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Evaluation on the Impact of the Rotterdam Rules on Facilitating the Use of Electronic Transport Reocrds (로테르담 규칙의 운송서류 전자화에 대한 영향 평가)

  • SUH, Paik-Hyun
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
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    • v.75
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    • pp.71-94
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    • 2017
  • The Rotterdam Rules is the first international maritime carriage of goods Convention that acknowledge electronic records of contracts of carriage. The Rules have developed separate chapter in relation to electronic transport records' issuing, transfer, etc. This paper aims to evaluate Rotterdam Rules' contribution to the use of electronic transport records. To achieve the aims firstly this paper have examined the related articles of Rotterdam Rules, Secondly in practical aspects, this paper explores the opportunities and obstacles which could be happened in practical procedures, applicable to transport industry, shipper and holder of electronic transport records. Findings could be summarized as follows, first the Rules shows high acceptability to whom it may involved in transport industry by simplify the contents of the Rules to avoid conflict with each countries' national laws. The Rules acknowledge the functional equivalence between paper and electronic transport records in specific provisions. This could be important development to facilitate the use of electronic transport records. But the Rules have not mentioned liability limit of transport industry when the problems arise from issuing, tele-transmission, transfer of the records. And the secure of the functional equivalence between paper and electronic transport records also could be remained in uncertain regime due to different stance of each national laws.

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Putrescine Transport in a Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

  • Raksajit, Wuttinun;Maenpaa, Pirkko;Incharoensakdi, Aran
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.394-399
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    • 2006
  • The transport of putrescine into a moderately salt tolerant cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was characterized by measuring the uptake of radioactively-labeled putrescine. Putrescine transport showed saturation kinetics with an apparent $K_m$ of $92{\pm}10\;{\mu}M$ and $V_{max}$ of $0.33{\pm}0.05\;nmol/min/mg$ protein. The transport of putrescine was pH-dependent with highest activity at pH 7.0. Strong inhibition of putrescine transport was caused by spermine and spermidine whereas only slight inhibition was observed by the addition of various amino acids. These results suggest that the transport system in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is highly specific for polyamines. Putrescine transport is energy-dependent as evidenced by the inhibition by various metabolic inhibitors and ionophores. Slow growth was observed in cells grown under salt stress. Addition of low concentration of putrescine could restore growth almost to the level observed in the absence of salt stress. Upshift of the external osmolality generated by either NaCl or sorbitol caused an increased putrescine transport with an optimum 2-fold increase at 20 mosmol/kg. The stimulation of putrescine transport mediated by osmotic upshift was abolished in chloramphenicol-treated cells, suggesting possible involvement of an inducible transport system.

DEVELOPMENT OF INTERFACIAL AREA TRANSPORT EQUATION

  • ISHII MAMORU;KIM SEUNGJIN;KELLY JOSEPH
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.525-536
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    • 2005
  • The interfacial area transport equation dynamically models the changes in interfacial structures along the flow field by mechanistically modeling the creation and destruction of dispersed phase. Hence, when employed in the numerical thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes, it eliminates artificial bifurcations stemming from the use of the static flow regime transition criteria. Accounting for the substantial differences in the transport mechanism for various sizes of bubbles, the transport equation is formulated for two characteristic groups of bubbles. The group 1 equation describes the transport of small-dispersed bubbles, whereas the group 2 equation describes the transport of large cap, slug or chum-turbulent bubbles. To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of interfacial area transport equation available at present, it is benchmarked by an extensive database established in various two-phase flow configurations spanning from bubbly to chum-turbulent flow regimes. The geometrical effect in interfacial area transport is examined by the data acquired in vertical fir-water two-phase flow through round pipes of various sizes and a confined flow duct, and by those acquired In vertical co-current downward air-water two-phase flow through round pipes of two different sizes.

A Study on the Status and Implications of Domestic Land Transport Business (국내 육상운송업의 현황과 시사점에 관한 연구)

  • Byun, Dae-Ho
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.117-130
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    • 2019
  • The land transport industry is more important than the air transport or shipping industry. Land transport has the largest number of business and employees, and the fourth industrial revolution technology has recently infiltrated the most rapidly. In this paper, we examine the status, future prospects, and implications of the land transport industry in Korea for the past 7 years based on the statistical database and related literature. We survey the scope and characteristics of the freight truck or rail transport industry, government policies, and recent logistics industry trends. From the results of these current and forecast statistical surveys, we propose a way forward for the domestic transport business.

A Study on Pooling of the Road Freight Transport Information System (공로화물수송정보 시스템의 공동화용화 방안에 관한 연구)

  • 유병석;김쾌남
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.58-75
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    • 1985
  • On facing the information society, the multi-faceted information utilization and the establishment of synthetic information management system in the overall industry and business administration have raised considerable attention. Thus, this study aims at the improvement of freight transport management through the establishment of pooling of the road freight transport information system as its effective information supporting system. Especially, it describes the freight transport information network, structure, function, and subject of the freight transport information center, as a basic planning design for the freight transport information system. Furthermore, it deals with the identification of the systems design requirements, working process, and S/W & H/W design specifications. Finally, we expect that this study will be contributed for the improvement of the road freight transport business to meet both the increase of freight transport demands due to the continuing economic growth and the social needs for the establishment of transport-order.

