• Title, Summary, Keyword: Transport

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Studies on Sustainable Policies of European Intermodal Transport System

  • Kim, Jin-Hwan
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 2011
  • Transport is animportant sector of government regulation. Every country has its own transport policy, but European countries are evolving a common transport policy, which has a long history. The establishment of a consistent common policy in the EU's transport sector is still underway. The key motivations of this policy are 1) to establish and implement a common transport policy, 2) to clarify the concept of sustainability in the transport sector, and 3) to integrate transport services into a common infrastructure. One of the policy's objectives is the progressive movement towards sustainable development in the transport section. The EU'stransport policy has recognised that intermodality is a very important competitive tool. The EU's policy thrustin intermodal transport can be catergorised into infrastructure, technology, and standards and rules. However, obstacles to success can be detected. Cases like that of TEN-T and Marco Polo illustrate European intermodal policies in practice. As regards sustainability in the transport sector, intermodality can be an alternative solution to the increasing imbalance between transport modes and congestion arising from increased road use. Sustainability has been emphasised by the EU, which aims to establish intermodality in its future alternative transport systems while fostering sustainable development in the transport sector. Therefore, intermodality can be defined as a general trend in the current transport market, drawing interest from public institutions and transport-related market players. The EU has thus made an effort to facilitate intermodality in its territory, materialised through various policy options. Therefore, looking into the EU's intermodal transport policies is worthwhile, as doing so can provide useful lessons for all concerned parties.

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Railway transport climate change policy proposal by analysis of global railway transport climate change polity (해외 기후변화대응 철도 정책 분석을 통한 국내 기후변화대응 철도정책 방향 제시)

  • Kang, Seung-Woo;Kim, Jin-Yong;Chang, Young-Jong;Kim, Yong-Ki
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.349-354
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    • 2009
  • IPCC reported that 17% of the global GHGs emission is from transport sector. Road transport sector contributes to 70% of transport sector's GHGs emission. Nowadays, Climate change is a global issue and railway transport is marked as an environmental friendly transport mode. For decreasing the GHGs emission of road transport sector which occupies almost of transport sector's GHGs emission, railway transport is emphasized as a environment friendly alternative transport. In this paper, For the promotion of railway transport's role about climate change, I indicated the direction of South Korea's railway transport policy by analyzing some countries' modal shifts and railway transport's climate change policy.

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A Study on the Development of International Multimodal Transport System in Korea in Terms of Systems Approach (국제복합일관수송체제에 관한 고찰)

  • 신동춘
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.85-99
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    • 1987
  • The transport a administration in Korea is meeting demands of developing international multimodal transport system. In the past, as Korea transport policy has been emphasizing on the passenger traffic, the physical distribution sector is far behind international trend. Regarding the urging necessities of reducting costs in transport in order to upgrade the competitive edge of industries, Korea has to develop the most efficient transport system so called international multimodal transport system. The existing transport system is inefficient because each transport mode is separate, so this system is aiming at reducing cost and time and developing freight transport. The scope and scheme of this thesis should be as following. Chapter 2. Systems Approach of International multimodal transport 1. general systems theory 2. definition of International multimodal transport system 3. MTO (multimodal transport operator) Chapter 3. Current Situation and Problems of this System. 1. international law and practice 2.current situation A. Europe B. U.S. C. Japan D. Korea Chapter 4. Policy Goal for Improving this System Chapter 5. conclusion.

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Probabilistic and spectral modelling of dynamic wind effects of quayside container cranes

  • Su, Ning;Peng, Shitao;Hong, Ningning;Wu, Xiaotong;Chen, Yunyue
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.405-421
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    • 2020
  • Quayside container cranes are important delivery machineries located in the most frontiers of container terminals, where strong wind attacks happen occasionally. Since the previous researches on quayside container cranes mainly focused on the mean wind load and static response characteristics, the fluctuating wind load and dynamic response characteristics require further investigations. In the present study, the aerodynamic wind loads on quayside container cranes were obtained from wind tunnel tests. The probabilistic and spectral models of the fluctuating aerodynamic loads were established. Then the joint probabilistic distributions of dynamic wind-induced responses were derived theoretically based on a series of Gaussian and independent assumption of resonant components. Finally, the results were validated by time domain analysis using wind tunnel data. It is concluded that the assumptions are acceptable. And the presented approach can estimate peak dynamic sliding force, overturning moments and leg uplifts of quayside container cranes effectively and efficiently.

