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Estimation of the Total Terrestrial Organic Carbon Flux of Large Rivers in Korea using the National Water Quality Monitoring System (수질측정망을 이용한 국내 대하천 하구를 통한 총유기탄소 유출량 산정과 비교)

  • Park, Hyung-Geun;Ock, Giyoung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.549-556
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    • 2017
  • Rivers continuously transport terrestrial organic carbon matter to the estuary and the ocean, and they play a critical role in productivity and biodiversity in the marine ecosystem as well as the global carbon cycle. The amount of terrestrial organic carbon transporting from the rivers to ocean is an essential piece of information, not only for the marine ecosystem management but also the carbon budget within catchment. However, this phenomenon is still not well understood. Most large rivers in Korea have a well-established national monitoring system of the river flow and the TOC (Total Organic Carbon) concentration from the mountain to the river mouth, which are fundamental for estimating the amount of the TOC flux. We estimated the flux of the total terrestrial organic carbon of five large rivers which flow out to the Yellow Sea, using the data of the national monitoring system (the monthly mean TOC concentration and the monthly runoff of river flow). We quantified the annual TOC flux of the five rivers, showing their results in the following order: the Han River ($18.0{\times}10^9gC\;yr^{-1}$)>>Geum River ($5.9{\times}10^9gC\;yr^{-1}$)>Yeongsan River ($2.6{\times}10^9gC\;yr^{-1}$)>Sumjin River ($2.0{\times}10^9gC\;yr^{-1}$)>>Tamjin River ($0.2{\times}10^9gC\;yr^{-1}$). The amount of the Han River, which is the highest in the Korean rivers, corresponds to be 4% of the annual total TOC flux of in the Yellow River, and moreover, to be 0.6% of Yangtze River.

Transfer of Isolated Mitochondria to Bovine Oocytes by Microinjection (미세주입을 이용한 난자로의 분리된 미토콘드리아 전달)

  • Baek, Sang-Ki;Byun, June-Ho;Kim, Bo Gyu;Lee, A ram;Cho, Young-Soo;Kim, Ik-Sung;Seo, Gang-Mi;Chung, Se-Kyo;Lee, Joon-Hee;Woo, Dong Kyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.12
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    • pp.1445-1451
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    • 2017
  • Mitochondria play a central role in energy generation by using electron transport coupled with oxidative phosphorylation. They also participate in other important cellular functions including metabolism, apoptosis, signaling, and reactive oxygen species production. Therefore, mitochondrial dysfunction is known to contribute to a variety of human diseases. Furthermore, there are various inherited diseases of energy metabolism due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Unfortunately, therapeutic options for these inherited mtDNA diseases are extremely limited. In this regard, mitochondrial replacement techniques are taking on increased importance in developing a clinical approach to inherited mtDNA diseases. In this study, green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation from a mammalian cell line. Using microinjection technique, the isolated GFP-tagged mitochondria were then transferred to bovine oocytes that were triggered for early development. During the early developmental period from bovine oocytes to blastocysts, the transferred mitochondria were observed using fluorescent microscopy. The microinjected mitochondria were dispersed rapidly into the cytoplasm of oocytes and were passed down to subsequent cells of 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages. Together, these results demonstrate a successful in vitro transfer of isolated mitochondria to oocytes and provide a model for mitochondrial replacement implicated in inherited mtDNA diseases and animal cloning.

A Experimental Study on Exclusion Ability of Riprap into Bypass Pipe (저층수 배사관 내 유입된 사석 배출능력에 대한 연구)

  • Jeong, Seok Il;Lee, Seung Oh
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.239-246
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    • 2017
  • There are various transversal structures (small dams or drop structures) in median and small streams in Korea. Most of them are concrete structures and it is so hard to exclude low-level water. Unless drainage valves and/or gates would not be installed near bottom of bed, sediment from upstream should be deposited and also contaminants attached to the sediments would devastatingly threaten the water quality and ecosystem. One of countermeasures for such problem is the bypass pipe installed underneath the transversal structure. However, there is still issued whether it would be workable if the gravels and/or stones would roll into and be not excluded. Therefore, in this study, the conditions to exclude the rip stone which enter into the bypass pipe was reviewed. Based on sediment transport phenomenon, the behavior of stones was investigated with the concepts from the critical shear stress of sediment and d'Alembert principle. As final results, the basis condition (${\tau}_c{^*}$) was derived using the Lagrangian description since the stones are in the moving state, not in the stationary state. From hydraulic experiments the relative velocity could be obtained. In order to minimize the scale effect, the extra wide channel of 5.0 m wide and 1.0 m high was constructed and the experimental stones were fully spherical ones. Experimental results showed that the ratio of flow velocity to spherical particle velocity was measured between 0.5 and 0.7, and this result was substituted into the suggested equation to identify the critical condition wether the stones were excluded. Regimes about the exclusion of stone in bypass pipe were divided into three types according to particle Reynolds number ($Re_p$) and dimensionless critical shear force (${\tau}_c{^*}$) - exclusion section, probabilistic exclusion section, no exclusion section. Results from this study would be useful and essential information for bypass pipe design in transveral structures.