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Role of Endogenous Transport Systems for the Transport of Basic and Acidic Drugs at Blood-Brain Barrier (염기성 및 산성 약물의 혈액-뇌관문 투과에 관여하는 내인적 수송계)

  • Kang, Young-Sook
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1993
  • The endothelial cell of brain capillary called the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has carrier-mediated transport systems for nutrients and drugs. The mechanism of the BBB transport of basic and acidic drugs has been reviewed and examined for endogenous transport systems in BBB in WKY and SHRSP. Acidic drugs such as salicylic acid and basic drugs such as eperisone are taken up in a carrier mediated manner through the BBB via the monocarboxylic acid and amine transport systems. The specific dysfunction for the choline transport at the BBB in SHRSP would affect the function of the brain endothelial cell and brain parenchymal cell. The utilization of the endogenous transport systems of monocarboxylic acid and amine could be promising strategy for the effective drug delivery to the brain.

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A Study on the Shipping Service Quality in International Carriage (국제운송에서의 해운 서비스 품질에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Kap-Jin
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.165-183
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    • 2006
  • Sea transport industry is service industry and basic industry that permit efficient division of the human and material resources of industry. Also, owing to geographical situation which korea is having, utilization ratio of sea logistics industry is high than other transport ways. Sea transport industry chieves role that promote economy activity of other industry field as well as offer of transport way. Specially, because unit anger of freight by container is introduced, it was achived reduction of transport unit cost and mechanization of loading and unloading by this result. For efficeint connection of each other transport, contianer had offerd to large ship. Quality of service has much dimensions, and is considered while it is important that understand quality of service of sea transport industry through marketing and research of customer connection field because perceive of quality of serviceis different in shipowner/service viscount or shipper/freight owner. This research presented decision factors of sea transport quality of service which shipper and transport agent recognize under these background.

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A Study on the Economical Feasibility Analysis For Development of Dual Mode Trailer System

  • Kim, Kwang-Hee
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.137-144
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    • 2010
  • In light of the growing traffic congestion problem and congestion cost, the container transport by railway has to be increased. The freight transport by railway can have decided advantages over trucks in terms of energy efficiency, emissions and cost for certain freight movements, just as transportation in the metropolitan region can have great advantages over driving truck. But the freight transport by truck should gain significant mobility benefits from a freight railway system. Thus, the DMT(Dual Mode Trailer) transport system which is coupled railway transport advantages with load transport advantages has been developed and used in the european countries. The DMT transport will therefore serve the areas required by transport organizers. The purpose of this paper is to estimate economical feasibility analysis for development of DMT transport system. Consequently, this study analyzed the characteristics of the DMT system. The horizontal load.unload system is being considered as an adoptable DMT system in consideration of the situation in Korea.

Development of an Automatic System for Feasibility Studies on Transport Investment

  • Eom, Jin Ki;Lee, Kwang Sub;Lee, Jun;Moon, Dae Seop
    • International Journal of Railway
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.144-147
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    • 2012
  • New transport technologies have been rapidly developed and various transport systems are ready to introduce. However, there no exists effective decision making tools for pre-feasibility studies on transport systems. The pre-feasibility studies should provide reliable solutions about whether a certain transport system is feasible or not by cost-benefit analysis and effectiveness test of enhancing regional economy. This study introduces the smart transport investment/information system (SMARTIS) for supporting decision making with ease, fast and reliable methods. The SMARTIS incorporates travel demand estimates into the process of feasibility studies with automatic data processing methods to give reliable solutions quickly. The SMARTIS is expected to be informative for transit agencies, planners, and operators.

Ion and solvent transport during the redox reaction of Polypyrrole and poly(N-substituted pyrrole) films in aprotic solutions

  • Lee Hochun;Kwak Juhyoun
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.52-54
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    • 1998
  • Polypyrrole (PPy), Poly(N-methyl Pyrrole) (PMPy) and Poly(N-phenyl Pyrrole) (PPhPy) films in acetonitrile (Af and propylene carbonate (PC) have been compared focusing on their different ion and solvent transport behaviors. During the redox reaction of PPy films, cation, anion, and solvent take part in mass transport. Whereas during the redox reaction of PMPy and PPhPy films, anion and solvent transport are dominant but cation transport is negligible. In addition, solvent transport occurs in the same direction with cation transport for PPy films. On the other hand, solvent transport occurs in the opposite direction to anion transport for PMPy films, and it changes its amount and direction with the kind of the dopant anion and the solvent used at electropolymerization for PPhPy films.