• 제목/요약/키워드: Tributary

검색결과 413건 처리시간 0.144초

Proposed approach for determination of tributary areas for scattered pressure taps

  • Aly, Aly Mousaad
    • Wind and Structures
    • /
    • v.16 no.6
    • /
    • pp.617-627
    • /
    • 2013
  • In wind load calculations based on pressure measurements, the concept of 'tributary area' is usually used. The literature has less guidance for a systematic computational methodology for calculating tributary areas, in general, and for scattered pressure taps, in particular. To the best of the author's knowledge, there is no generic mathematical equation that helps calculate the tributary areas for irregular pressure taps. Traditionally, the drawing of tributary boundaries for scattered and intensively distributed taps may not be feasible (a time and resource consuming task). To alleviate this problem, this paper presents a proposed numerical approach for tributary area calculations on rectangular surfaces. The approach makes use of the available coordinates of the pressure taps and the dimensions of the surface. The proposed technique is illustrated by two application examples: first, quasi-regularly distributed pressure taps, and second, taps that have scattered distribution on a rectangular surface. The accuracy and the efficacy of the approach are assessed, and a comparison with a traditional method is presented.

하천그룹화 방법을 이용한 수질개선 하천유역의 우선순위 선정 (Selection Priority of Tributary Catchments for Improving Water Quality using Stream Grouping Method)

  • 조병욱;최정호;이상진;김영일
    • 한국물환경학회지
    • /
    • v.28 no.1
    • /
    • pp.18-25
    • /
    • 2012
  • For effective watershed management, it is very important to select the tributaries through selection and concentration of targeted tributary catchments for improving water quality within the limited financial conditions. This study introduced the selection and diagnosis procedure of tributary catchments for improving water quality at Chungcheongnam-do based on water quality and flowrate monitoring, stream grouping method. The tributaries with high value of water quality and flowrate were selected for improving water quality according to stream grouping method. The diagnosis of selected tributaries for improving water quality was performed with analysis of the pollution load (generated, discharged, delivered) and point source discharged pollution load density. The plans for improving water quality of tributaries were suggested thorough various diagnosis of tributary catchments. For improving water quality of tributaries in Chungcheongnam-do, the tributary catchments in the Dangjin, Asan, Yesan, Cheonan, Hongseong area should be preferentially considered. The water quality improving plans for those tributary catchments, in accordance with the reduction of sources of pollution by population and livestock, should be established.

도심소하천 식생조사에서 현장사진과 UAV 근적외선 영상의 비교평가 (Comparative Evaluation of UAV NIR Imagery versusin-situ Point Photo in Surveying Urban Tributary Vegetation)

  • 이정주;황영석;박성일;엄정섭
    • 환경영향평가
    • /
    • v.27 no.5
    • /
    • pp.475-488
    • /
    • 2018
  • 현재 도심 소하천의 식생조사는 주로 현장조사에 의존하여 이루어진다. UAV NIR(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Near Infrared) 영상은 매우 낮은 고도에서 취득할 수 있어 도심 소하천과 같이 폭이 매우 좁은 표적(10m 내외)에 필요한 정보를 효율적으로 제공할 수 있다. 하지만 UAV NIR영상이 도심소하천의 식생 조사도구로서 검증되지 않아, UAV NIR 영상과 현장사진을 통합한 선행연구는 존재하지 않는다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 전통적인 원격탐사의 영역이 아니었던 국부적인 대상인 도심소하천 식생조사에서 UAV NIR 영상과 현장사진의 비교평가를 실시하였다. 하천 식생조사 결과를 실무에서 활용하는데 필요한 요구 사항을 고려하여 광역공간정보, 미시적인 정보 및 정량적인 데이터 확보 등 다양한 측면에서 분석이 수행되었다. UAV NIR 영상은 전통적인 현장조사에서 취득할 수 없었던 거시적인 주변 환경(예: 인공적인 토지 이용에 따른 영향)에 따른 식생군집패턴의 변화를 추적할 수 있었다. 현장조사는 전세계적으로 도심 소하천 식생 모니터링 방법으로 정착되었지만, 거시적인 정보의 취득에서 상당한 한계를 노출하였으며 정량적인 정보를 확보하는 과정에서도 신뢰성에 한계를 노출하였다. 본 연구가 도심 소하천의 식생조사에서 거시적이고 정량화되고 객관적인 데이터가 부재하여 직면하였던 한계를 극복할 수 있는 계기가 되어 향후 UAV NIR 원격탐사에서 확보할 수 있는 정보의 수준을 파악할 수 있는 중요한 참고자료가 될 수 있을 것으로 사료된다.

