• Title, Summary, Keyword: Transport in soil

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미생물의 토양 투과성에 영향을 미치는 미생물 표면 및 용액 특성

  • 김용미;류두현;김호영;서성원;정남희;안병구;박준석
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.319-322
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    • 2002
  • The bacterial transport in soil media was studied. Nonionic surfactants, enhanced the bacterial transports in soil media. The transport rate in soil column was increased by increasing the number of ethylene oxide in polyoxyethylene oxide surfactants. Ionic strength of solution affected the microbial transport characteristics in soil. The hydrophobicity of cell surface was proved that one of important characteristics on the bacterial transport in soil media.

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Transport Characteristic of Heavy Metals in Contaminated Soil (오염된 토양층내의 중금속 이동 특성)

  • 조재범;현재혁;정진홍;김원석
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.236-239
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    • 1998
  • This research was performed to check the transport characteristics of heavy metals in contaminated soil, that is, the influence of humic acid and phosphate on transport characteristics of heavy metals was studied. From the results of column mode experiments about heavy metal behavior, the order time to reach breakthrough and equilibrium was soil + humic acid( 20g ) > soil + humic acid ( 5 g ) > soil without Humic acid addition > soil+humic acid( 50g ). It is because the dissolved organic carbon content increased as the soil organic matter content increased. As the phosphate increased, so did the time to reach breakthrough and equilibrium. The order of time was soil + phosphate( 50 mg ) > soil + phosphate( 20 mg ) > soil . phosphate( 10 mg ) > soil without phosphate addition. It is because the phosphate ion worked as alkalinity donor and the calcium ion co-injected worked as the accelerator of coprecipitation of heavy metals.

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Transport of Urea in Waterlogged Soil Column: Experimental Evidence and Modeling Approach Using WAVE Model

  • Yoo, Sun-Ho;Park, Jung-Geun;Lee, Sang-Mo;Han, Gwang-Hyun;Han, Kyung-Hwa
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 2000
  • The main form of nitrogen fertilizer applied to lowland rice is urea, but little is known about its transport in waterlogged soil. This study was conducted to investigate the transport of urea in waterlogged soil column using WAVE (simulation of the substances Water and Agrochemicals in the soil, crop and Vadose Environment) model which includes the parameters for urea adsorption and hydrolysis, The adsorption distribution coefficient and hydrolysis rate of urea were measured by batch experiments. A transport experiment was carried out with the soil column which was pre-incubated for 45 days under flooded condition. The urea hydrolysis rate (k) was $0.073h^{-1}$. Only 5% of the applied urea remained in soil column at 4 days after urea application. The distribution coefficient ($K_d$) of urea calculated from adsorption isotherm was $0.21Lkg^{-1}$, so it was assumed that urea that urea was a weak-adsorbing material. The maximum concentration of urea was appeared at the convective water front because transport of mobile and weak-adsorbing chemicals, such as urea, is dependent on water convective flow. The urea moved down to 11 cm depth only for 2 days after application, so there is a possibility that unhydrolyzed urea could move out of the root zone and not be available for crops. A simulated urea concentration distribution in waterlogged soil column using WAVE model was slightly different from the measured concentration distribution. This difference resulted from the same hydrolysis rate applied to all soil depths and overestimated hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient. In spite of these limitations, the transport of urea in waterlogged soil column could be predict with WAVE model using urea hydrolysis rate (k) and distribution coefficient ($K_d$) which could be measured easily from a batch experiment.

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Remediation of Diesel-Contaminated Soil by Electrokinetically Supplied Bacterial Cells

  • 이효상;이기세
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.20-23
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    • 2000
  • The use of electrokinetic injection and transport for the distribution of an NAPLs-degrading microorganism in a sandy soil bed was studied. After the injection of the cell into cathode side of bed, an electric current was applied. The transport of cell though the sandy soil was achieved by electokinetics, mainly by electrophoresis, The pH control in electrode chamber plays un important role to achieve desirable cell transport because H$^{+}$ generated at anode is toxic or inhibits the transport of cells. Electokinetic distribution rate of bacterial cells changed depending on the applied electric current and pH. The degradation of diesel by electrokinetically transport cells were monitored.d.

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불포화 토양내에서 가스상 오존 이동특성에 대한 Multiphase liquids의 영향

  • 정해룡;최희철
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.124-127
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    • 2003
  • Laboratory scale experiments on in-situ ozonation were carried out to delineate the effects of liquid phases, such as soil water and nonaqeous phase liquid (NAPL) on the transport of gaseous ozone in unsaturated soil. Soil water enhanced the transport of ozone due to water film effect, which prevent direct reaction between soil particles and gaseous ozone, and increased water content reduced the breakthrough time of ozone because of increased average linear velocity of ozone and decreased air-water interface area. Diesel fuel as NAPL also played a similar role with water film, so the breakthrough time of ozone in diesel-contaminated soil was significantly reduced compared with uncontaminated soil. However, ozone breakthrough time was retarded with increased diesel concentration, because of high reactivity of diesel fuel with ozone. In multiphase liquid system of unsaturated soil, the ozone transport was mainly Influenced by nonwetting fluid, diesel fuel in this study.