A Comparative Study on the Transport Policies for the Railway-centered Transport Network (철도중심교통체계로의 개편을 위한 교통정책비교분석 연구)

  • Bhang, Youn-Keun;Oh, Suk-Mun
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.796-811
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    • 2011
  • Authors analysized transport policies of the European countries about the intermodal transport since 2002 and urban transport to add new ones to the Korean transport policies for the railway-oriented transport network. Now the Ministry of Korean transport tries to invest more than before in the railway to increase the speed of the conventional lines and to construct high speed lines. The Ministry also try to integrate ticketing and payment of urban public transport with a smart card nationwide.

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Maritime Transport Services Liberalization: Directions for Northeast Asia

  • Jun, Il-Soo
    • Journal of Korea Port Economic Association
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.3-26
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    • 2001
  • Competitive and reliable maritime transport services benefit the economy as a whole, and are key efficiency factors for the production of both goods and services. Although maritime transport sector is very liberalized compared to many other service sectors, certain obstacles must be overcome before full liberalization of the maritime transport can be realized. Particularly, maritime transport services in Northeast Asia are regulated by a complicated and outdated system. To remove these barkers two approaches can be used: a regional trading arrangement approach and a multilateral approach via WTO. However, multilateral efforts are not likely to be successful in achieving any concrete progress towards maritime transport liberalization in the short- to medium-term in Northeast Asia. Consequently, it may be the best to take the following two progressive approaches and to make them work towards liberalization of the maritime transport market: a bilateral approach and a trilateral approach. A gradual process of liberalization would expand the market, help operators achieve economies of scale, promote the international division of labor and specialization, enhance the effective management of shipping services, and promote the long-term interests and welfare of the user by improving service quality and diversifying services. A liberalized and integrated maritime transport market in Northeast Asia should achieve both of these long-run policy objectives by benefiting both the transport service users and the transport service providers. In order to move the maritime transport liberalization programs as quickly as possible, it is desirable to establish a "Regional Maritime Transport Liberalization Committee." We suggest it to be a Tripartite (China, Japan and Korea) Committee initially, which can later expand its membership to include other Northeast Asian countries.

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Effects of Pentoses on 2-deoxy-D-Glucose Transport of the Endogenous Sugar Transport Systems in Spodoptera frugiperda Clone 9 Cells

  • Lee, Chong-Kee
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 2009
  • Insect cells such as Spodoptera frugiperda Clone 9 (Sf9) cells are widely chosen as the host for heterologous expression of a mammalian sugar transport protein using the baculovirus expression system. Characterization of the expressed protein is expected to include assay of its function, including its ability to transport sugars and to bind inhibitory ligands such as cytochalasin B. It is therefore very important first to establish the transport characteristics and other properties of the endogenous sugar transport proteins of the host insect cells. However, very little is known of the transport characteristics of Sf9 cells, although their ability to grow on TC-100 medium strongly suggested the presence of endogenous glucose transport system. In order to investigate the substrate and inhibitor recognition properties of the Sf9 cell transporter, the ability of pentoses to inhibit 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2dGlc) transport was investigated by measuring inhibition constants $(K_i)$. To determine the time period over which of sugar into the Sf cells was linear, the uptake of 2dGlc 0.1mM extracellular concentration was measured over periods ranging from 30 seconds to 30 minutes. The uptake was linear for at least 2 minutes at the concentration, implying that uptake made over a 1 minute time course would reflect initial rates of the sugar uptake. The data have also revealed the existence of a saturable transport system for pentose uptake by the insect cells. The transport was inhibited by D-xylose and D-ribose, although not as effective as hexoses. However, L-xylose had a little effect on 2dGlc transport in the Sf9 cells, indicating that the transport is stereoselective. Unlike the human erythrocyte-type glucose transport system, D-ribose had a somewhat greater apparent affinity for the Sf9 cell transporter than D-xylose. It is therefore concluded that Sf9 cells contain an endogenous sugar transport activity that in some aspects resembled the human erythrocyte-type counterpart, although the Sf9 and human transport systems do differ in their affinity for cytochalasin B.