남한강과 금당천 합류부 구간에서의 지류 유입유량 변화에 따른 흐름특성 및 하상변동 수치모의 (Numerical Analysis of Flow and Bed Changes due to Tributary Inflow Variation at the Confluence of the Namhan River and the Geumdang Stream)

  • 지운;장은경
    • 한국수자원학회논문집
    • /
    • v.47 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1027-1037
    • /
    • 2014
  • 본 연구에서는 하상변동 및 하상유지공 유실 문제가 발생했던 남한강과 금당천 합류부 지점을 대상으로 지류에서 유입되는 유량의 변화에 따른 흐름특성 및 하상변동 특성을 2차원 수치모형을 이용하여 분석하였다. 대상 구간의 수치모의 분석결과, 본류에서는 흐름집중 현상에 의해 지류 유입유량에 관계없이 합류 전에 비해 합류 후 유속이 더 큰 것으로 나타났다. 그러나 지류 유입유량이 클수록 지류하천의 하도 침식이 가속화되고 따라서 주하도가 형성되어 지류에서의 마름영역이 더 크게 나타났다. 이로 인한 지류에서의 하도 침식은 지류에서의 유사발생량을 증가시키고 침식된 유사는 합류부 구간에 퇴적되는 것으로 나타났다. 합류부 구간에서의 지류 유입부 퇴적은 본류 흐름을 좌안으로 집중시키고 좌안의 하상이 저하되는 현상을 야기하였다.

수질오염총량관리제의 효율적인 시행을 위한 지류하천 수질.유량모니터링 자료의 활용 (Use of Tributary Water Quality and Flowrate Monitoring Data for Effective Implementation of TMDL)

  • 김영일;정우혁;김홍수;이상진
    • 대한환경공학회지
    • /
    • v.34 no.2
    • /
    • pp.119-125
    • /
    • 2012
  • 물 환경 정책수립에 기초자료로 활용되는 지류하천 수질 유량모니터링 결과는 수질오염총량관리제의 시행에 있어 가장 핵심적이며 중요한 자료이다. 본 연구에서는 지류하천 수질 유량모니터링 자료가 수질오염총량관리제를 시행하는데 있어 유역현황 분석, 단위유역의 목표수질 만족여부 평가, 시행계획 수립대상유역의 선정, 하천그룹화 방법을 이용한 수질개선 하천유역의 선정 등에 어떻게 활용되는지를 소개하고자 하였다. 충청남도 금강수계의 37개 지류하천 수질 유량모니터링 자료를 이용하여 유역현황을 분석한 결과, 금강 중 하류지역에 위치하고 있는 지류하천의 유량이 대부분 많은 것으로 나타났으며, 논산천 유역에 위치한 하천들은 수질항목에 관계없이 수질농도가 상대적으로 높은 경향을 보였다. 해당 단위유역의 지류하천 수질과 관계없이 본류 중심의 수질 유량모니터링 결과로 목표수질 만족여부가 결정되고 시행계획 수립대상지역이 선정되는 문제점을 지류하천 수질 유량모니터링 결과를 활용하여 개선할 수 있었다. 또한, 지류하천 수질 유량모니터링 결과에 기초한 하천그룹화 방법으로 수질개선이 필요한 하천유역을 선정할 수 있었으며, 충청남도 금강수계에서는 하천유량이 많고 수질농도가 높은 논산천, 병천천, 석성천, 조천 유역의 하천들이 오염원 저감을 통한 수질개선이 우선적으로 필요한 것으로 나타났다.

Water quality of an Indian tributary affected by various industrial effluents- a case study

  • Bharti, Bharti;Jangwan, J.S.;Kumar, Amrish;Kumar, Vivek
    • Advances in environmental research
    • /
    • v.9 no.1
    • /
    • pp.41-54
    • /
    • 2020
  • Industrialization and urbanization are modern need and trends. Such trends affect the natural ecosystem of rivers. Indian rivers face such problems in a high ratio. The aim of this study is to investigate the cause and amount of pollution in a tributary river Krishni. Pre-monsoon sampling of Krishni river water was performed as per APHA standard. Water samples were collected from different sites of Krishni river. Physiochemical parameters as well as trace elements concentrations have been analysed and results were compared with BIS-2012, WHO-2017 and EPA-2001 recommendations. The presence of high BOD, COD, TDS and others physiochemical parameters along with heavy metals reveals that tributary is highly polluted owing to industrial and domestic discharge either directly or through drains. High values of these parameters are harmful for the ecological health of the river because it makes survival of aquatic flora and fauna at risk. On the basis of the results obtained by the present study, it was concluded that level of the pollution in river Krishni is at alarming phase, where if strong action for the rejuvenation of river not takes place, river becomes a dead pool.

