coefficient for Lg was 0.97 which defined that Lg is closely related with the basin characteristics too. It should be needed to take care of analysis which relating to the mean slopes 6. Peak discharge per unit area of unitgraph for standard duration tr, ㎥/sec/$\textrm{km}^2$, was given by qp=10-0.52-0.0184Lg with a indication of lower values for watershed contrary to the higher lag time. For the logarithms, the correlation coefficient qp was 0.998 which defined high sign ificance. The peak discharge of the unitgraph for an area could therefore be expected to take the from Qp=qp. A(㎥/sec). 7. Using the unitgraph parameter Lg, the base length of the unitgraph, in days, was adopted as {{{{ {T}_{b } =0.73+2.073( { { L}_{g } } over {24 } )}}}} with high significant correlation coefficient, 0.92. The constant of the above equation are fixed by the procedure used to separate base flow from direct runoff. 8. The width W75 of the unitgraph at discharge equal to 75 per cent of the peak discharge, in hours and the width W50 at discharge equal to 50 Per cent of the peak discharge in hours, can be estimated from {{{{ { W}_{75 }= { 1.61} over { { q}_{b } ^{1.05 } } }}}} and {{{{ { W}_{50 }= { 2.5} over { { q}_{b } ^{1.05 } } }}}} respectively. This provides supplementary guide for sketching the unitgraph. 9. Above equations define the three factors necessary to construct the unitgraph for duration tr. For the duration tR, the lag is LgR=Lg+0.2(tR-tr) and this modified lag, LgRis used in qp and Tb It the tr happens to be equal to or close to tR, further assume qpR=qp. 10. Triangular hydrograph is a dimensionless unitgraph prepared from the 40 unitgraphs. The equation is shown as {{{{ { q}_{p } = { K.A.Q} over { { T}_{p } } }}}} or {{{{ { q}_{p } = { 0.21A.Q} over { { T}_{p } } }}}} The constant 0.21 is defined to Nak Dong River basin. 11. The base length of the time-area diagram for the IUH routing is {{{{C=0.9 {( { L. { L}_{ca } } over { SQRT { s} } ) }^{1/3 } }}}}. Correlation coefficient for C was 0.983 which defined a high significance. The base length of the T-AD was set to equal the time from the midpoint of rain fall excess to the point of contraflexure. The constant K, derived in this studies is K=8.32+0.0213 {{{{ { L} over { SQRT { s} } }}}} with correlation coefficient, 0.964. 12. In the light of the results analysed in these studies, average errors in the peak discharge of the Synthetic unitgraph, Triangular unitgraph, and IUH were estimated as 2.2, 7.7 and 6.4 per cent respectively to the peak of observed average unitgraph. Each ordinate of the Synthetic unitgraph was approached closely to the observed one.

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