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Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulation of the Carrier-Mediated Hepatic Transport of Organic Anions (음이온계 약물의 간수송과정에 있어서 담체매개 수송의 약물동력학적 모델링 및 시뮬레이션)

  • 이준섭;강민희;김묘경;이명구;정석재;심창구;정연복
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.110-119
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of the present study was to kinetically investigate the carrier-mediated uptake in the hepatic transport of organic anions, and to simulate the ″in vivo counter-transport″ phenomena, using kinetic model which was developed in this study. The condition that the mobility of carrier-ligand complex is greater than that of free carrier is not essential for the occurrence of ″counter-transport″ phenomenon. To examine the inhibitory effects on the initial uptake of a ligand by the liver, it is necessary to judge whether the true counter-transport mechanism (trans-stimulation) is working or not. The initial plasma disappearance curves of a organic anion were then kinetically analyzed based on a flow model, in which the ligand is eliminated only from the peripheral compartment (liver compartment). Moreover, ″in vive counter-transport″ phenomena were simulated based on the perfusion model which incorporated the carrier-mediated transport and the saturable intracellular binding. The ″in vivo counter-transport″ phenomena in the hepatic transport of a organic anion were well demonstrated by incorporating the carrier-mediated process. However, the ″in vivo counter-transport″ phenomena may be also explained by the enhancement of back diffusion due to the displacement of intracellular binding. In conclusion, one should be more cautious in interpreting data obtained from so-called ″in vivo counter-transport″ experiments.

Estimations of modal shift from maritime and air transport to surface transport between China and South Korea : focusing on China's three northeast provinces. (한중간 해상에서 육상으로 화물운송전환수요의 추정 : 동북 3성 지역을 중심으로)

  • Hong, Sung-Wook;Lee, Soon-Cheul
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.1125-1131
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    • 2005
  • This study is based on the assumption of surface transport linkages between Korea and China. Active economic cooperation between South Korea and North Korea are expected within the near future and Russia and China have interested in the land transport linkages in Korean peninsula. How much freight demands between the two countries that has been mainly dependent on air and sea transportation so far may convert the transport mode to surface transportation are estimated. Particularly, freight demands between South Korea and China's three northeast provinces are focused. The sensitivity analysis depends on transport time and transport cost changes is included. The modal shifts is estimated to be more sensitive to the changes in transport costs than those in transport time, suggesting the importance of transport costs of rail and road. Despite the dearth of data on the surface transport operation in North Korea, the attempts made in this study to estimate the demand conversion are hope to provide reference points for potential effects of the rail and road transport connections between China and the Korea peninsula before our discussions expand to the establishment of freight transport network of the northest Asia and, moreover, the Eurasian continent.

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Effects of transport stress on physiological responses and milk production in lactating dairy cows

  • Hong, Heeok;Lee, Eunchae;Lee, In Hyung;Lee, Sang-Rak
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.442-451
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of transport stress on physiological and hematological responses and milk performance in lactating dairy cows. Methods: Ten lactating dairy cows were randomly divided into 2 groups. The treatment group (TG) was transported 200 km for 4 h by truck, and the control group (NTG) was restrained by stanchion for 4 h in Konkuk University farm. Blood and milk samples were collected at 24 h pre-transport; 1, 2, and 4 h during transport; and 2, 24, and 48 h post-transport. Milk yields were measured at 24 h pre-transport, 0 h during transport, and 24, 48, and 72 h post-transport. Results: Leukocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte numbers in the TG were significantly higher than those of the NTG at each experimental time point. Lymphocyte numbers in the TG were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of the NTG at 48 h post-transport. Additionally, the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio of the TG was 45% and 46% higher than that of the NTG at 4 h during transport and 2 h post-transport, respectively. There were no significant differences in erythrocyte numbers, hemoglobin concentrations, platelet numbers, and hematocrit percentages between two groups. Cortisol levels in the TG were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the NTG. Milk yields in the TG were lower than those in the NTG. The somatic cell count (SCC) of the TG was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of the NTG at 1 and 2 h during transport; that of the TG increased dramatically at 1 h during transport and gradually decreased subsequently. Conclusion: Transport stress increased blood parameters including leucocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte numbers by increased cortisol levels, but did not affect erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Additionally, transport resulted in a decrease in milk yield and reduced milk quality owing to an increase in milk SCC.