Diaspore, seed dispersion and seed germination characteristics of two myrmecochrous spring ephemerals -Jeffersonia dubia and Corydalis remota- (개미가 종자를 산포하는 춘계단명식물 깽깽이풀과 현호색의 전파체, 종자산포 및 발아 특성)

  • Kim, Hoi-Jin;Kim, Gab-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.485-491
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    • 2017
  • This study examined the germination characteristics by collecting fruits and pretreatment of the diaspore from April 2014 to June 2015 to investigate the diaspore characteristics, seed dispersion, and seed germination characteristics of two myrmecochorous spring ephemerals (MCSE): -Jeffersonia dubia (Jb) and Corydalis remota (Cr)-. The diaspore of Jb was about 5mm-long yellow-dark brown, oblong seeds with the attached amorphous white elaiosome. The mean weights of diaspore, seed, and elaiosome were 15.86mg, 13.46mg, and 2.40mg, respectively, and the elaiosome ratio was 15.13%. The diaspore of Cr was about 1.2mm diameter and glossy black ovoid seeds with the attached white spatula-shaped elaiosome. The mean weights of diaspore, seed, and elaisome were 2.58mg, 2.05mg, and 0.53mg, respectively, and the elaiosome ratio was 20.54%. Camponotus niponensis and Formica japonica transported the diaspore of Jb while Formica japonica and Lasius japonicus transported the diaspore of Cr. The germination percentage of Jb seeds was statistically significant and had the significance level of 1% with the pretreatment and date of sowing. However, it was independent of attachment of elaiosome. The mean germination percentages of Jb seeds was 65.0% during sowing on June 20, 17.5% during sowing on August 19, and 0% during sowing on October 20. The germination percentage of Cr was statistically significant and had the significance level of 5% and 1% with the attachment of elaisome and date of sowing, respectively. The mean germination rates were 54.17% and 35.0% in the non-treatment section and the treatment section with elaisome detached, respectively. The mean germination percentages of Cr seeds was 75.0% during sowing on June 20, 53.75% during sowing on August 19, and 5.0% during sowing on October 20. Considering the fact that the ants transported the diaspores to the ant house when the fruits of MCSE were ripened and dropped the seeds, the direct seeding right after collecting may be most suitable to the characteristics of the evolution of these plant species and may be the best method to obtain the highest germination percentages. Since the ants distribute their seeds, the MCSE produces and attaches the elaiosome to the seed to maintain the symbiotic relationship with ants. The ants then transport the seed to the ant house where the environment is controlled for suitable temperature and humidity, and then the MCSE succeeds in germination after the embryo grows sufficiently in the next spring.

The Study of Volume Data Aggregation Method According to Lane Usage Ratio (차로이용률을 고려한 지점 교통량 자료의 집락화 방법에 관한 연구)

  • An Kwang-Hun;Baek Seung-Kirl;NamKoong Sung
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.33-43
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    • 2005
  • Traffic condition monitoring system serves as the foundation for all intelligent transportation system operation. Loop detectors and Video Image Processing are the most widely common technology approach to condition monitoring in korea Highways. Lane Usage is defined as the proportion of total link volume served by each lane. In this research, the lane Usage(LU) of two lane link for one day. Interval is 56% : 44%. The LU of three lane link is 39% : 37% : 24%. The LU of four lane link is 25% : 29% : 26% : 21%. These analysis reveal that each lane distributions of link are not same. This research investigates the general concept of lane usage by using collected loop detector data and the investigated that lane distribution is different by traffic lane and lane usage is consistent by time of day.