하상 변화에 따른 저서성 대형무척추동물의 서식기능군 분석 (Analysis of Functional Habitat Groups of Benthic Macroinvertebrates according to Changes in the Riverbed)

  • 이슬희;이미진;서을원;이종은
    • 한국환경과학회지
    • /
    • v.26 no.3
    • /
    • pp.373-380
    • /
    • 2017
  • This study identified the effect of changes in the riverbed on the benthic macroinvertebrate communities. The benthic macroinvertebrates collected from the surveyed sites belonged to 119 species, 65 families, 20 orders, and 7 classes in 4 phyla. The number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (E.P.T) species was 42, 10, and 8, respectively, in the tributary, confluence, and Nakdong River sites. Lotic species (Hydropsychidae) showed a high density at the tributary sites, whereas lentic species (Chironomidae) showed a high density at the confluence and Nakdong River sites. Community analysis showed that the Dominance Index (DI) was 0.54 in tributary sites, and dominance indices increased closer to the Nakdong River sites. The diversity index (H') was inversely proportional to DI. The ratio of Burrowers species (BU) at the surveyed sites increased closer to the Nakdong River sites. Analysis of common species showed 37 species (34.6%) between the tributary and confluence sites and 66 species (51.5%) between the confluence and Nakdong River sites.

남강 중권역의 효율적인 유역관리를 위한 중점관리 대상지류 선정 (Selection of Priority Management Target Tributary for Effective Watershed Management in Nam-River Mid-watershed)

  • 정강영;김경훈;이재운;이인정;윤종수;이경락;임태효
    • 한국물환경학회지
    • /
    • v.29 no.4
    • /
    • pp.514-522
    • /
    • 2013
  • The major 24 tributaries in Nam-River mid-watershed were monitored for discharge and water quality in order to understand the characteristics of the watershed and to select the tributary catchment for improving water quality. According to the analytical results of discharge and water quality monitoring data of 24 tributaries, the mean value of discharge below $0.1m^3/s$ was 62.5% among the monitored tributaries and it mostly exceeded the water quality standards of Nam-river mid-watershed ($BOD_5$ = 3 mg/L, T-P = 0.1 mg/L over). According to the stream grouping method and the water quality delivery load density ($kg/day/km^2$) based on the results of tributary discharge and water quality monitoring, the tributary watersheds for improving the water quality were selected. In the Nam-River mid-watershed, tributaries in the GaJwaCheon, HaChonCheon catchment (Group D, $BOD_5$ = 3 mg/L over) and in the UirYeongCheon, SeokGyoCheon catchment (Group A, T-P = 0.1 mg/L over), which have a small flow (and/or large flow) and a high concentrations of water pollutants. The various water quality improving scheme for tributaries, in accordance with the reduction of potential point source pollution by living sewage and livestock wastewater, should be established and implemented.

하천수 및 상하수도처리공정에서의 니트로사민류 조사 (Investigating of Nitrosamines in Small tributary rivers, Sewage Tretment Plants and Drinking Water Treatment Plants)

  • 김경아;노재순;빈재훈;김창원
    • 한국물환경학회지
    • /
    • v.26 no.3
    • /
    • pp.446-453
    • /
    • 2010
  • This study was investigated nine nitrosamines in small tributary rivers, sewage treatment plants (STPs) and drinking water treatment plants. They are N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPHA). The nine nitrosamines were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using solid phase extraction (SPE) with a coconut charcoal cartridge. Among the nine nitrosamines, NDMA, NMEA, NDEA, NDPA NDBA and NDPHA were detected in small tributary rivers and sewage tretment plants. In small tributary rivers, NDMA, NMEA, NDEA, NDPA, NDBA and NDPHA were obtained as ND~16.4 ng/L, ND~17.7 ng/L, ND~102.4 ng/L, ND~455.4 ng/L, ND~330.1 ng/L and ND~161.0 ng/L, respectively. Also NDMA, NMEA, NDEA, NDPA and NDBA were investigated ND~821.4 ng/L, 22.5~55.4 ng/L, 53.2~588.5 ng/L, ND~56.6 ng/L and ND~527.9 ng/L in STPs, respectively. In drinking water treatment plants, NMEA and NDEA concentration were increased to as high as 38.8 ng/L after ozonation process. However nitrosamines were decreased subsequent biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment process. It was supposed that nitrosamines were formed by $O_3$ oxidation and were removed by biodegradation of BAC.

Fluctuating wind loads across gable-end buildings with planar and curved roofs

  • Ginger, J.D.
    • Wind and Structures
    • /
    • v.7 no.6
    • /
    • pp.359-372
    • /
    • 2004
  • Wind tunnel model studies were carried out to determine the wind load distribution on tributary areas near the gable-end of large, low-rise buildings with high pitch planar and curved roof shapes. Background pressure fluctuations on each tributary area are described by a series of uncorrelated modes given by the eigenvectors of the force covariance matrix. Analysis of eigenvalues shows that the dominant first mode contributes around 40% to the fluctuating pressures, and the eigenvector mode-shape generally follows the mean pressure distribution. The first mode contributes significantly to the fluctuating load effect, when its influence line is similar to the mode-shape. For such cases, the effective static pressure distribution closely follows the mean pressure distribution on the tributary area, and the quasi-static method would provide a good estimate of peak load effects.