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Bioremediation of Diesel-Contaminated Soil by Bacterial Cells Transported by Electrokinetics

  • LEE, HYO-SANG;KISAY LEE
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.1038-1045
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    • 2001
  • The electrokinetic technology was applied in bioremediation for the purpose of supplying a Pseudomonas strain capable of degrading diesel to contaminated soil bed, and their biodegradation of diesel was carried out after a desired cell distribution was obtained. Electrokinetic injection of the strain was made possible because the cells acted as negatively charged particles at neutral pH, and thus the cells were transported with a precise directionality through the soil mostly by the mechanism of electrophoresis and in part by electroosmosis. A severe pH change in the soil bed was formed due to the penetration of electrolysis products, which was harmful to the cell viability and cell transport. To achieve a desirable cell transport and distribution, the control of pH in soil bed by a recirculating buffer solution in electrode chambers was essential during the appliation of an electric field. The judicious selections of electrolyte concentration and conductivity were also important for achieving an efficient electrokinetic cell transport since a higher electrolyte concentration favored the maintenance of pH stability in soil bed, but lowered electrophoretic mobility on the other hand. With electrolyte solution of pH 7 phosphate buffer, a 0.05 M concentration showed a better cell transport buffer, a 0.05 M concentration showed a better cell transport than 0.02 M and 0.08 M. The cell under pH 8 were obtained, compared to the cells under pH 7 or pH 9 in a given time period Up to $60\%$ of diesel was degraded in 8 days by the Pseudomonas cell, which were distributed electrokinetically under the conditions of pH 8 ($1,800{\mu}S/cm$, a mixture of phosphate and ammonia buffers) and 40 mA in a soil bed of 15 cm length.

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COMPARISON OF FLUX AND RESIDENT CONCENTRATION BREAKTHROUGH CURVES (BTCs) IN STRUCTURED SOIL COLUMNS

  • Kim, Dong-Ju
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.25-29
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    • 1997
  • In many solute transport studies, either flux or resident concentration has been used. Choice of the concentration mode was dependent on the monitoring device in solute displacement experiments. It would be questionable, however. to accept the equivalency in the solute transport parameters between flux and resident concentrations in structured soils exhibiting preferential movement of solute. In this study, we investigate how they differ in the monitored breakthrough curves (BTCs) and transport parameters for a given boundary and flow condition by performing solute displacement experiments on a number of undisturbed soil columns. Both flux and resident concentrations have been simultaneously obtained by monitoring the effluent and resistance of the Horizontally-positioned TDR probes. The study reveals that soil columns having relatively high flux densities exhibited great differences in the degree of peak concentration and travel time of peak between flux and resident concentrations. The peak concentration in flux mode was several times higher than that in resident one. This was mainly due to the bypassing of solute through soil macropores.

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Effects of Fracture Intersection Characteristics on Transport in Three-Dimensional Fracture Networks

  • Park, Young-Jin;Lee, Kang-Kun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.27-30
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    • 2001
  • Flow and transport at fracture intersections, and their effects on network scale transport, are investigated in three-dimensional random fracture networks. Fracture intersection mixing rules complete mixing and streamline routing are defined in terms of fluxes normal to the intersection line between two fractures. By analyzing flow statistics and particle transfer probabilities distributed along fracture intersections, it is shown that for various network structures with power law size distributions of fractures, the choice of intersection mixing rule makes comparatively little difference in the overall simulated solute migration patterns. The occurrence and effects of local flows around an intersection (local flow cells) are emphasized. Transport simulations at fracture intersections indicate that local flow circulations can arise from variability within the hydraulic head distribution along intersections, and from the internal no flow condition along fracture boundaries. These local flow cells act as an effective mechanism to enhance the nondiffusive breakthrough tailing often observed in discrete fracture networks. It is shown that such non-Fickian (anomalous) solute transport can be accounted for by considering only advective transport, in the framework of a continuous time random walk model. To clarify the effect of forest environmental changes (forest type difference and clearcut) on water storage capacity in soil and stream flow, watershed had been investigated.

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A Mathematical Model Development for Microbial Arsenic Transformation and Transport

  • Lim, Mi-Sun;Yeo, In-Wook;Lee, Kang-Kun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.318-322
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    • 2004
  • Arsenic is a toxic and carcinogenic metalloid, whose sources in nature include mineral dissolution and volcanic eruption. Abandoned mines and hazardous waste disposal sites are another major source of arsenic contamination of soil and aquatic systems. To predict concentrations of the toxic inorganic arsenic in aqueous phase. the biogeochemical redox processes and transport behavior need to be studied together and be coupled in a reactive transport model. A new reaction module describing the fate and transport of inorganic arsenic species (As(II)), dissolved oxygen, nitrate, ferrous iron, sulfate, and dissolved organic carbon are developed and incorporated into the RT3D code.

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Use of water retention curves predicted from particle-size distribution data for simulation of transport of Benzo[a]pyrene in soil

  • Cho Young-A;Hwang Sang-Il;Jang Yong-Chul;Lee Dong-Soo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.216-219
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    • 2006
  • Water retention curve (WRC), one of soil hydraulic properties, is often approximated by property-transfer models (PTMs). Using the PTMs, we can estimate the WRCs from other physical properties such as particle-size distribution (PSD). The objective of this work was to investigate the performance of two PTMs with different origins for numerical simulations on transport of Benzo[a]pyrene in a soil. To do this, we chose both PTMs with different origins, i.e., (1) the lognormal distribution model (L anti NL models), and (2) the modified $Kov\'{a}cs$ model (MK model). The MK model showed tile worse performance in estimation of the WRCs. When transport of B[a]P was simulated, the MK model predicted to move farther than the L and NL models did, indicating that transport of B[a]P in a soil can be greatly influenced by the choice of PTMs.

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