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Effect of Left Atrial Volume Reduction with Maze Operation on Sinus Conversion and Recovery of Left Atrial Transport Function (Maze 수술 후 동율동 및 좌심방 수축능 회복에 대한 좌심방 부피 감소 성형술의 영향)

  • Hong Seong-Beom;Ryu Sang-Wan;Jung Eun-Kyung;Jung In-Suk;Bum Min-Sun;Park Jung-Min;Lee Kyo-Sun;Kim Sang-Hyung;Ahn Byung-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.38 no.11
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    • pp.739-745
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    • 2005
  • Background: The Maze procedure considered the most effective method of treatment for atrial fibrillation. However, the sinus conversion rates decreased due to several factors, especially enlarged left atrium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Maze procedure with aen atrial volume reduction plasty on rheumatic mitral valve disease, Material and Method: From December of 200f to July of 2004, 45 patients received mitral valve and Maze operation. The patients were placed in either group f or group 2, based on the left atrial volume reduction plasty. The presence and onset of sinus rhythm and the incidence of trans mitral A waves were monitored during the postoperative 7 days and throughout the follow up period of 3 and 6 months. Mean follow up periods were 15.8 10.1 months in group 1 and $6.1\pm2.7$ months in group 2. Result: The sinus onset were $9.88\pm12.2$ days in group 1, and $1\pm3.6$ days in group 2 (p<0.01). The sinus conversion rates in the group 1 and 2 were $65\%,\;75\%$ (p=0.07) in the postoperative 7 days, $70.5\%,\;100\%$ (p<0.01) at postoperative 3 months, and $93\%,\;100\%$ (p<0.01) at postoperative 6 months, respectively. The wave detection rates in the postoperative 7days were $31.2\%\;and\;63.6\%$, and continued to improve over time to $83.3\%\;and\;100\%$ by 6months, respectively. Conclusion: The results suggest that Maze procedure with left atrial volume reduction plasty is effective for inducing sinus rhythm and for restoring left atrial contractile function after concomitant rheumatic mitral valve surgery. However further follow up of this patients for long time is necessary.

Characteristics of Natural Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater and Its Occurrences (자연적 지하수 비소오염의 국내외 산출특성)

  • Ahn Joo Sung;Ko Kyung-Seok;Lee Jin-Soo;Kim Ju-Yong
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.547-561
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    • 2005
  • General characteristics of groundwater contamination by As were reviewed with several recent researches, and its occurrence in groundwater of Korea was investigated based on a ffw previous studies and a groundwater quality survey in Nonsan and Geumsan areas. In Bangladesh, which has been known as the most serious arsenic calamity country, about $28\%$ of the shallow groundwaters exceeded the Bangladesh drinking water standard, $50{\mu}g/L$, and it was estimated that about 28 million people were exposed to concentrations greater than the standard. Groundwater was characterized by circum-neutral pH with a moderate to strong reducing conditions. Low concentrations of $SO_4^{2-}$ and $NO_3^-$, and high contents of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and $NH_4^+$ were typical chemical characteristics. Total As concentrations were enriched in the Holocene alluvial aquifers with a dominance of As(III) species. It was generally agreed that reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides was the main mechanism for the release of As into groundwater coupling with the presence of organic matters and microbial activities as principal factors. A new model has also been suggested to explain how arsenic can naturally contaminate groundwaters far from the ultimate source with transport of As by active tectonic uplift and glaciatiion during Pleistocene, chemical weathering and deposition, and microbial reaction processes. In Korea, it has not been reported to be so serious As contamination, and from the national groundwater quality monitoring survey, only about $1\%$ of grounwaters have concentrations higher than $10{\mu}g/:L.$ However, it was revealed that $19.3\%$ of mineral waters, and $7\%$ of tube-well waters from Nonsan and Geumsan areas contained As concentrations above $10{\mu}g/:L.$. Also, percentages exceeding this value during detailed groundwater quality surveys were $36\%\;and\;22\%$ from Jeonnam and Ulsan areas, respectively, indicating As enrichment possibly by geological factors and local mineralization. Further systematic researches need to proceed in areas potential to As contamination such as mineralized, metasedimentary rock-based, alluvial, and acid sulfate soil areas. Prior to that, it is required to understand various geochemical and microbial processes, and groundwater flow characteristics affecting the behavior of As.

Application of a Numerical Model for the Prediction of Vertical Profiles of Electron Acceptors Based on Degradation of Organic Matter in Benthic Sediments (퇴적 유기물 분해과정에 따른 물질 거동 변화 예측을 위한 수치모델 적용)

  • Choi, Jung-Hyun;Park, Seok-Soon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.151-157
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    • 2005
  • A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate vertical profiles of electron acceptors and their reduced species in benthic sediments. The model accounted for microbial degradation of organic matter and subsequent chemical reactions of interest using stoichiometric relationships. Depending on the dominant electron acceptors utilized by microorganisms, the benthic sediments were assumed to be vertically subdivided into six zones: (1) aerobic respiration, (2) denitrification, (3) manganese reduction, (4) iron reduction, (5) sulfate reduction, and (6) methanogenesis. The utilizations of electron acceptors in the biologically mediated oxidation of organic matter were represented by Monod-type expression. The mass balance equations formulated for the reactive transport of organic matter, electron acceptors, and their corresponding reduced species in the sediments were solved utilizing an iterative multistep numerical method. The ability of model to simulate a freshwater sediments system was tested by comparing simulation results against published data obtained from lake sediments. The simulation results reasonably agreed with field measurements for most species, except for ammonia. This result showed that the C/N ratio (106/16) in the sediments is lower than what the Redfield formula prescribes. Since accurate estimates of vertical profiles of electron acceptors and their reduced species are important to determine the mobility and bioavailability of trace metals in the sediments, the model has potential application to assess the stability of selected trace metals in the sediments.

ANC Caching Technique for Replacement of Execution Code on Active Network Environment (액티브 네트워크 환경에서 실행 코드 교체를 위한 ANC 캐싱 기법)

  • Jang Chang-bok;Lee Moo-Hun;Cho Sung-Hoon;Choi Eui-In
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.30 no.9B
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    • pp.610-618
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    • 2005
  • As developed Internet and Computer Capability, Many Users take the many information through the network. So requirement of User that use to network was rapidly increased and become various. But it spend much time to accept user requirement on current network, so studied such as Active network for solved it. This Active node on Active network have the capability that stored and processed execution code aside from capability of forwarding packet on current network. So required execution code for executed packet arrived in active node, if execution code should not be in active node, have to take by request previous Action node and Code Server to it. But if this execution code take from previous active node and Code Server, bring to time delay by transport execution code and increased traffic of network and execution time. So, As used execution code stored in cache on active node, it need to increase execution time and decreased number of request. So, our paper suggest ANC caching technique that able to decrease number of execution code request and time of execution code by efficiently store execution code to active node. ANC caching technique may decrease the network traffic and execution time of code, to decrease request of execution code from previous active node.

A Study of Traffic Incident Flow Characteristics on Korean Highway Using Multi-Regime (Multi-Regime에 의한 돌발상황 시 교통류 분석)

  • Lee Seon-Ha;kang Hee-Chan
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.43-56
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    • 2005
  • This research has examined a time series analysis(TSA) of an every hour traffic information such as occupancy, a traffic flow, and a speed, a statistical model of a surveyed data on the traffic fundamental diagram and an expand aspect of a traffic jam by many Parts of the traffic flow. Based on the detected data from traffic accidents on the Cheonan-Nonsan high way and events when the road volume decreases dramatically like traffic accidents it can be estimated from the change of occupancy right after accidents. When it comes to a traffic jam like events the changing gap of the occupancy and the mean speed is gentle, in addition to a quickness and an accuracy of a detection by the time series analyse of simple traffic index is weak. When it is a stable flow a relationship between the occupancy and a flow is a linear, which explain a very high reliability. In contrast, a platoon form presented by a wide deviation about an ideal speed of drivers is difficult to express by a statical model in a relationship between the speed and occupancy, In this case the speed drops shifty at 6$\~$8$\%$ occupancy. In case of an unstable flow, it is difficult to adopt a statistical model because the formation-clearance Process of a traffic jam is analyzed in each parts. Taken the formation-clearance process of a traffic jam by 2 parts division into consideration the flow having an accident is transferred to a stopped flow and the occupancy increases dramatically. When the flow recovers from a sloped flow to a free flow the occupancy which has increased dramatically decrease gradually and then traffic flow increases according as the result analyzed traffic flow by the multi regime as time series. When it is on the traffic jam the traffic flow transfers from an impeded free flow to a congested flow and then a jammed flow which is complicated more than on the accidents and the gap of traffic volume in each traffic conditions about a same occupancy is generated huge. This research presents a need of a multi-regime division when analyzing a traffic flow and for the future it needs a fixed quantity division and model about each traffic regimes.

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